Crime Prevention Through

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There are four key strategies of ACCEPTED these strategies are territorial, natural surveillance, activity support, and access control. Crime prevention through environmental design is used in private and public security to provide for the security of people, resources, and structures. Private and public security companies use the many facets of crime prevention through environmental design. How Is Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Used in Private and Public Security The territoriality strategy involves an individual’s perception of, and relationship with, the environment (Gardner, 1981).

In short people will protect hat they feel is their own. It is also easier to identify intruders in a well defined space (Hess, 2009). Individual’s will want to protect what they feel is their own and if the area is an area they are proud to call their own. Some ways to help occupants want to take ownership for a space is to make the space attractive through the use on landscaping, art, good maintenance, and fences. If individuals are capable and want to protect their environment if will help increase the security of a property and make the security individuals’ job much easier.

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Surveillance is the principle weapon against crime (Gardner, 1981). Surveillance can be natural or formal. Natural surveillance is achieved by placing people, physical features, and activities in ways that increase the ability to see what is going to help discourage crime (Hess, 2009). This can be a helpful tool for security agencies because it is an inexpensive way to deter crime because criminals are less likely to commit crimes when there is a chance of their crime being witnessed. Landscaping and lighting should be placed to encourage natural surveillance (Hess, 2009).

They should be placed so that people can see what is going on outside without the people outside being able to go see hat is going on inside. Open designs also help people feel safer because when they can see and be seen they tend to feel safer (Gardner, 1981). Formal surveillance is used to in addition to natural surveillance as well as to secure public and private areas that require increased security. Formal surveillance is such things as closed circuit TV, electronic monitoring, fixed guards, and security patrols (Gardner, 1981).

Closed circuit TV is a term used loosely to describe video surveillance. Closed circuit TV is a system in which a number of video cameras are connected in a closed circuit or loop with the images produced being sent to central television monitor or recorded (Hess, 2009). They can be overt, semi- covert, or covert systems. Overt systems are systems where the cameras are exposed and are used to deter crime because the criminals know that they are on camera (Hess, 2009). Often you will see signs that state that cameras are videotaping your activity.

Semi-covert cameras are still in plain public view however; they are in some sort of one-way transparent casing (Hess, 2009). Covert systems are ones where the cameras are completely hidden from view. This type of system does little to deter crime until the criminal community knows hat the cameras are there (Hess, 2009). Often video surveillance equipment belongs to private security companies however; they frequently share this surveillance video with public security to assist them with solving crimes and catching criminals. Surveillance cameras are often used to monitor perimeter access along with perimeter lighting.

Interior and exterior lighting is one of the most important considerations in crime prevention through environmental design. Good lighting is a great way to deter crime. Well lit areas tend to deter criminals because they run a greater risk of being seen if there is good lighting in the area. The Campbell Collaboration found in 13 studies done in the United States and England that there was a 23% decrease in crime in areas where there was increased lighting (Welsh & Barrington, 2008). Lighting will also increase natural surveillance and reduce fear in the area (Gardner, 1981).

As well when it is used in crime prevention through environmental design it plays a major role in increasing feelings of territoriality (Gardner, 1981). Security lighting is an important consideration since most criminals prefer the cover of darkness. Total lighting systems should be considered when considering ACCEPTED. A total lighting system includes four types of lighting. The types are continuous lighting, standby lighting, movable lighting, and emergency lighting. Perimeter lighting is an important consideration when looking at crime prevention through environmental design.

There are four types of perimeter lighting. Floodlights which form a beam of concentrated light and provide glare so that activities inside the building cannot be seen from the outside (Hess, 2009). The disadvantage to floodlights is it can annoy neighbors. Streetlights cast a diffused, low intensity light evenly over an area (Hess, 2009). This type of lighting is often used in parking lots. Freshen units provide a long, narrow, horizontal beam of light as is often used for lighting boundaries without glare (Hess, 2009). Searchlights can be portable or fixed and are ideal for use in emergencies (Hess, 2009).

Along with lighting landscaping is important when considering ACCEPTED. Landscaping is an important part of ACCEPTED that is a part of the architectural design of the building. Landscaping should be in such a way as not to create hiding areas for criminals or to obstruct the view of the building. Landscaping can also be used a barrier. Fences and shrubs are good ways to create barriers (Gardner, 1981). When planting trees and shrubs to use as natural barriers special consideration should be made to how high the trees and shrubs will grow.

As a general rule shrubs should not be higher than three feet and trees higher than six feet (Gardner, 1981). This method of ACCEPTED can also increase the feeling of territoriality as it increases the aesthetic of the building. Alarm systems are another crime prevention tool that have been around since 390 B. C. When geese were used to alert the Romans of surprise attacks (Hess, 2009). There are different kinds of alarm response systems. Alarms can be local alarms that only sound within in the building they are being used in. These types of alarms require someone to be on the premise to hear the alarm and call the police (Hess, 2009).

Proprietary alarms have a manned panel that may receive a visible and/or audible alarm that indicates where the alarm is sounding (Hess, 2009). These alarms only alarm on the premise however; they are manned by trained personnel and pinpoint the location of the alarm. Proprietary alarms are usually monitored and responded to by private security. Central station alarms re similar to proprietary alarms except the alarm is sent to an external control panel that is monitored by a contracted alarm agency (Hess, 2009). An example of a central station alarm system would be an DAD home alarm system.

These alarms are monitored by an offset company. Many companies or housing developments have private security firms that respond to central station alarms. Police connected alarm systems direct the alarm through a telephone directly to the police department (Hess, 2009). A major disadvantage to this kind of system is the police often charge the company or homeowner for false alarm responses. This can become very costly for the company or homeowner. Vehicle barriers are another ACCEPTED tool that should also be given consideration. Vehicle barriers are often used at federal or high risk buildings.

Vehicle barriers are the first line of defense against car bombings (Hess, 2009). There are two different types of barriers active and passive barriers. Active barriers require someone to activate the barrier through the use of equipment to raise or lower the barrier in order allow vehicles to enter or exit (Hess, 2009). Active barriers are often used to provide protection to at the entrance and exit of military bases. Passive barriers have no moving parts and are often flower pots, bollards, boulders, fountains, walls, and Jersey barriers (Hess, 2009).

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