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Describe how to establish respectful, professional relationships with children

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Whilst trying to establish a respectful, professional relationship with children it is important that you are able to adapt yourself easily to the level of the child/children you are working with. You need time, patience, listening skills and good communicational skills. It is important that you are aware and take into account the individual abilities, personalities and cultural needs of the children as this will vary due to every child being different and having different needs.

Children have to be able to feel a level of trust with you and feel safe around you in order to develop a relationship with them, they have to know and be able to feel that they are understood, not only via speech but through behavior and as a person.

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It is also crucial when maintaining a professional relationship with children that you have that line of friend and teaching assistant. If you try to be their friend your level of authority will be crushed and it will be difficult for you to maintain control of the class as well as the individual children, however this does not mean that you can’t be friendly towards them!

But to just ensure that the barriers are not crossed.

There are a numerous amount of ways that you can communicate effectively and positively with children. Types of communication are: Verbal- speaking Non verbal – without words, more through expressions and gestures Formal –message is exact and specific Informal- more relaxed and causal Whilst building a positive relationship with children you will need to: Show respect Be supportive to child Praise child Ask questions to show your interest in child’s points Make good eye contact Think about your facial expressions and body language that you use Earn children’s trust

Be honest and fair at all times Showing all these qualities will enable you to build a positive and effective relationship with the children and show that you respect and value them as young people. Showing interest in the children will help the child to recognize that you are there to support them. According to Burnham 2004, “children of all ages, abilities and cultures need to feel secure and valued, and your interactions with them should demonstrate this”. In my setting there is a child that is difficult to engage in conversation but however is very intelligent and capable of the work that has been set.

It is the initial start of contact that can prove challenging. This is where I use a variety of verbal and non verbal communication to gain his attention. It is firstly important that I am constantly using good eye contact with him, welcoming body language and that I am smiling this helps him to feel that I am listening and interested in him and his thoughts and opinions. Once I have managed this I then use a whiteboard and marker to write down the key points of the lesson, making sure I don’t overload the space with information as this might cause him to lose interest.

Whilst doing this I ask him for his input and his understanding of the task so I know that he is following what is happening. To keep him engaged I refer the work to his own points of interest; this usually makes him smile and start to express his ideas in depth. All the way through I am making sure I maintain eye contact and that I don’t shut him off when he is speaking as this could cause a negative emotion and he could then lose interest. Describe with examples how to behave appropriately for a child’s stage of development.

Children all develop at different stages, it is vital that you are aware of this and that your behavior is appropriate to this. Children are assessed on their areas of development which will reveal their areas of weakness as well as strengths and assist us in knowing what stage the children are at individually and how we can provide the best level of care to them, as well as the individual assessments children are also divided into Key Stages which is done by using the child’s age rather than the child’s ability and understanding.

You will find that some children may require more support or attention the others in some areas but excel in the other areas. This could be frustrating and disheartening for the child which is why it is so important that you treat the situation sensitively and treat the child the same way everyone else is being treated. If you had a child or a small group of children, for example that wasn’t doing so well in numeracy you could use cubes to assist them with their work.

If you were doing subtraction you could have the amount of cubes that are in the sum and then encourage the child to work out how to do the sum. You might also decide to use simpler words such as take away for subtract or share out instead of divide. On the other hand you might have a child or small group of children that are very able with numeracy and speed through their work, it is here where it is important to ensure that the child does not get bored and loose interest.

You could do this by then setting harder sums or making it into a challenge for them. Burnham, 2004 states that “Children of different needs and ages will require varying levels of attention to their needs and the amount of time they can concentrate”. Some children may require more visual aids to assist them with their work like the use of flash cards, cubes, pictures, using a white board and marker. It is important that you take this into account when working with them it is also vital that throughout the work you: Use clear and precise instructions

Check the child’s individual understanding, you can do this by asking questions and asking the child to repeat back to you what has been said Contemplate the children’s time span in order to not lose interest Consider your use of language- complex words Respect the children’s opinions and input Take into account the child’s social and emotional skills The children that I work with range from ages 7 to 8. Whilst working with this age group I ensure that I am respectful of the children as individuals, I am able to adapt my use of language to the year 3 children.

The children are still developing their personalities at this age so their behavior will change quite a bit. While working with the year 3’s I keep my use of words quite simple and not to complex, I make sure that the instructions are clear and check that they are understood correctly, I do this by making it into a fun quiz for the children I ensure that I adjust to their level so that I am not towering over them as this could be quite daunting.

If I was working with children say at reception or nursery age the way I interact with the children will differ in the sense that my tone of voice would probably be at a higher pitch, I would that I am smiling and welcoming with my hand gestures and body language, use very simple words and short sentences when asking them to do something.

However when working with the older end of the age range such as a year 6 pupil, I would know that by now they would have a better understanding of the English language so therefore I would be able to give an instruction which needs limited explanation, so that the child can then use their own initiative, ideas and thoughts to process information. At this age they will most probably have their favorite subjects and areas that they like to work in as well as subjects they don’t particularly like.

You will also need to take into account that it is around this age that they start to develop socially and emotionally so you must communicate in a sensitive way as well as keeping your authority. Describe how to deal with disagreements between children. While dealing with disagreements between children it is important that every child has the chance to their say of what has happened and that the children involved are not made to feel worthless. It is the way you speak to the children and the atmosphere that you create yourself whilst dealing with the disagreement that can help ease the situation and get it resolved.

It is vital that you start at the beginning of the disagreement and establish what has initially caused it to happen remembering to listen to all sides. Ultimately you will need to find out who was in the wrong and decide what the best way to deal with this. A popular strategy that is used amongst schools is called “Restorative Justice”. This strategy helps the children to understand and learn the impact their actions have had on others as well as their self.

It focuses on problem solving and expressing needs and feelings, pays attention to relationships, uses dialogue and negotiation, and defines the accountability as understanding the impact of the action and putting things right. A disagreement in my setting occurred which involved 2 children (child a and child b) fighting because child a was swinging on his chair and child b tried to move the chair out of the way so he could pass child a, whilst doing this child a thought that child b was pushing him and

then got up out of his seat and slapped child b around the face. To deal with this situation I firstly spoke to both children to find out what had happened reminding them to take turns in speaking and not both talk other each other. I then told child b to go and sit down and think about what had happened while I spoke to the child a, I asked him if he thinks that his reaction was the right thing to do, what he thinks he should have done differently, what he thinks he needs to do now in order to try and put things right and what he thinks would be a fair punishment.

While leaving child a to think about this for 5 minutes I then went and spoke to child b and asked him similar questions. I then brought them both back together and they both apologized to each other shook hands and child a had decided he should get a cross which is a procedure that is set by the school to manage behavior , then I reported it to the class teacher as there had been physical violence between the 2 children. Whilst dealing with children that have been in a disagreement it is good practice to be fair and equal and treat all parties involved as equals.

It is also good practice to remain unbiased and professional at all times. While dealing with a disagreement between pupils we should be following the schools behavior management policy. “It is important that pupils see a clear structure in what will happen if they choose not to pay attention to the school rules that are in place. they will be much more likely to adhere to the rules if they know exactly what will happen if they do not”. (Burnham, 2004,pg. 144)

Describe how own behaviour could promote effective interactions with children impact negatively on interactions with children Being aware of our own behavior is vital when working with children. The things that we say or the actions we carry out can have a different effect on the children then what we intended. To promote effective interactions with children we should: show an open friendly approach show interest in the child and towards the child use positive comments and praise

use welcoming body language / facial expressions / eye contact listen to and respect children’s thoughts/ ideas and opinions Ways in which we can impact negatively on interactions with children could be: cutting children short when they are speaking never making eye contact during a discussion showing favoritism being inconsistent poor use of language Upsetting people with your body language, i. e. having arms folded and facing away from the child. If we was to act as a positive role model children will inspire to behave in such a way too.

They will be able to relate and communicate in an effective way with other adults as well as their peers. If we are teaching children to behave one way but yet acting in a different way in front of them this will lead to some confusion and is not setting a clear, good example for them as well as it being contradicting. It will also help set the path for their development into adult life. If we was to act in a negative way children would not understand how to maintain or build relationships with others in a positive way, they will not : have respect for others or themselves listen to others

consider others feelings Be able to express themselves in an appropriate way. In general it will create an unwelcome and horrible feeling amongst the children and their friends or adults. It could also possibly effect their social and mental development for adult life. “Positive behavior is an essential building block for creating a welcoming and pleasant learning environment in which all members of the school feel respected, safe and secure”. (Kamen, 2010, pg141). Describe how to establish respectful, professional relationships with adults “When working with other adults, whether this is within or outside the

school environment, you will need to be able to work in an environment of mutual support and openness”. (Burnham, 2004, pg. 40) There are 4 main principles that can be remembered as PIPE that help you to provide the support required to give other adults, and know how to interact with adults in a professional way. Practical: you may be working with others who are unfamiliar with the classroom or school surroundings and who need to have help or advice with finding or using equipment and resources.

Informative: you may need to give support to those who do not have information about a particular situation. Alternatively, you may be asked to prepare and write reports about specific pupils. Professional: you may be in a position to support or help others with issues such as planning, or you may be asked whether others can observe your work with pupils or discuss your work with them. Emotional: it is important to support others through day to day events and retain a sense of humour.

When interacting with parents it is vital that you remain professional towards them and to remember that any feedback given is to be positive as it will be down to the class teacher to arrange an appointment, it is important you do not divulge any information concerning the children to their parents as this could be a breach of the child’s confidentiality and as a student teaching assistant in is not our place to do so you should always refer them to the class teacher. The relationships that we have within a professional level i. e.

within the workplace with staff members has to be a lot more confidential and less personal then the relationships we have with our friends and family. There are boundaries that we must be aware of when communicating with staff members , we must ensure that the terminology that we is appropriate and professional whereas with our friends and family we can let ourselves become more unaware of our behaviour as we don’t have to work with them in a professional environment. Describe the importance of adult relationships as role models for children Within adult relationships it is important to portray positive and acceptable

behavior towards each other so that the children can observe this and learn from it. If children see adults treating each other with respect and cutesy ,being kind to each other, listening to what they have to say in turn, being polite towards each other then children will follow the example that is set to them by us adults. It is important for children to see adults in the setting treating each other appropriately and developing good relationships because it sets a good example to them and teaches them how to behave towards each other and towards adults.

Children will behave according to what they see so if they see positive behavior from adults towards each other then hopefully they will carry this attitude with them themselves. They will more likely want to be in school and want to learn if they see adults having good relationships and working together positively in order to support them. There are some children who are not fortunate enough to be able to see such behavior at home so therefore it is even of more importance for them to see these positive relationships within the school setting between teachers and other staff as well as teachers and pupils.

Task 2 (links to Learning outcome 3, assessment criteria 3. 1, 3. 2, 3. 3, 3. 4 and 3. 5) Describe how communication with children differs across different age ranges and stages of development Communication differs across different age ranges and stages of development as children all develop at different stages, paces and times and in different ways. Children will develop: Physically Intellectually Socially Emotionally Within Behaviour Within Communication Not everyone will develop at the same stage, despite having age categories that state what level of development we should be at in accordance to our

age. Some will excel in certain areas but need improvement and more assistance in others, where as another child might be the opposite. You need to take into consideration the individual needs of the child when communicating with them, regardless to age or level of academic ability. For example Communication: 0-3 years: this is the age where children are just starting to learn about who they are, what they look like, where they are from. They are experimenting with play and learning through role play, despite the fact that they might not be able to understand you.

During these years children will begin to learn how to communicate, say first words, and put words together to make a sentence. 3-7 years: at this age children will start to develop these identities that they have been learning about. They will begin to use familiar phrases and words that they hear being used, they will ask a lot of questions and still look for the approval of an adult. 7-12 years: by the time they reach this age most children will be more confident with using language verbally and their communicational skills will be a lot better.

12-18: at this age young people will have now developed their communicational skills to a higher level and have their own preferred style in which they like to communicate. They are also developing more emotionally and socially and going from that transitional period of child to young person to teenager. According to Burnham “ You should adapt the way you communicate according to their individual needs”. With younger children the way in which you communicate will be more expressional and you find will that the tone of your voice will be a higher pitch than usual.

You may also find yourself using a lot of hand gestures as a way to emphasize what you’re saying. The instructions you give will be short and simple and direct so that the children are able to process them simply and carry them out. Our facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. You should Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown and how young children will perceive this. With older children you will still be aware of your body language eye contact and facial expressions but you will be able to use a

lot more verbal communication rather than non verbal as they will be able to understand you more and should be able to process the information a lot easier then than a younger child. “Children of different ages will require varying levels of attention. Younger children may need more reassurance, particularly when first starting school”. (Burnham, 2004, pg. 42). In my setting I change the way I communicate with each child as they are all different. I work with a child that has English as an additional language and one day I noticed he came in from lunch very upset and crying.

His English is very limited and minimal and it was out of character to see this child so upset. My first point of call was to see if I could find anyone in the school that spoke the same language, I managed to do this; however the child would not speak to her. So I then decided to get a piece of paper and explain to the child that he could write down in German (his home language) what was wrong and I used hand gestures to emphasize crying and to ask why he was crying. He then looked and me and said “German” with a puzzled look, I then said yes German and smiled with a thumbs up symbol, he then smiled and started to write.

When he was finished I asked him if that was everything he shook his head and said yes. I decide to use Google translate to find out what he had written and when I had discovered it was because he lost his toy , I then used the girl who was in ear 6 to confirm that this is what it had said. Once I had established what was wrong I was then able to calm him down bring him with me so that we could go looking for this toy, all the way reassuring him that it was ok and that he needed to remain calm .

Describe the main differences between communicating with adults and communicating with children As well as there being differences when communicating with adults rather than children there are also some similarities such as maintaining eye contact and ensuring that you treat them with respect and value their opinion. Three differences in the way we would communicate with children compared to the way we would communicate with adults are: Use of language When communicating with adults we wouldn’t need to simplify our terminology to the extent we would have to with children or keep the context of communication simple short and sweet.

We are able to have more of a discussion when communicating with adults. Also be aware that if you are communicating with an adult who has a hearing impairment for example you might still need the use of non verbal communication. Adjusting yourself to the child’s level When communicating with children and young people you tend to find yourself adjusting yourself to the level of the child, for example your wouldn’t tower of the child as this could be be quite intimidating for the child and they could close up, so instead you would maybe kneel down or sit on a chair or the floor next to them.

Always responding to what the child/children are saying when communicating with children it is important that you are consistently acknowledging what they say and showing them this by smiling and nodding your head, however when communicating with adults although it is respectful to behave like this you can successfully communicate with them without having to put that extra effort in. it is important that you go that extra mile with children and young people as it helps to set there limits of feeling valued and respected as an individual.

Identify examples of communication difficulties that may exist Communication difficulties that may exist are: children with cultural differences children with English as a second language children with special needs children with a hearing impairment children with a learning disorder children with different values and beliefs children who have poor communicational skills children who may have issues going on outside of the school (i. e. : home life) Here are some examples of this

Cultural differences: different cultures have different ways of communicating with each other and their understanding of things will be different, so you will have to take this into account when communicating with them. Cultures provide people with ways of thinking-ways of seeing, hearing, and interpreting the world. Children with a hearing impairment: whist communicating with a child that has a hearing impairment, you might choose to use a lot more non verbal communication then verbal.

You could use visual aids such as photographs, flash cards, sign language, makaton, should stay calm and have patience. In some cases the child might be able to also lip read so always ensure you are pronouncing your words correctly, precisely and clearly. Don’t be under the impression that because a child has a hearing impairment you don’t need to speak to them. Children with English as a second language: whilst communicating with a child with English as a second language it is important to have a lot of patience.

The language barrier does not only make it more difficult for the child to understand the work but will also have an impact on the child confidence and you might find the child becomes frustrated. This is why it is important to find ways to help the child recognize the words in English as well as their home language, you can do this using photographs and getting the child to label the objects in their home language while you do so in English and then maybe mixing them up so that the child can then match them up independently.

You might also just start off with the basic words and simple tasks, for example if the class was using adjectives to describe a series of objects, you might just ask the child who has English as a second language to write down key words such as the colour, shape, size. Describe how to adapt communication to meet different communication needs To be able to adapt yourself to meet the different communication needs of the children you will have to take into account the age of the child, the context of communication- be able to adapt your verbal communication accordingly- use of words.

Children with English as an additional language: When adapting my own communication to meet the needs of a child who doesn’t have English as a first language I would: Always ensure that I am still friendly and approachable by using non verbal strategies such as facial expressions, greeting with a smile. Will speak clearly and simplify the words that I use whilst maintaining eye contact Use an appropriate method of teaching which the child feels comfortable with, such as flash cards, cubes, pictures Children with a learning disorder:

when adapting my own communication to meet the needs of a child who has a learning disorder I would: Always be making eye contact Maybe use touch to help communicate If using any verbal strategies I will keep my words very clear and simple. Use positive body language and body gestures I would have patience and never interrupt or anticipate what the child is going to say or express. All the time when I am adapting my communication skills to meet the needs of other I will ensure that I am always remembering to act as a good role model for the children and I will always listen attentively and be aware and sensitive t o the individual needs.

Describe how to deal with disagreements between: The practitioner and children The practitioner and other adults If I was to have a disagreement with a child, for example if a child was defiant and reluctant to listen to my instructions and the child was to answer me back I would gain eye contact with the child, get down to their level and calmly explain what I am asking the child to do clearly stating the main points. I would then ask why the child is not willing to listen and what it was that is bothering them for them to behave this way. If he child

still was to continue with this behavior I would then state to the child that I am no longer going to discuss this matter any further until they have calmed down and that they should go and think about their behavior. After this I would then inform the class teacher of the incident. If I was to have a disagreement with other adults/ staff members I would try my best to solve the situation quickly and effectively as it could lead to more complications or animosity the longer it is left. If I needed to I would ask another member of staff to be there o act as a middle person to ensure that it was solved in a professional and amicable manner.

“It is likely that at some point in your work you will have disagreements with others. In many cases, disagreements are down to a lack of or miscommunication with others- however they should be managed very carefully so that bad feeling does not persist afterwards” (Burnham, 2004, pg46). Task 3 (links to Learning outcome 4, assessment criteria 4. 1, 4. 2 and 4. 3) Identify relevant legal requirements and procedures covering confidentiality, data protection and the disclosure of information. Human Rights Act 1998:

Article 8 of the human rights act establishes that everyone has a right to respect for his private life, his home and his correspondence. It is the “correspondence” part of this right that applies to recorded information we may hold about you. It also states that any actions that may breach this would have to be justified as being necessary. Data Protection Act 1998: Working in a school all information we receive must be dealt with in a confidential way as stated and governed by the Data Protection Act 1998. This act means that schools can only use and store the information for its intended purpose for example: Medical records

Previous school records Records for children who have special educational needs This information needs to be stored in a secure and safe way, either filed away and locked with a key, on a computer which is password protected which is only known by the members of staff that need to know. This act is also the piece of legislation that helps protect confidentiality, it is designed to prevent personal information from being passed on to others or held on to unnecessarily. The Data Protection act contains 8 principles, these are information must be: Processed fairly and lawfully Used only for the purpose for which it was gathered

Adequate, relevant and not excessive Accurate and kept up to date where necessary Kept for no longer than necessary Processed in line with the individuals rights Kept secure Not transferred outside of the European Union without adequate protection Children Act 2004 (every child matters) “The main focus areas are early intervention, a shared sense of responsibility, information sharing and integrated front line services. ” (Department for education, every child matters change for children). This green paper focuses on the importance of more integrated services and the sharing of information between professional.

The relevant policies that we follow in my setting would be the safe guarding and child protection policy. The procedure in which my setting deal with the disclosure of information from a child is as follows: listen to what is being said without displaying shock or disbelief; accept what is being said; allow the child to talk freely; reassure the child but not make promises which it might not be possible to keep; not promise confidentiality – it might be necessary to refer to Social Services; reassure him or her that what has happened is not his or her fault; stress that it was the right thing to tell;

listen, rather than ask direct questions; ask open questions rather than leading questions; not criticise the perpetrator; Explain what has to be done next and who has to be told. Describe the importance of reassuring children and adults of the confidentiality of shared information and the limits of this It is vitally important that both children and adults are able to trust you whole heartedly and are aware that any information given to you is kept confidential at all times unless it was a piece of information that had reason for cause of concern, such as a suspected child protection case.

However you must then explain to the adult or child that the information is only shared on a need to know basis and only to the relevant members of staff, because if you fail to report this then you could potentially be neglecting a possible child abuse case whether it be social abuse, sexual abuse, neglect. You need to re-assure the child or parent that the information will not be broadcasted and that even though you might have had to share it they can still trust you as you will be honest with them from the start.

“As a teaching assistant you may find that parents approach you to tell you personal or sensitive information. You must let them know that you would need to share it with your manager or supervisor”. (Burnham, 2004, pg 33). Burnham also states that “If you ? nd yourself in a position where another individual con? des in you, it is important to remember that there are some situations in which you will need to tell others.

This is particularly true in cases of suspected child abuse or when a child or young person is at risk”. It is important to reassure the adults and children that the information they share with us is kept confidential because you want them to be able to feel safe with you and be able to confide in you about anything they need to, always reminding them however that if you feel that it is information that is needed to

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