Main types of state and independent schools
Over the past ten years there are an increase in the types of school that are offering education within England and Wales. The new association’s government is focusing to expand educational provision to further and ensure every child and young person to have a range of choice to enable them to access a school that will meet their individual needs.
Between the ages of five to sixteen every child and young person in England and Wales are entitled to a free place at a state school.
Approximately ninety three per cent of children are educated in state-maintained schools; the majority are referred to as mainstream or ordinary schools. Mainstream schools are all funded by the local authorities, follow the national curriculum and are regularly inspected by the Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Service and skills (Ofsted).
Different types of schools will run in different ways, implementing different policies and serving different educational needs.
The School Standards and Framework Act, 1998 identifies four main categories of state-maintained school: community, foundation, voluntary-controlled and voluntary-aided.
The Local Authority (LA) employs the school’s staff, own the school’s land and buildings and has the primary responsibility for deciding admission criteria arrangements, these are used to allocate places if the school has more applications than places. Such as catchment area). Community schools look to develop strong links with local community, sometimes offering use of their facilities and providing services like childcare and adult learning classes.
Foundation Schools and Trust Schools
Foundation schools are run by their own governing body, which employs the staff and sets the admission criteria. Land and building are usually owned by the governing body or a charitable foundation. The Foundation appoints the majority of governors.
A Trust school is a type of foundation school which forms a charitable trust with an outside partner for example, a business or educational charity, aiming to raise standards and explore new ways of working. The decision to become a Trust school is taken by the governing body in consultation with parents.
Voluntary Aided Schools
Many of these schools are religious or faith schools. The governing body employs the staff and decides admission arrangements. Land and buildings are normally owned by a charitable foundation often a Religious Organization. The governing body contributes towards the capital costs of running the school. Most aided schools are linked to either the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church, but there are some schools linked to other faith or non-denominational groups.
Voluntary Controlled Schools
Voluntary-controlled schools are a cross between community and voluntary-aided schools. The local authority employs the staff and sets the entrance criteria, like a community school, but the school land and buildings are normally owned by a charity foundation, often a Christian Denomination.
This also appoints some members of the governing body. Within the state schools system described above, there are a number of schools with particular characteristics. As with other state schools, admissions are coordinated by the local authority. However, some may have different admission criteria or funding arrangements. Children’s education in England is normally divided into two separate stages. They begin with Primary education at the age of five and this usually lasts until they are eleven.
Then they move to Secondary school, there they stay until they reach sixteen, seventeen or eighteen years of age. The two main categories of school are:
- local authority maintained schools (State Schools) Free to all children between the ages of 5 – 16
- Independent schools. (Private/Public Schools) Parents pay for their children’s education.
There are ninety three percent of children in England and Wales attend State Schools, and this are non-fee-paying school, also was funded from taxes and most are organized by Local Authorities(LA). The cost of resource equipment’s, books, examination fees are covered by the school. However, parents are expected to pay for their child’s uniform and item of sportswear. Charge may also be made for music lessons and for board and lodgings on residential trips. Schools may ask for voluntary contributions for school time activities such as guild reading or school trips, every pupil will include in all activity even if their parents or guardian cannot or do not contribute.
State Schooling at different stages
- Nursery Classes (3-4 year olds). School nursery classes provide early education and care for children from three years of age as part of a primary schools. They are sometime called Foundation Stage Units. They may have a separate building and playground away from the main school but they will have the same head-teacher and staff.
- Primary schools (4-11year olds). A teaching assistance that will have the responsibility for most of their works. Children start with the Early Years Foundation curriculum, followed by Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 of the National Curriculum. Parents are strongly encouraged to help their children, mainly with reading, writing and guiding their children with their homework.
- Secondary schools (11-16 year olds or 18). Secondary schools educate pupils through Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 of the National Curriculum. Most children transfer at the age of eleven, mainly to their nearest secondary school, also parents are allows to express preferred for other schools. If the school has more applicants than places, they will admit the children with the highest priority under its published admission arrangements. Mostly they cater in both gender and the extension of the building is much larger than primary schools. Approximately eighty eight per cent of secondary students in England and Wales go to Comprehensive Schools and take children and young people of all abilities and providing a large variety of education for all/most of the pupils in a district between the age of eleven to sixteen or eighteen.
- Grammar Schools(11-16 year olds or 18). Grammar chools are state secondary schools, which select their pupils by means of examination taken by children at age eleven, known as Eleven Plus. Pupils who will have to pass the exam for entering the local grammar school. The school offers a sixth form as in Year 12/13, where children can study after the age of sixteen. Grammar schools are single sexed school, children either goes to a boys Grammar school or a girls Grammar School.
- Sixth Form Colleges(16-19 year olds). Sixth form colleges cater for young people between the ages of sixteen to nineteen.
Pupils study for A-Levels and other qualifications that they can do after the age of sixteen, example BTEC National Certificates. And they are not part of the schools sector but independent.
Fee Paying Schools
There are around 2,300 independent schools for four to sixteen year olds in England, and others aimed at sixth form students. These schools set their own curriculum and admissions policies. They are funded by fees paid by parents and income from investments. Every independent school must be registered with the Department for Education (DfE).
Standards are regularly monitored by either Ofsted or an inspectorate approved by the Secretary of State, ensuring that the school maintains the standards set out in its registration document. There are seven per cent of the children in England who attend independent schools and are known as private schools or public schools. Parents will pay for their children to attend these schools:
- Private Day Care nurseries – are privately owned and make a profit. They are register and inspected by Ofsted. They will take children aged from three months to five years or up to eight years if providing after school clubs. They are opened 8am to 6pm or 7am to 7pm.
- Child-minding – provide care and some education to children aged from three months to twelve years, and caring for children under the age of two years will pay a higher fees. Child-minding is to carried out in the home of child-minder and they have to be registered/inspected by Ofsted.
- Nursery/Kindergarten – follow the Early Year Foundation Stage (EYFS) and have a manager; also they do not attach to any school. Ofsted and the Local Education Authority (LEA) are involved in how these nurseries are run. They cater children age between two to four year olds.
- Pre-preparatory – department comprise three year groups; Reception, Year 1 and Year 2 and their parallel forms in each year with maximum of eighteen pupils in each class. Small classes ensure that pupils have an individual programme of study in all of development to suit particular needs, and all classes are supported by a teaching assistant whenever necessary. Pupils join in September following their fourth birthday. Reception classes will follow the Foundation Stage Curriculum.
- Preparatory – is an independent school preparing children from age seven to eleven/thirteen year olds for entry into fee-charging secondary independent schools, they are also known as public schools. Most England pre-schools are primarily day schools, but many also take boarders. In Northern Ireland, preparatory schools which cater for children from the age of four to eleven. They are usually part of a grammar school, to which the majority of pupils will take the Common Entrance Examination and go upon leaving the preparatory department at the age of eleven for entry into a secondary independent school.
- Public Schools – is an independent secondary school. Public schools in England are not run by the government. The entrance exams used by most public schools are known as Common Entrance Exams and are taken at the age of eleven for girls or thirteen for boys. The most famous public schools are Eton, Harrow and Winchester.
- Higher Education – Around thirty per cent of the eighteen to nineteen year olds enter full-time higher education. The formal entry requirements to most degree courses are two A-Level at grade E or above. Higher education offers a diverse range of course and qualification, such as first degrees, higher national diplomas and foundation degrees. Many courses take place in universities, also there are plenty is taught at higher education colleges, specialist art institutions and agricultural colleges. Pupils can choose to study different course depending on their preference, there are thousands of options available that can complement to every pupil’s skills and interests.
- Academies Schools – are independently managed schools set up by sponsors from business, faith or voluntary in partnership with the local authority and the government Department for Children, Schools and Families. City Technology Colleges – are urban-based, independently managed secondary schools geared towards science, technology and the world of work. They offer a range of vocational qualifications as well as GCSEs and A levels.
- Special Schools – pupils at a special school have been assessed and given a statement of Special Educational Needs (SEN). These may include Learning Disabilities or Physical Disabilities. Some special schools are funded by the local education authority. These could be community, voluntary-aided or controlled, or foundation special schools and some are independent.
- Free School – are normally brand new schools set up by teachers, charities, community or faith groups, universities, independent schools, businesses and groups of parents where there is parental demand. They will be set up as Academies and will be funded in the same way, directly from central government but are not run by the local council. They also share with Academies a greater control over their finances, the curriculum, and teacher’s pay and conditions, as well as changing the length of school terms and the school day.
- University Technical Colleges – are colleges catering pupils between the ages of fourteen to nineteen year olds and is sponsored by universities and employers and offering higher education or further learning in work. They are specialising in subjects like engineering and construction, including subjects in business skills and the use of ICT. Pupils study academic subjects as well as practical works leading to technical qualifications. The curriculum is designed by local and national employers who also provide support and work experience for their pupils.
- Studio Schools – are innovative schools catering pupils from fourteen to nineteen year olds, sponsored by local businesses and employers. They often have a specialism, but focus on equipping young people with a wide range of employability skills and a core of academic qualifications, delivered in a practical and project-based way.
- Home schooling – is when the parents take charge of their children education by themselves or hiring a home tuition. The National Curriculum does not have to be followed and there is no funding for home schooling. Pupils need to pay to take exams within the school.
- Specialist Schools – are state secondaries often Specialise, this means they have an extra emphasis in one or two subjects. Schools can specialise in: the arts, maths and computing, business and enterprise, music, engineering, science, humanities, sports, languages, and technology etc.
Around ninety two percent of secondary schools in England have specialist status.
There are many different types of schools in the education sector; state schools as well as independent schools, but the majority of children between the ages of five to sixteen year olds will enter the four mainstream state schools in England, where they are funded by Local Authorities. Most state school year begins on 1st September (or 1st August if a term starts in August). Children can be educating when they reach their fifth birthday to the last Friday in June of the school year when they will be on their sixteenth birthday. In 2013 this age will raised on to their seventh birthday and by 2015, to their eighteenth birthday.
Between the ages of five to eighteen every child and young person in England and Wales are entitled to a free place at a state school, however school may levy charges for activities such as theatre visits, field trips or music lessons, provided the charges are voluntary, this will ensure those who cannot afford to pay are allowed to participate in such events.
The school year – term times
State schools and the majority of the independent schools operate a 3 term school year. Most state schools have a half term holiday lasting one week in the middle of each term. Independent schools all have different half terms and term dates. Each Local Education Authority sets its own term dates for state schools.
Voluntary Aided and Foundation schools however, are allowed by law to set their own term dates which may differ from the term dates set by their Local Authority. The following dates give a general idea of how the school year is broken into three terms.
State school terms in England
- Autumn Term
- Early September to the third week in December
- The Christmas holiday is usually two weeks long
- Spring Term Early January to around Easter
- The Easter holiday is usually two weeks long
- Summer Term
- After Easter until the last week or second to last week in July
- The summer holiday is usually about six weeks long
State school start and finish times in England
- Start times – Most state schools officially start at 9. 00am but children are usually required to be in school a little earlier, 8. 50am for Primary age children (5-11) and maybe 8. 40am for secondary age children (11-18)
- Finish times – Most state Primary schools end between 3. 00pm and 3. 45pm. Most state Secondary schools end between 3. 00pm and 4. 0pm.
A Significant minority of state-funded schools are Faith Schools, where they are attached to religious groups such as Church of England or Roman Catholic Church. Also a small number of state-funded boarding schools are charge for board but not for tuition. The fees for boarding school may limit to 12,000 per annum year. Approximately ninety per cent of state-funded secondary schools are mainly Specialist Schools, who will receive extra funding to develop the subjects in which the school specializes.
The National Curriculum is introduced to England and Wales as a nationwide curriculum for children between the ages five to sixteen year olds in the state schools following the Education Reform Act 1988. However, this does not apply to independent schools, where they will set their own curricula, but to ensure that they have communal curriculum with the LEAs. As for Academies schools are publicly funded and have a significant degree of autonomy in deviating from the National curriculum. The Education Reform Act 1988 requires that all state pupils to be teach a Basic Curriculum of Religious Education and the National Curriculum as to standardize the content taught across schools in order to enable assessment as well as the compilation of league tables detailing the assessment statistics for each school. This assignment was choice by the provision degree parents in the school for their child, this were intended to encourage a free market by allowing parents to choose schools based on their measured ability to teach the National Curriculum. This is making up of twelve subjects. English, Mathematics and Science must be included and is compulsory for all pupils aged five to sixteen.
Other subjects to be included, known as Foundation Subjects, are compulsory at one/more Key Stages:
- Art and Design
- Design and Technology
- Information and Communication Technology
- Modern Foreign Languages
- Physical Education
Community School – is state-funded school from the Local Education Authority (LEA) who employs the school’s staff, and they are responsible for the school’s admissions and own the school’s estate. In the mid nineteenth century, government involvement in schooling consisted of annual grants to the National Society for Promoting Religious Education and the British and Foreign School Society (BFSS)to support the “voluntary schools” that they ran, and monitoring inspections of these schools. The Elementary Education Act 1870 imposed highly discipline standards on schools, and provided for the setting up of locally elected school boards in boroughs and parishes across England and Wales, empowered to set up elementary-level board schools where voluntary provision was insufficient.
A number of voluntary schools, especially those of the BFSS, chose to become boarding schools. Parents were still required to pay fees, though the fees of the poorest were paid by the board. The Education Act 1902 ended school boards, transferring their functions to counties and boroughs acting as Local Education Authorities. The board schools were thus renamed County Schools. The Act also introduced County Secondary Schools, which were greatly expanded during the twentieth century.
The schools were renamed community schools in the School Standards and Framework Act 1998. In 2008 approximately sixty one per cent of the state-funded primary and secondary schools in England and Wales were community schools; they develop their own way of organic structures, shaped by the enthusiasm of their staffs, the vision of its leadership and the needs of the local community.
They will work in partnership with other agencies to provide a holistic service to children, families and the wider community; acknowledge parents as co-educators and involve them in shaping provision; are offering a range of services, including learning opportunities to the wider community; open up their facilities and their expertise to help build the capacity and social cohesion of the communities they serve. Pupils are required to follow the National curriculum.
Voluntary Aided and Voluntary Controlled Schools
There are two main groups of Church of England School, Voluntary Aided (VA) and Voluntary Controlled (VC), both are state-funded by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) or Local Authority that controls or aids a school; the LA has more technical responsibilities in VC schools and the Diocese has in VA schools. Both VA and VC schools are fully Church of England Schools, and also have an Instrument of Government which includes a Church of England Statement of Ethos.
In the nineteenth century a variety of school from charity schools providing basic education for the poor to endowed grammar schools in providing secondary or all-age education. The Church of England national schools set-up non-denominational British schools and in 1833 the state began to provide grants to support these elementary and the less wealthy endowed schools. Later were joined by the Roman Catholic elementary schools and received its first state grant in 1847. Both the Church of England and the Roman Catholic’s secondary schools was expanded at the same time which established by religious order.
The historical of Voluntary Aided and Voluntary Controlled schools was decided back dated to 1944 Education Act, when all Church Schools buildings were the responsibility of the Church, often locally and some were in a better state than others. The decision over category depended on local factors, but financial confidence was often a key. The maintenance of the structure of an Aided school was to continue to be the responsibility of the Church (although grant aid from the government was to be made available).
If a school decided to be Controlled status, this responsibility was to be undertaken by the newly formed LEA which had secure funding. The financial climate in the Church at the time (and the state of the buildings then) would have influenced the decision. In some dioceses schools were actively encouraged to go Aided. In others the large majority chose Controlled. Schools in the Diocese of Ely were fairly typical of the national pattern: one third became Aided and two thirds Controlled.
- Voluntary controlled schools – are a cross between community and voluntary-aided schools. But the school land and buildings are normally owned by a charity foundation, often a Christian Denomination. This also appoints some members of the governing body, where the local authority will have the responsibility for employing the staffs and the admissions of pupils in the schools as quarter of their estate was funded by Central Government and pupils will not charge fees for their education. Pupils are required to follow the National curriculum. Approximately fifteen per cent of primary schools in England are voluntary controlled and mainly were associated with the Church of England and only three per cent of secondary schools are voluntary controlled, almost half are Church of England Schools.
- Voluntary Aided School – is a state funded school in England and Wales and the school land and building are owned by the charity foundation, often a Religious Organization, who contributes to building costs and has a substantial influence in the running of the school.
They are partly funded by the state, with the foundation responsible for fifty per cent of capital works but the Catholic Church chose to retain control of its school and having greater influence over the school.
City Technology College
City Technology College – known as CTC is a state funded with all ability secondary school that is independent of Local Authority control and is overseen directly by the Department for Education. One fifth of the capital costs are sponsors by private business, who also own or lease the buildings and the rest of the capital and the running costs are met by the Department.
City Technology Colleges teach the National Curriculum, but specialize in mainly technology-based subjects such as technology, science and mathematics. Like maintained schools, they are regularly inspected by the Office for Standards in Education. Also CTCs are links with businesses and industry and often their governors are directors of local or national businesses that are supporting or have supported the colleges. The programme has been successful in the long term with all the CTCs being considered strong establishments with consistently high academic results.
The CTC programme was established by the Conservative government under the term of the Education Reform Act 1988. Their first intention was to improve education inside cities, but the programme was hampered by the refusal of local authorities in the targeted areas to provide suitable school sites. Building entirely new schools was much more expensive, requiring a greater contribution from the government, and the resulting schools tended to be on the outskirts of cities.
After the programme was abandoned, the government embarked on the more modest aim of designating some existing schools as Technology Colleges, the first specialist schools. The Learning and Skills Act 2000 introduced a similar type of school, the City Academy, later renamed Academy. Differences from CTCs include halving the financial commitment of the sponsor, and being bound by the Schools Admissions Code. The Labour government encouraged CTCs to convert into academies.
Roles and responsibilities of Governors
School Governors – have the responsibilities and power to work alongside with the Head Teacher and school staffs, but they do not intervene in the day to day management of the school, unless there is a seriously problem or a weakness within the school that they need to take action, provided they act honestly, reasonably and in good faith. As an individual governor, they do not have the power or responsibility in the school. It is only the full governing body which has the legal duties and powers and all governors share in that corporate responsibility. Governors govern rather than manage. They are there to give direction and focus by performing a vital strategic role. As a governor they need to make time to:
- Attend a meeting of the full governing body at least once or twice a term. Most meetings take place in the early evening; but some can also take place during the working day
- Attend committee and working party meetings (if invited on to a committee they could meet at least once a term)
- Read reports and background papers prior to meetings
- Attend other events such as concerts, open evenings, sports day etc.
- Take part, if necessary in staff appointment panels, pupil admission and exclusion panels and more rarely staff discipline and grievance hearings
As a governor they can demonstrate their commitment to the school by:
- Showing an interest and participating in many of the schools activities
- Attending governors’ meetings
- Visiting the school during the day
- Getting to know the staff, pupils and their work
- Offering support and expertise
As a governor it is helpful (but not essential) of if they can:
- Keep up to date with local and national developments in education
- Attend governor training sessions (as appropriate)
As a governor they can be most effective when:
- Work co-operatively and creatively with others
- Use their personal qualities and expertise in the interest of the school, its pupils and staff
Types of Governor
- Parent Governors – are elected by parents/guardians of registered pupils and must be parents/guardians at the time of election, but they do not need to leave if their child leaves during their term of office as this is their own decision. If more nominations are received than the vacancies available then an election takes place. If insufficient parents stand for election, the governing body can approach a parent of the school to become a governor.
- Local Authority Governors – are elected by the LA and are often political appointments or through LA publicity, they do not have to be County Borough Councilors but are usually members of a political party in the area. Applications are sent to interested parties, and then forwarded to an officer panel for consideration. Once agreed, the application is given to the cabinet to be agreed. LA appointments can only be removed from office by the officer panel. It is not the decision of the governing body.
- Staff Governors – are selected by election from teaching and support staff paid to work at the school. They can stand for re-election, but if they leave the school, they cannot remain on the governing body. Teacher Governors – are elected by the other teachers employed at the school and must be permanent members of staff; also they act as a representative role. Once they stop working at the school their term of office will be terminated.
- Community Governors – are elected by the governing body to represent community interests, they can be people who live or work locally or people who are committed to the good government and success of the school.
- Minor Authority Governors – are elected by District, Town Councils.
- Foundation Governors – (not community schools) are elected by the foundation, voluntary controlled or aided schools to represent the interest of the church authority or voluntary trust which set up the school. They are to ensure that the school is run accordance with the beliefs of the organization. Also they can be removed from office at any time by the people who appointed them according to a reasonable course.
- Ex-Officio Governors – are often the parish priests in the church schools. A substitute can be elected to fill their place if they cannot or will not take office.
- Partnership Governors – (foundation school only) replace foundation governors if the school does not have a founding body.
- Sponsor Governors – are persons who elected by the governing body from individuals who have made significant contributions to the school such as financial or proved/provided substantial services.
- Associate Members – are elected by the governing body to attend committee meeting and/or full governing body meeting due to their particular skills or experience.
- Head teacher – is a governor by virtue of their office, and he/she does not have to be a governor if they wish not to be. . If they choose not to become a governor the vacancy will stay open for them. The head teacher may still be required to attend governing body meetings to give advice and information.
The governing body’s main role is to help raise standards of achievement:
- It is accountable for the performance of the school
- It helps shape the school’s future direction
- It monitors and reviews the performance of the school
- It makes decisions about the school’s budget and staffing
- It makes sure the school provides for all its pupils, including those with special needs
- It decides how the school can encourage pupil’s spiritual, moral and cultural development
- It is important for the governor to do thing right and how their job will affects the interest of pupils, staff morale and the schools seen by parents and others in the community.
The governors are not there to make decision, but responsible for how the school is performing and is prepared to support and challenge their head teacher by gathering views, asking questions and deciding what is best for the pupils.
Senior Management Team
Senior Management Team – is usually made up of the head teacher and deputy head, the team can be bigger and more varied, and as how this is fit into the school will depend on how it is structured. To a degree, this will differ according to the size of the school and the age group being taught, but it will usually be a variation on the following:
Senior Management Team For Primary School
Head teacher – Has overall responsibility for the school, its staff, its pupils and the education they receive. Specifically, the head teacher’s main responsibilities involve:
- Formulating overall aims and objectives for the school and policies for their implementation
- Working with governors and senior colleagues to deploy staff effectively and recruit new staff
- Meeting with other education professionals, and representing the school at conferences and other events outside the school in the local community and nationwide
- Motivating, training and disciplining staff
- Ensuring the motivation of the pupils
- Ensuring an infrastructure is in place in which all members of staff and pupils feel they can register their opinions on serious matters, and have a route via which they can communicate problems to senior members of staff
- Ensuring the good financial management of the school
- Ensuring the school is up-to-date with innovations, from teaching practices to new technologies
- Reporting on the school’s performance to a range of audiences, including governors, the Local Education Authority, the local community, Ofsted and others
- Managing accommodation (e. g. lassrooms) effectively to meet the needs of the curriculum and Health & Safety requirements
- Assuming responsibility for other legal matters in the day-to-day running of the school
- Assuming responsibility for pastoral care of pupils where necessary
- Resolving major disciplinary issues with pupils, including working in partnership with the police and social services.
In some schools, head teachers must also establish and maintain links or partnerships with businesses.
Deputy head teacher – Plays a major role in managing the school, particularly in the absence of the head teacher. Often responsible for a curriculum area and/or specific areas of school management.
- Play a major role under the overall direction of the head teacher in:
- Formulating the aims and objectives of the school
- Establishing the policies through which they shall be achieved
- Managing staff and resources to that end
- Monitoring progress towards their achievement
- Undertake any professional duties of the head teacher reasonably delegated to him/her by the head teacher
In addition, a deputy head teacher must undertake the professional duties of the head teacher in his/her absence from the school, “to the extent required by the head teacher or the relevant body”.
Assistant head teacher – Usually only in larger primary schools. Supports the head and deputy head with the management of the school.The main purposes of the role are to:
- Undertake the normal responsibilities of a class teacher
- Be a member of the senior leadership team
- Assist the head teacher in leading and managing the school
- Undertake such duties as are delegated by the head teacher
- Play a major role in formulating and reviewing the school improvement and the aims and objectives of the school
- Class teacher responsibilities
- Internal organization, management and control of the school
- Curriculum development
- Pupil care
Management of staff Relationships
Early year coordinator – Responsible for children in the foundation stage, leading the foundation team of teachers, nursery nurses and teaching assistants. he main purposes of the role are to:
- Impact on educational progress beyond the teacher’s assigned pupils
- Develop established liaison with Family Unit
- Ensure that all staff (particularly those in Key Stage 1) have an understanding of the Early Years’ curriculum
Develop and maintain continuity and progression across nursery and reception through:
- shared practice
- shared organisation
- shared record keeping
- Leading, developing and enhancing the teaching practice of others
- Monitor staff progress and development and support CPD of all EY staff.
- Monitor, assess and develop the teaching practice and roles of the class teachers.
- Ensure that class teachers deliver lessons effectively.
- Work with teachers to promote best and innovative practice to enrich the range of teaching and learning styles in the school.
- Lead on Inset days.
- Accountability for leading, managing and developing a subject or curriculum area or pupil development across the curriculum
- Set learning goals to be included in the school development plan.
- Revise and maintain Early Years’ scheme of work according to the Early Learning Goals and schools development plan.
- Review, develop and update as necessary
- Nursery Admissions Policy
- Disseminate up to date Early Years’ information from Early Years’ organisations throughout the wider school community
- Management responsibility
- Lead and manage EY team.
- Update team on changes to school policy.
- Manage conduct and attendance in the team.
- Support the professional development of team.
- Address and support poor performance in team.
- Membership of SMT. Resources/Administration
- Maintain accurate and appropriate records of staff and pupils. Oversee the maintenance of records used by Early Years’ staff
- Establish and consolidate links with neighbouring pre-school providers and other relevant professionals (e. g. social services, speech therapists, health visitors, educational psychologists,) etc.
Key stage coordinator – Employed to lead and manage either Key Stage 1 or 2. They usually also have a class teaching commitment. General responsibilities:
- To lead all aspects of the key stage area you have responsibility for
- To act as a role model for both staff and students
- To maintain an effective presence in and around the school
- To maintain a code of behaviour which promotes high quality teaching, effective learning, high tandards of achievement and good behaviour
- To share with other members of the pastoral team the responsibility for pastoral care
- To demonstrate a commitment to the school’s students
- To undertake professional development to ensure the maintenance of personal capacity to undertake their role effectively
- To encourage those staff line managed to undertake appropriate professional development
- To lead and attend appropriate meetings, and prepare reports for the Leadership team and Governors as required
- To monitor, update and implement School Policies
- To keep abreast of the local and national agenda, ensuring that we are well informed of new policies and initiatives
- To take an active role in delivering and managing assemblies that promote the school’s culture ethos and values
- To undertake duties with regard to uniform, break and lunchtimes, and appropriate supervision
- To carry out any other duties requested by the Head teacher
Specific Responsibilities in Pupil Progress and Pastoral Care:
- To lead on all aspects of pastoral care for students throughout the school
- To co-ordinate the monitoring of pupil progress and development by the Directors of Learning and assist their continued professional development
- To liaise with external agencies as appropriate to support student pastoral care and achievement
- To establish effective communication with all relevant staff to monitor and support pastoral care across the school
- To manage, monitor and support the work of the Heads of House and the work of student support services in the school
- To establish and maintain policies and practices to promote positive pupil behaviour
- To prepare and present to the Governors Discipline Committee the case for any permanent exclusions in conjunction with Head teacher/Leadership team
- To oversee, monitor and evaluate the management of Fixed Term and Internal exclusions
- To support the Directors of Learning, form tutors, classroom teachers and Faculty Leaders in managing pupil behaviour
- To manage any relevant budgets
- To organise and chair relevant meetings of the Pastoral team
Special educational needs coordinator – working in collaboration with the head teacher and governing body, plays a key role in determining the strategic development of the Special Educational Needs (SEN) policy and provision in the school to raise the achievement of children with special educational needs. The SENCO/Inclusion Manager takes day-to-day responsibility for the operation of the SEN policy and co-ordination of the provision made for individual pupils with special educational needs, working closely with staff, parents and carers and other agencies.
The SENCO/Inclusion Manager also provides related professional guidance to colleagues with the aim of securing high quality teaching for children with special educational needs. With the support of the head teacher and colleagues, seeks to develop effective ways of overcoming barriers to learning and sustaining effective teaching through the analysis and assessment of children’s needs, by monitoring the quality of teaching and standards of pupils’ achievements and by setting targets for improvement. The SENCO/Inclusion Manager collaborates with curriculum coordinators so that learning for all children is given equal priority and available resources are used to maximum effect.
The key responsibilities of the SENCO/Inclusion Manager may include:
- overseeing the day-to-day operation of the school’s SEN policy
- coordinating provision for children with special educational needs
- liaising with and advising fellow teachers
- managing learning support assistants
- overseeing the records of all children with special educational needs
- liaising with parents of children with special educational needs
- contributing to the in-service training of staff
- Liaising with external agencies, including services provided by Medway Council, such as educational psychology services, health and social services and voluntary bodies
Subject leaders and curriculum coordinators – Responsible for the leadership and management of a particular curriculum subject across a key stage or the whole school. Class teachers may be expected to accept responsibility for an area of the curriculum as part of their normal professional duties. The main purposes of the role are to:
- Leading development of the subject within the school
- Discussing developing of the subject with senior staff
- Ensuring the subject development features in the staff development plan
- Leading INSET sessions in their subjectEnsuring that the needs of teaching the subject are represented within the School Development Planning (SDP)
- Ensuring that action described in the SDP are implemented
- Ensuring there are agreed timescales in the SDP
- Proposing amendments to the SDP where is required
- Reviewing progress against the SDP at regular intervalsKeeping up to-date with development in the subject at local and national level
- Reading professional materials
- Attending relevant courses and cluster meetings
- Maintaining contact with advisers and/or advisory teachers
Maintaining documentation for the subject:
- Leading the development and review of policies
- Writing a policy with staff and governors
- Reviewing policies during agreed timescales or when needed if earlier
- Presenting policies to governors and staffLeading the development of a scheme of work
- Establishing a coherent scheme of work throughout the school
- Ensuring that National Curriculum requirements and the Early Learning Goals are followed
- Ensuring that the allocated time is given for the subject
- Ensuring that the Scheme of Work develops skills progression as well as covers subject content
- Establishing links with other subjects
- Ensuring that cross-curricular themes are included within the scheme of work
- Advising on how ICT can support development of the subject
- Developing cultural links wherever possible through their subject
- Making modifications where needed to the Scheme of Work
Promoting high standards in their subject:
- Having an informed knowledge of standards in their subject throughout the school
- Scrutiny of pupils’ work
- Monitoring of planning
- Observation of teaching
- Analysis of SAT resultsSupporting staff in their teaching of the subject
- Feeding back from lesson observations and scrutiny of pupils’ work
- Leading INSET
- Feeding back from courses
- Providing resources/advice to colleagues to support teaching
- Liaising with SENCO / AT coordinator to provide support for pupils of all abilitiesResponsibility for resourcing their subject:Auditing resources within the subject
- Ensuring that existing resources across the school are listed in an appendix to the policy
- Investigate any shortfall of resources in relation to the scheme of work
- Make recommendations for future spending including purchase of consumablesOrganising resource storage and upkeep
- Ensure all resources are made known to staff
- Ensure that storage of resources is conducive to use
- Ensure there is a system for stock replenishment and maintenanceOrganising resource purchase and loan
- Ensure that resource purchasing is in line with identified priorities
- Ensure that value for money is a factor when purchasing
- Identify sources of loan materials for staff
The responsibilities expected of teachers at all classification levels are to:
- Engage in ongoing professional learning to improve their practice
- Draw on resources and frameworks provided by the system to inform their work and classroom practice
- Work collaboratively with professional colleagues to improve teaching and learning within the school
- Use multiple sources of feedback on their classroom practice to inform their professional learning goals.
Other Statutory Roles
Other Statutory Roles – there will be other staff roles in school which are legally required to be fulfilling in terms of staffing. Although all organisation that work with children and young people share a commitment of safeguard and promote their welfare, many organisation have specific roles and responsibilities to do so that are underpinned by a statutory duties.
Teaching Assistants (TA) – to work under the instruction and guidance of teaching in undertake work, care and support programmes, also to enable access to learning for pupils and assist the teacher in the management of pupils and the classroom. This may be carried out in the classroom or outside the main teaching area.
Teaching assistant’s tasks may include:
- Setting up equipment ready for lessons
- Listening to children read, reading to them or telling stories
- Helping children with number work by using counting games or learning tables
- Playing games and encouraging children to play together
- Talking and listening to children
- Assisting with and displaying art and craft work
- Supervising dining and play areas
- Escorting pupils between classes, at sports events and on outings
- Comforting and caring for children if they have an accident or are upset
- Helping children, particularly those with special educational needs, with co-ordination
- Skills such as holding pencils correctly or tying shoelaces
- Helping the teacher to maintain records.
In order to foster a co-operative, respectful working relationship, teaching assistants need to be aware of these responsibilities that specific to teachers, this include:
- Supporting pupils
- Supervise and provide particular support for pupils, including those with special needs, ensuring their safety and access to learning activities
- Assist with the development and implementation of Individual Education/Behaviour Plans and Personal Care programmes
- Establish constructive relationships with pupils and interact with them according to individual needs
- Promote the inclusion and acceptance of all pupils
- Encourage pupils to interact with others and engage in activities led by the teacher
- Set challenging and demanding expectations and promote self-esteem and independence
- Provide feedback to pupils in relation to progress and achievement under guidance of the teacherSupporting teachers
- Create and maintain a purposeful, orderly and supportive environment, in accordance with lesson plans and assist with the display of pupils’ work
- Use strategies, in liaison with the teacher, to support pupils to achieve learning goals
- Assist with the planning of learning activities
- Monitor pupils’ responses to learning activities and accurately record achievement/progress as directed
- Provide detailed and regular feedback to teachers on pupils’ achievement, progress, problems etc.
- Promote good pupil behaviour, dealing promptly with conflict and incidents in line with established policy and encourage pupils to take responsibility for their own behaviour
- Establish constructive relationships with parents/carers
- Administer routine tests and invigilate exams and undertake routine marking of pupils’ work
- Provide clerical/admin. Support e. g. photocopying, typing, filing, money, administers coursework etc. Support for the curriculum
- Undertake structured and agreed learning activities/teaching programmes, adjusting activities according to pupil responses
- Undertake programmes linked to local and national learning strategies e. g. iteracy, numeracy, key stage, early years recording achievement and progress and feeding back to the teacher
- Support the use of ICT in learning activities and develop pupils’ competence and independence in its use
- Prepare, maintain and use equipment/resources required to meet the lesson plans/relevant learning activity and assist pupils in their useSupporting school
- Be aware of and comply with policies and procedures relating to pupils’ protection, health, safety and security, confidentiality and data protection, reporting all concerns to an appropriate person
- Be aware of and support difference and ensure all pupils have equal access to opportunities to learn and develop
- Contribute to the overall ethos/work/aims of the school
- Appreciate and support the role of other professionals
- Attend and participate in relevant meetings as required
- Participate in training and other learning activities and performance development as required
- Assist with the supervision of pupils out of lesson times, including before and after school and at lunchtime
- Accompany teaching staff and pupils on visits, trips and out of school activities as required and take responsibility for a group under the supervision of the teacher
Learning Support Assistants (LSA) – are taking on increasingly important roles within the classroom, but they are ot a replacement for a trained teacher who should maintain overall responsibility for the teaching and learning of all children in their care. Often they will assist pupil with organization, helping them to become more self-reliant over time. They will help a child achieve behavioral objectives in and out of lessons. A learning support assistant provides support, sometimes quite specialized, to an individual pupil or group. Higher level teaching assistants (HLTAs) are qualified personnel who may take on added responsibilities, Such as supporting children with special educational needs. This include one to one work providing literacy support for children with IEPS or learning difficulties, performing playground and lunch duty, and acting as a PEEP for specific children.
Using picture cards, puppets and other visual tools to reinforce structured learning habits and positive social interaction with peers. In the classroom they listen to pupils read on a one-to-one basis or lead a guided group reading. A wider aspect of their role has involved monitoring the social, emotional and physical wellbeing of the pupils, to support and by taking a general interest in them, their interests and dislikes. This can help them to better gauge how to best encourage them to learn in the classroom environment. Other terms used include curriculum assistant and classroom assistant. Learning Support Assistant works alongside pupils on agreed targets and, given satisfactory training and support, may help pupils with the developing of new skills.
As well as offering in-class support, an LSA may be involved with assessment and record keeping, lesson planning and preparation and the modification of teaching and learning materials to meet specific needs. Also supporting pupils of all ages, but their input depends on a number of factors. These include the age of the pupil, the nature of the difficulty and the context in which they are being educated. Their role and responsibility is far-reaching and varied.
First Aiders – are responsible for administering first aid, in accordance with their training, to those that become injured or fall ill whilst in the school premises. If necessary, they need to ensure an ambulance or other professional medical help is called.
School Counsellor/Pastoral Support – is the ministry of care and counseling provided by pastors, chaplains and other religious leaders to members of their church or congregation, or to persons of all faiths and none within institutional settings. This can range anywhere from home visitation to formal counseling provided by pastors who are licensed to offer counseling services. This is also frequently referred to as spiritual care. On the other hand, pastoral practice refers to how an idea is applied or used when giving spiritual guidance or leading somebody closer to God either in spiritual formation, teaching, counseling, or in liturgy. Pastoral care is also a term applied where people offer help and caring to others in their church or wider community. Pastoral care in this sense can be applied to listening, supporting, encouraging and befriending.
Pastoral care can also be a term generally applied to the practice of looking after the personal and social wellbeing of children or pupils under the care of a teacher. It can encompass a wide variety of issues including health, social and moral education, behavior management and emotional support. This usage is more common in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries such as Australia and New Zealand, where it is also used for children and young people support services at the university level.
Higher Level Teaching Assistants – has been developed to enable existing classroom staff to develop their profession, reinforce their skills and enable senior support staff to work in the classroom and help to further teaching and learning. HLTAs work closely with the teacher, complementing their role and helping free up teacher time to enable each child to work to his/her full potential.
Cover Supervisors – are relatively new roles and are typically found in Secondary schools. A Cover Supervisor is likely to be used to cover short-term absences of teachers such as unexpected sick leave or professional development leave. It is a varied but demanding position: responsibilities include setting work for pupils in accordance with school policy, behavior management and supervision, collecting work at the end of the lesson and reporting back to the appropriate senior member of staff. A Cover Supervisor is classed as a non-teaching member of staff and is not permitted to undertake any teaching and learning activities or duties.
There are currently no qualifications needed for this role although schools will require staff who are experienced in the classroom and who are able to demonstrate the skills necessary for this post.
Specialist Teaching Support – are employed by the Local Authority and are qualified teachers who are working with children and young people in speech and language/learning/communication difficulties. the main purposes of the role are to:
- Works with children with speech, language and communication difficulties with a specific focus on their ability to access the curriculum and school life.
- Works in schools or in preschool settings to support individual children to take part in learning.
- Liaises with the speech and language therapist and teachers, school staff and parents/carers regarding children’s speech, language and communication.
- Advises on strategies to support all aspects of speech and language, and to support the therapy programme as necessary.
- Can offer school or county-based INSET (training).
- Provides information for statutory assessment.
- Submits reports for the annual review process.
School Management – is to work in day-to-day management of a school and its facilities is vital to the success of a school and its ability to serve the needs of the community.
Roles within schools
Roles within schools which contribute to and support the running of the school can include:
Facilities Management – caretaker deal with the upkeep and maintenance of the school premises and ground. Their role and responsibilities can involve working in shift patterns and maintaining the security of the school during the school day and during any extra-curricular events or activities, dealing with grounds maintenance, carrying out basic repairs, stock taking and supply and developing relationships with outside contractors.
Cleaning staff – are also an integral part of the upkeep of the school, its hygiene and accessibility for staff and pupils. Their role and responsibilities can involve working in accordance with health and safety regulations and school policy, also may work early morning or twilight shifts to accommodates the school day and positions can be on a supply or permanent basis.
School Midday Supervisors and Assistants – are sometimes referred to as Lunchtime Supervisors/Assistants and look after the welfare of pupils in school during lunchtime break. Their role and responsibilities can involve supervising pupils behaviour indoors and outdoors, helping younger pupils with tasks such as cutting up food, ensuring the health and safety of pupils at all times, distributing and tiding away lunchtime resources, assisting with play activities, dealing with any misbehaviour and reporting to a senior member of staff. All midday staff is expected to be aware of safeguarding and child protection legislation and their responsibilities in relation to this.
Catering Staff – plan, prepare, cook and serve meals to pupils and staff in accordance with school policy and fixed budget. Their role and esponsibilities can include: planning menus, following guidelines on nutrition and healthy eating, preparing meals, complying with food safety legislation, monitoring and managing supplies within a budget and developing relationships with food suppliers.
Clerical and Administrative Roles – is to manage the business of a school, this task may be divided between a number of professionals within a school depending on the size and nature of the school or be the responsibility of one member of staff in co-ordination with the senior leadership team.
Schools Business Managers/School Administrator – using their skills to manage the school’s finances, policies, and resources and planning. May also undertake a range of other bespoke responsibilities to support the smooth running of the school as a centre of the local community. They may be part of the senior leadership team in the school and will work closely with the Head teacher and Deputy Head to plan the staffing, budgets and running of the school.
School Office Staff – cover a wide range of responsibilities, including being the clerical ‘face’ of the school and point of contact for staff and parents. School Administrators, Receptionists, Personal Assistants or Front Office staff will provide a key role in the day-to-day running of the school, communication between staff, pupils and parents, handling of staff rotas, parent enquiries, pupil absence and admissions. These roles vary greatly in responsibility but can be broadly similar to the School Business Manager position.
HR / Finance Roles – some larger schools and particularly at Secondary level, may employ a separate HR Officer or Finance and Payroll Officer to handle the policy, recruitment, absence, salaries and budget of the school.
Specialist Staff – there are a number of specialist staff who work in schools to support the learning needs of pupils and the teaching staff. Some of these roles deal with Pupil Welfare and others are specialist and technical to support the resources and teaching of the school. All specialist staff is integral to the running of the school as a centre of learning and as a key component of the community.
Some of the roles you may find available in schools include:
Parent Support Advisers (PSA) – for schools to focus on providing pupils and their families with support and to provide a more collaborative and extended service to the community. They will offer parenting support courses and classes, make assessments and provide one-to-one parenting support for parents across the school. The aim of the role is to ensure that difficulties are identified and tackled at an early stage and that families are given access to more specialised help and support where necessary. Other responsibilities include helping to improve behaviour and attendance and overcome any specialised needs or barriers to learning.
Educational Welfare Officer (EWO) – act on behalf of the local authority to enforce a parent’s duty to ensure their child attends school regularly. An Education Welfare Officer will work closely with one or more schools, the pupils and their families to deal with any attendance issues. This can involve arranging school and home visits where necessary and referring parents for support. Responsibilities of the role also involve dealing with any welfare issues which may be affecting a child’s ability to attend school, addressing and reporting any Special Educational Needs (SEN), dealing with Looked-After Children and advising on alternative education provision.
Learning Mentor – support, motivate and challenge pupils who are underachieving in schools as a form of pastoral support. The aim of the role is to help pupils overcome barriers to learning caused by social, emotional and behavioural problems. Their role and responsibilities of this post can include: identifying pupils who would benefit from mentoring, liaising with parents and carers, implementing strategies to support pupil confidence, listening to and helping pupils resolve a range of personal or social issues, monitoring pupil attendance and working closely with teachers and other professionals across the Children’s Workforce.
School Medical Staff/School Nurse – provide an essential link between school, home and the community, that helps safeguard the well-being of children and young people. The role of School Nurse forms an integral part of the school health team which, depending on the size of the school and needs of the pupils, may include other healthcare professionals. Their role and responsibilities may include: supporting children with complex health needs, running immunisation and vaccination programmes where appropriate, running clinics or parenting programmes, assessing the health needs of every five-year-old pupil and delivering First Aid and medical advice where necessary. Other medical staffs who may work in a school are teaching support employees who are assigned to a pupil with particular special needs. These are varied and complex roles and can include supporting a child with a mild or severe learning or physical disability. As with the role of School Nurse, all healthcare rofessionals working in schools should have the necessary and appropriate professional medical training and expertise.
Designated Child Protection Officer/Safeguarding Officer (DCPO) – takes the lead responsibility for child protection, including support for other staff and information sharing with other agencies, developing policies and staff training. Most settings have one DCPO although it is good practice for settings to have a Deputy DCPO. Usually, the DCPO is also the named person who responds to allegations made against members of staff. The DCPO should be a senior member of staff with the authority and seniority to carry out the functions of the role.
- Refer suspected abuse and neglect to the First Response Service
- Report allegations made against members of staff to the Local Authority Designated Officer or LADO (and Ofsted, if Early Years/Play Providers/ Childminders)
- Develop and update the Child Protection and other safeguarding policies, ensuring that staff and children/families/parents are aware of them
- Provide support and advice to all members of staff within the setting regarding child protection concerns
- Keep the head teacher informed about any issues that arise
- Ensure that cover is provided for the role when absent from the setting
- Ensure that a child’s child protection file is copied for the new educational establishment when a child moves educational settings, and that this file is transferred securely and separately from the main pupil file
- Ensure that all staff receive appropriate Child Protection and Safeguarding Training, and maintain training records
- Cooperate with any requests for information from the local authority, such as Child Protection training returns and self-evaluative forms for safeguarding and child protection, in compliance with Section 11, Children Act 2004
Classroom teachers – Plan, prepare and deliver lessons to meet the needs of all pupils, setting and marking work and recording pupil development as necessary. Includes advanced skills teachers and supply teachers. Often work in partnership with teaching assistants. the main purposes of the role are to:
- Plan and prepare weekly (or occasionally fortnightly) classes, including developing appropriate materials and methods as necessary;
- Run the classes with groups of students;
- Be available for one or more weekly or fortnightly ‘office hours’;
- Mark, grade and give students feedback on class/course work as appropriate (this may be weekly in some ases);
- Monitor student attendance and progress and write reports on student progress which contribute to their School record;
- Take part in appropriate School and departmental course/teacher evaluations;
- Attend meetings associated with their course as requested/ appropriate;
- Take part in formal assessment of student work under the direction of full-time academic faculty; and
- Contribute to Moodle. Moodle is a school-wide system that provides web-based support for all courses and programmes. It is used for collecting assignments, for communication, for formative assessment, for discussions, for collaborative projects and for disseminating lecture and class materials as well as feedback.
- Follow professional practices consistent with school and system policies in working with pupils, pupil’s records, parents and colleagues
- Demonstrates communication and interpersonal skills as they relate to interaction with students, parents, other teachers, administrators, and other school personnel
- Is available to students and parents for conferences according to system policies
- Facilitates home-school communication by such means as holding conferences, telephoning, and sending written communications
- Maintains confidentiality of students and students’ records
- Works cooperatively with school administrators, special support personnel, colleagues, and parents Complies with rules, regulation and policies of governing agencies and supervisory personnel
- Complies with state administrative regulations and Board of Education policies
- Adheres to school and local school system procedures and rules
- Conducts assigned classes at the times scheduled
- Enforces regulations concerning student conduct and discipline
- Demonstrates timeliness and attendance for assigned responsibilities
- Provides adequate information, plans, and materials for substitute teacher
- Maintains accurate, complete, and appropriate records and files reports promptly
- Attends and participates in faculty meetings and other assigned meetings and activities according to school policy
- Complies with conditions as state in contract Demonstrates professional practices in teaching
- Models correct use of language, oral and written
- Demonstrates accurate and up-to-date knowledge of content
- Implements designated curriculum
- Maintains lesson plans as required by school policy
- Assigns reasonable tasks and homework to students
- Participates in professional development pportunities and applies the concepts to classroom and school activities Acts in a professional manner and assumes
- responsibility for the total school program, its safety and good order
- Takes precautions to protect records, equipment, materials, and facilities
- Assumes responsibility for supervising students in out-of-class settings
- Demonstrates appropriate personal contact while in performance of school duties Assumes a role in meeting the school’s student achievement goals, including academic gains of students assigned to the teacher
- Observations of the teacher by the principal and assistant principals, in addition to those recorded on the GTOI during instruction, at other times as appropriate.
External professionals who may work with a school
There are numerous of external professional who are working within school on regular basis. When working with individual pupils and collaborate with the school’s SENCO, we may come into contact with different agencies or individual who may work with pupils with Special Educational Needs, and all members of community can help to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people and their families who are in needs. The local authority is obliged to ensure that Children in Need of Protection are protected from significant harm.
These may include the following:
Educational Psychologist – are working both within the educational system and in the community and their main concerned are with children and young people’s learning, well-being and development and have the skills in a range of psychological and educational assessment and intervention technique and methods for helping children and young people who are experiencing difficulties in learning or social adjustment. They are allocated through the local Special Educational Needs Department with supporting the schools’ SENCO in providing assessments and observations work in relation to pupil’s difficulties from an early stage to key stage five, and plan the provision for their additional needs. They may also lead meetings with parents and write reports giving recommendations for work with individual pupils. They will work extensively with parents/carers, teachers and other professionals. They work with and within systems, applying different psychological knowledge and skills as appropriate at an individual, group or organizational level.
Some of their work will be with individuals or with groups of children; other work is with adults in institutions and organizations. Every parent/carer and child and all state-maintained schools are entitled to access to their service. A number of educational psychologists work in private practice and take direct referrals from parents, schools, doctors and others. These educational psychologists usually work outside the school system as sole practitioners or as members of a private service. Although much of their work is with individual clients and families, educational psychologists offer consultation and research to groups and institutions, particularly schools. This includes staff training and development, systems analysis and evaluation.
Local Authority Children’s Social Services – are the director of Children’s Services, under section 18 of the Children Act 2004 have responsibility for ensuring that a local authority meets their specific duties to organize and plan services and have close relationships between schools and local authority in protecting, safeguarding and promote the welfare of children and young people. They investigates the role of schools in the child protection process and the decision making processes that come into play when a child welfare concern prompt the decision to contact social services. Each local authority is responsible for establishing a Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB) in their area and ensuring it is run effectively. An LSCB can cover more than one local authority area.
Social workers take a lead role in:
- Responding to children and families in need of support and help
- Undertaking enquiries following allegations or suspicion of abuse
- Undertaking initial assessments and core assessments as part of the Assessment Framework
- Convening strategy meetings and initial and subsequent child-protection conferences
- Court action to safeguard and protect children
- Coordinating the implementation of the child protection plan for children on the child protection register
- Looking after and planning for children in the care of the council
- Ensuring that looked-after children are safeguarded in a foster family, children’s home or other placement
Police – are the members of the community who can help and safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people. Police work with schools in a range of ways. It can vary by where they are based, the type of contact they have, the number of schools they work with and the time they are able to dedicate to it. For example:
- Police can be based on the schools’ premises and work solely with the school, or a cluster of schools.
- Alternatively they can be based in their usual station or have bases in a number of different schools with which they work.
- Reduce the prevalence of crime, anti-social behaviour and victimisation of young people; provide safe school communities; develop relationships between the police and young people and their communities, and identifying, targeting and accessing ‘at risk’ or vulnerable children and young people.
Negative perceptions of the police
- unclear role definition and confusion over role boundaries;
- isolation of officers from their police colleagues;
- maintaining officer consistency and availability;
- and difficulties concerning working hours.
Presenting the initiative to the school and community in a positive way:
- Understanding and appreciation of different agency cultures; mutual trust; clear, jointly developed protocols; shared vision and mutual understanding; joint line management; strategic support; and careful deployment of the ‘right’ officer for the job.
- Police can be formally dedicated to a specific school or group of schools and work independently, or they can be part of a wider team serving one or a number of schools.
- Sometimes officers act as a dedicated contact for school, whilst in other cases they provide support in a team as part of their formal duties, as and when requested.
- The police also work with schools on an ad hoc one-off basis to address a specific need in the school or local area.
- The roles of a Police Officer in school can comprise many number of activities, but there are three main broad areas of activities;
- Enforcement and safety of young people (e. g. tackling crime; discipline, safety and behaviour in school; restorative justice)
- Supporting improvements in young people’s knowledge and quality of life (e. g. curriculum or extracurricular activities; schools assemblies; pastoral support)
- Strategic and multi-agency preventative working (e. g. sharing intelligence, working with other agencies; police presence and profile).
The Strategic Health Authority, Primary Care Trust, NHS Trusts (including Mental Health NHS Trusts) and NHS Foundation Trusts have a duty under Section 11 of the Children Act 2004 to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Other Health staffs, such as those working in ambulance trusts, NHS Direct sites and within the independent sector, have a responsibility to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people.
Health Visitors – is a continuing presence in the family’s life with children from 0 – 5 years old, especially where there are concerns about a child, and deal with all aspects of child welfare through their role in the Community and in the Primary Care Trusts. Their roles are involves visiting family homes and assessing the health needs of family members, and they are usually aware of family relationships and patterns of care. The Health Visitor’s assessment will include the child’s developmental progress, the quality and style of parenting available to the child and information concerning the home circumstances.
School Nurses – providing Health and Sex Education within schools, carrying out developmental screening, undertaking health interviews and administering immunization programs. They can be employed by the local health authority, community NHS providers or by a school directly.
Speech and Language Therapists – who works in schools with children and young people who have a statement of Special Educational Need or are at School Action Plus/School Action with an identified support worker or teaching assistant. To assess and treat speech, language and communication problems, helping them to communicate better. Also they work with children and young people who have eating and swallowing problems.
They work closely with teacher and other professionals to provide care and support to children and young people who have the following types of problems:
- Difficulty producing and using speech
- Difficulty understanding language
- Difficulty using language
- Difficulty with feeding, chewing or swallowing
- A stammer
- A voice problem
These problems may have been caused by a range of diseases and disabilities:
- learning disability
- Neurological disorders e. g. Parkinson’s disease
- Cancer of the mouth and throat
- Head injury
- Hearing loss and deafness
- Cleft palate
SLTs work in a variety of settings including:
- Community Health Centers
- Mainstream and Special Schools
- Assessment Units and Day Centers
- Clients’ HomesAlcohol & Drug Services – are working with health regions, schools, government ministries, Aboriginal organizations and other agencies to enhance
- prevention and educate the effects related to substance use and abuse.
- The Alcohol & Drug Education and Prevention
Directorate’s roles is to work and supporting the professional in development and training, and developing media campaigns and print resources including:
- Saskatchwan Addictions Awareness Week offers a chance for communities to play a role in addressing alcohol and drug use. Learning about local perceptions of drinking and drug use, and the potential harms associated with activities and games, also health fact sheets and brochures on various mental health topics, posters, professional resources and templates display around the resources.
- The Ministry of Health has developed a series of social marketing campaigns related to the misuse of alcohol in Saskatchewan. The purpose of these campaigns is to draw attention to alcohol use in Saskatchewan, and its impact on young people.
- Ministry of health fact sheets and brochures on alcohol and drugs.
- Resources material for parents. Resources material for young adults.
- Map provided with locations and contact information of available Addictions Services in the health region.
Dental Practitioner – are the professional of health care who provide prevention and restorative treatment for problem that affect the mouth and teeth. Majority of dentists are self-employed practitioners in general practice, providing dental care to the public under the National Health Service (NHS) and/or work privately. Others may work in salaried posts within a variety of specialisms in hospital dentistry, community dentistry, the armed forces, corporate practices, industry, or university teaching and research.
A General Dental Practitioner (GDP) typically leads a team made up of Dental Care Professionals (DCPs) and treats a wide range of patients, from children to the elderly. These professionals may form into a team that may include a Receptionist, Dental Nurse, Dental Hygienist, Dental Therapist and Dental Technician. Some practices may also include Practice Managers, where other dentists can concentrate with the clinical work. A dentist is typically responsible for:
- Educating patients on oral health care
- Examining teeth and diagnosing patients’ dental conditions, using tools such as X-rays
- Assessing treatment options and agreeing treatment plans with patients
- Carrying out agreed clinical treatment, such as treating gum disease, restoring teeth affected by decay, etc
- Maintaining patients’ dental records
- Recruiting, training and managing staff
- Managing budgets and maintaining stocks of equipment
- Keeping abreast of new developments through structured Continuing Professional Development (CPD)
- Marketing services to potential clients. Dentists who are working in hospital usually treat patients with a referred by a GDP and therefore dental care is more specialized and complex with additional postgraduate qualifications are required for these post.
Dental officers working in the Community Dental Service known as the Salaried Primary Dental Care Service (SPDCS) are employed by primary care trusts and provide dental care to adults and children with special needs and disabilities, as well as providing school visits.
Occupational Therapist (OT) – work with parents/carers and others professional to assess the needs of children and young people who has difficulties with the practical and social skills necessary for their everyday life and their aims is to enable the child to be as physically, psychologically and socially independent as possible. Following assessment the Occupational Therapist will identify appropriate strategies in order to enable the child to maximize his/her potential when carrying out activities of daily living. Together they will work closely with the child and their family, education, social work, other healthcare professionals, community club leaders and the voluntary sector and shared responsibility for meeting children and young people’s needs.
They are usually works in the child’s home, nursery and school as well as clinics, health centers and other locations in the community depending on the child’s requirements.
Occupational Therapists’ Roles:
- When a referral is received additional information may be gathered and a decision will be made as to the appropriateness and urgency of the referral. The parent and the referrer will be informed of the decision and given further advice as appropriate.
- Assessment may include information gathering from parents, families and others involved in the child’s life and building on what is already known about the child from other agencies such as education and social work.
Assessment will include:
- Functional difficulties such as dressing, eating, toileting
- School skills such as pencil and scissor skills
- Play skills
- Sensory abilities such as touch and balance
- Fine motor skills and gross motor and movement abilities
- Social skills
- Behavioural responses during the child’s day
The observation can be formal and informal assessment. The OT will decide whether to offer further support based on the outcome of assessment, the impact of the difficulty on the child’s life and the likelihood of effecting change at this time. Following assessment the outcome will be discussed with the parent and a written report will be sent to the parent and the referrer.
The therapist may need to share this information with other professional for the child’s benefit. This will be discussed with the parents and referrer. There is a range of possible ways of supporting a child. These will always involve working with and through parents and others, e. g. classroom assistants, occupational therapy support workers, class teachers, learning support teachers, nursery workers. Possible ways of supporting the child may include one or more of the following:
- Training and advice for parents/carers and other service providers (health, social work, education)
- Provision of programmes of work and ways of supporting the child in different environments.
- This intervention may be carried out by differentpeople following the Occupational Therapist’s recommendations
- Recommendation of specialist equipment to support functional skills and learning
- Involvement with educational and transition planning
- Direct therapy with child individually or in a groupFollowing the agreed period of support the child’s progress will be reviewed in partnership with parents/carers and others and further recommendations and actions will be adopted according to the child’s changing needs.
The child will be discharged from therapy for one or more of the following reasons:
- Potential achieved
- Child not benefiting from therapy at this time
- Child/young person or family do not want to continue with therapy
Turnmarsh Centre (SEN support workers) – are team up with different type of Learning Support Services who assists schools in catering for specific learning needs, and are made up with the following teams:
- The Learning Support Development and Advisory Team – will support parents/carers who have children with complex learning needs age between 0 – 4 by arranging home visits and organising play groups. Coordinate with the schools to ensure that young children with complex learning needs make a successful transfer into school/nursery. Also to ensure children age 5 – 16 with complex learning needs have positive experiences in schools. They will support and giving advice to school staff on meeting the needs of children and young people with specific learning/dyslexia.
- The Language, Communication and Interaction Team – helps support children overcome speech, language and communication difficulties through primary and secondary school. Also working in partnership with parents/carers to support children under the age of four who have severe communication difficulties, helping them to develop skills to communicate confidently with other children. Coordinate with the school to ensure that young children with severe communication difficulties make a successful transfer into school or nursery and to support children aged 5 – 16 who have severe and specific speech, language and communication difficulties, also children and young people on the autistic continuum to have positive experiences in schools.
- The Service for Audio Impaired Children – educate children and young people who have Hearing Impaired with British Sign Language (BSL)/English or an English Auditory/Oral Education. Working in partnerships with parents/carers, offering home based support and training to the family for children aged 0 – 4, so that they develop the skills to confidently communicate with their children. Also they work closely with schools and other professionals who support children with Hearing Impaired such as those working in the Audiology Clinics.
- The Service for Visually Impaired Children – is based within the learning support service at the Tunmarsh Centre, which work directly with children and young people who are Visually Impaired in schools and nurseries, they provides on-going support to schools and families regarding suitable educational approaches. The service has places a strong emphasis on promoting the independence of children and young people who are visually impaired. As well as organising a resource library and adaptation service which is open to schools, parents and other staff within the children and young people’s service.
Fire Officers – is the designated within school fire who has overall responsibility for ensuring that:
- Fire Safety Policy is kept under regular review by the Governors and the Senior Leadership Team
- Information contained within the Fire Safety policy is made available to all members of the School community
- Clear, written instructions on the course of action to take in the event of an emergency are displayed in all areas of the school, with additional information being given when large numbers of visitors are on site, i. e. for concerts, play performances etc.
- Clear, written instructions are freely available for all visitors to the school and these instructions contain full information on the course of action to be taken in the event of an emergency
- Contractors working for the school will be given written documentation detailing the procedures that they should follow whilst working on the school campus, and also informing them of the school’s procedures in an emergency situation
- Basic fire training is given to all employees at least annually and the School’s H. R. Department include Fire Training in the nduction sessions given to all new employees upon commencing work at the school
- Emergency evacuations and fire practices are carried out
- The Shrewsbury School Fire Risk Assessment and assessments undertaken for individual buildings are regularly reviewed incorporating any alterations to the layout, systems installed or operational use of the premises
- The integrity of all fire prevention systems and equipment in place is maintained in good working order
Ophthalmologist – is a Medical Doctor (MD) who is specializes in medical and surgical care of their patients’ eyes and the visual system in all aspect age, from premature babies to the elderly. They can diagnoses and treats eye diseases, also to perform surgery. They are the first person who diagnose children’s Visual Impairment and prescribe eyeglasses or contact lenses for children and young people. They also look into the prevention of eye disease and injury. Sometime they specialize in low vision, which working specifically with people to help them maximize their use of vision, but not all do so. Many ophthalmologists may or may not be a specialist in working with children, they are specialize in one aspect of eye diseases—retinal diseases, such as approaching with children, especially those with multiple disabilities. Examining and working with children often involves considerations different from those involved in working with adults, in such areas as communicating clearly, being responsive to a child’s emotions and behavior, and being attuned to the way in which children may indicate what they can, in fact, and see.
Hearing Screening – can identify children with congenital hearing impairment and technological advances which have made neonatal hearing screening an alternative option. Also to review the available literature on the screening of permanent childhood hearing impairment as well as providing commissioners and the health care with information about how to deliver a more uniform service, better outcomes and more cost-effective screening. They will also identify area for further research and service development.
In UK there are approximately 900 children a year are born with significant permanent hearing impairment, which will affect their learning ability in life. Before the introduction of the Newborn Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP) service would have missed about 600 of these children before they reach 4th birthday. If children with hearing impaired are identified late are at risk of substantial delay in their acquisition of language and communication skills, with longer-term risk to education achievement, mental health and quality of life. In their research involvement are to review the available published and unpublished literature and a comprehensive survey of current pre-school hearing screening provision in the England coupled with health economics study of hearing screening costs.
This research also included a number of focus groups and visits to key centers in the England and North America. There are many more statutory organizations and professionals who are working with children and young people will have duty under section 11 of the Children Act 2004 to ensure their functions are discharged with regard to the need to safeguard and promote the welfare of children.
Aims – are general school statement concerning the overall goals, long term vision, expectation and achievements, where this is mainly used in an educational context for curriculum lesson and activity planning. This will usually be set by the head teacher in collaboration with parents, staff and the community.
School Aims and Objectives
- To provide a caring atmosphere in which children and young people can develop their skills and abilities in all curriculum area and fulfill their potential
- To ensure that staff and children will be able to participate in every aspect of school life, within the school community, whatever their needs and abilities
- To foster an environment in children and staff have high self-esteem and the confidence to achieve the highest standards
- To harness children and young people’s natural curiosity, encouraging a lifelong thirst for learning
- To stimulate the children to develop enquiring minds and the confidence to pose questions and discuss ideas rationally
- To help the children to understand that learning is an exciting challenge, part of which is taking risks and learning from mistakes
- To encourage the children to take a pride in their achievements and appreciate the value of hard work
- To promote an understanding of and care for the environment both within the school and outside world
- To encourage children and staff to have the confidence to gasp opportunities afforded by new technologies
- To encourage parents to become partners in their child’s education and support the school’s focus on expected standards of behavior
- To enrich the children and young people’s knowledge and understanding of the diversity of the world we live in and develop a respect for other cultures, races and religions1.
Values – is something you can strive to achieve to make a school/society a better place to grow in. In short values in a school is leading direction to the head, the teachers, school governors and the majority of the parents wish to see their children achieve and strive towards the external world. The values of school are based on the moral code which will inform its development. Core values are at the heart of many communities and their belief systems.
How people usually view in a different way, this will include respect for self and others and are related closely to Personal, Social, Health and Economic education (PSHE) and citizenship education. Also they are tied in with the school rules and if the school is a church school, this will be closely linked in with its values.
- http://www. bbc. co. uk/schools/parents/types_of_schools/ (Assessed on 24th February 2013)
- http://resources. woodlands-junior. kent. sch. uk/customs/questions/education/schools. html#prim (Assessed on 24th February 2013)
- http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Education_in_England#Primary_and_secondary_education (Assessed on 25th February 2013)
- http://www. bridgend. gov. uk/web/groups/public/documents/services/015550. hcsp (Assessed on 1st March 2013)
- http://www. take2theweb. com/pub/southayr/edpsychology/ce. html (Assessed on 2nd March 2013)
- http://www.nfer.ac.uk/nfer/publications/PCOX01/PCOX01_home.cfm?publicationID=603&title=Police%20officers%20in%20schools:%20a%20scoping%20study (Assessed on 2nd March 2013)
Cite this Describe with Examples How Schools May Demonstrate and Uphold Their Aims
Describe with Examples How Schools May Demonstrate and Uphold Their Aims. (2016, Nov 10). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/describe-with-examples-how-schools-may-demonstrate-and-uphold-their-aims/