This study is about the environmental impact appraisal ( EIA ) for the rating and consideration of constructing a new airdrome for Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to replace the bing Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport Kuala Lumpur. The proposed new Kuala Lumpur International Airport is in Sepang, Selangor.
This study is prepared by adviser group from Syaszee & A ; Co. appointed by the authorities for transporting out surveies on the EIA for new airdrome undertakings in Malaysia.The study is following the Malayan Government EIA guidelines and methodological analysiss as described in the Environmental Assessment Requirements and Environmental Review Procedures of the Asian Development Bank ( 1993 ) and Environmental Guidelines for Selected Infrastructure Projects ( 1990 ) . The readying of this study consist of assorted treatment with the stakeholders, academicians, local authorities, policy shaper and private advisers to give sentiment and overview sing the impact and viability of this new airdrome undertaking.
Undertaking definition is elaborate description about the proposed undertaking. It describes the bing airdrome installations and its operation along with the proposed building of new installations and the programs for operation following the building of the new installations that are needed for the convenient of the users. The proposed installations must run into the criterion of the international airdrome demand and can suit more aircraft at the airdrome.The undertaking was reviewed against applicable legal demands and authorities policy imposed to the development of new airdrome in Kuala Lumpur.
The consequences are eventually used to place the impacts and any farther appraisals that need to take into consideration before proceed with the undertaking.The appropriate organisations and persons should been interviewed to place environmental impacts. They were requested to place any issues or concerns with the undertaking, place appropriate criterions and place farther parties for audience. For illustration, representatives from assorted section and bureaus such as Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Information, Communication and Culture, Ministry of Works and Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water and Town Planning Department and Airport Authority.
The development of new airdrome fundamentally already sketch in the long term National Plan. The programs outlines things need to be see including the environmental effects and impacts to the society. Besides that, the airdrome undertaking is already assigned to the several Ministry to name contractors responsible for constructing this mega undertaking. All the program lineations and progress study should be handled to the several Ministry which is Ministry of Works and Ministry of Transport.
Besides that, the contractor will be required to develop and implement an environmental direction program ( EMP ) in conformity with contract paperss to guarantee the extenuation outlined in this EIA is performed. An independent environmental adviser will be retained to execute regular site monitoring to guarantee conformity with the contractor ‘s EMP and this EIA. Reports should be submitted to the monitoring commission set by the Government every month throughout the building period.Once the undertaking is completed, a public meeting will be held and advertised in local newspapers.
Questions raised and the responses are welcome while the undertaking os being evaluated by the authorization or authorities.The Malayan EIA processs are comparable to the National Environmental Policy Act 1969 ( NEPA ) theoretical account in the United States. The Environmental Quality ( Prescribed Activities ) ( Environmental Impact Assessment ) Order 1987 was gazetted as a undertaking be aftering tool for new undertakings or the enlargement of bing 1s. Section 34A of the Environmental Quality ( Amendment ) Act 1985 requires anyone who intends to set about a prescribed activity to first carry on a survey to measure the likely environmental impacts that will happen from that activity and the mitigating measures that demand to be undertaken.
The Environmental Quality ( Prescribed Activities ) ( EIA ) Order 1987 specifies some 19 classs of activities necessitating EIA studies prior to execution. The EIA process is shown in Figure 1. The undertaking instigator will order the activities that will be carried out during the building of new Kuala Lumpur International Airport. Once it is completed, the study will be measuring by the several section before send to the Department of Environment ( DOE ) for farther reviewing.
If the DOE still necessitate farther information sing the undertaking, they will name for farther appraisal before proceed to the panels. After reexamining the study, if the panel satisfied with the study, they will bespeak for elaborate study which consists all the inside informations about the airdrome undertaking before the study is send to the O.K.ing authorization.
Once the Authority is satisfied and the authorities besides satisfied, therefore the undertaking will be initiated by the several contractors.
Malaysia is one of the celebrated finishs to visits around the universe. With the rapid economic growing and enlargement of good installations and besides substructure has attracted many visitants and investors came to Malaysia. Harmonizing to the Immigration Department of Malaysia, from January to November 2009 it is recorded that 25,575,774 aliens had came to Malaysia.
From January to June 2010 it is recorded that 11,868,103 visitants compared to the same period in 2009 which recorded merely 11,346,444 people.As the figure of visitants shows an increasing tendency every twelvemonth, therefore it is the right clip for Malaysia to construct new airdrome which can suit more air trade all over the universe in order to fit with the demand and figure of visitants came to Malaysia. As the undertaking instigator, this paper will give appropriate guidelines that need to take into history before airdrome undertaking can be taken off. All facets and sentiments from the authorities and populaces are needed before the new airdrome can be built.
Therefore, this study will discourse about the background, security steps and environmental impacts for the development of the new Kuala Lumpur International Airport.The intent of this Environmental Impact Assessment Report as an rating and consideration of Malayan authorities for the development of New Kuala Lumpur International Airport to replace the bing Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport Kuala Lumpur. Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport Kuala Lumpur is located in Subang Jaya which is 17.2 kilometer from the Kuala Lumpur City.
The airdrome started the operation on August 30, 1965. It had the longest track with 3.7A kilometers long, 45m broad and runway 15 – 33 in the Southeast Asia. The airdrome fundamentally had three terminuss which are Terminal 1 for international flights, Terminal 2 for Singapore – KL shuttle flights by Singapore Airlines and Malaysia Airlines, and Terminal 3 for domestic flights.
By the terminal of 1997, Subang Airport handled 15.8 million riders.KLIA is proposed to develop in the country which is situated in Sepang, in the south country of province of Selangor. The proposed site crossing about 100A km2 and it is built on a piece of agricultural land owned by the Government.
The edifice of the new airdrome is already highlighted in 10th Malaysia Plan. The cost of edifice of the new airdrome is about RM8.5 billion or US $ 3.5 billion.
It is expected that the new Kuala Lumpur International Airport ( KLIA ) can manage 35 million riders and 1.2 metric tons of lading a twelvemonth and this figure is expected to increase in the hereafter. Besides that, the broad country can suit and manage more international aircraft. The new airdrome or Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Sepang is strategically located to function the demand of people from the Klang Valley, Shah Alam, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor and Perak.
Besides that, the development of Multimedia Super Corridor with the new township country such as Cyberjaya and Putrajaya as the Government ‘s Office Centre will promote more riders utilizing the installations in the KLIA in Sepang. In order to better the quality of services to pull more people utilizing the KLIA, high velocity train will be used for transporting riders from KL Sentral to KLIA in more easier and convenient manner. It is hopes with the proper program and execution of the development of new airdrome will promote more people used the installations in the new airdrome.Local and foreign expertness will be responsible for the development of new airdrome for Kuala Lumpur.
The maestro program of Kuala Lumpur International Airport involves building five tracks and two terminuss accompanied by two orbiter terminuss. Phase One of the development includes building of one chief terminus accompanied by one orbiter terminus to suit 25 million riders and double full service tracks.Under the execution of Phase One, sixty contact wharfs, 20 remote parking bays with 80 aircraft parking places, four care airdocks and fire Stationss will be built. Execution of stage two and three will be enlargements of the airdrome to include increasing figure of riders.
As all three stages is completed, it is expected that the airdrome can manage 100 million riders per annum.Harmonizing to the Environmental, Health and Safety ( EHS ) Guidelines green goods by International Finance Corporation from World Bank group, all undertakings that need to develop are required to follow these guidelines harmonizing to the policies and criterions set by the organisation. For the intent of develop an airdrome undertaking, the undermentioned environmental steps should taken into consideration. Noise can be important during the building and development of the airdrome undertaking.
A widely used criterion for mensurating the noise is for LA10, the A-weighted degree in dBs that is exceeded for 10 % of the clip. The noise measures standard normally relate to the impact on human being. Therefore, the most important beginnings of noise and quivers from airdrome operations are aircraft during the landing and takeoff ( LTO ) rhythms.The noise besides can come from land operations equipment including aircraft taxiing, operation of land support vehicles for illustration rider coachs, nomadic sofas, fuel trucks, aircraft jerks, aircraft and luggage tractors, aircraft subsidiary power units ( APUs ) and aircraft engine proving activities in airdromes with aircraft care activities.
Other indirect beginnings of noise include land vehicle traffic from entree roads taking to the airdrome. Another beginning of pollution that is expected from the development of new airdrome is from the air. This pollution include burning fumes from aircraft during landing and takeoff and land operation, from land service vehicles, bluess from fuel storage and handling and emanations from local land transit activities serving the airdrome. Other beginnings of emanations may include fuel burning during fire preparation activities, burning emanations from on-site electricity and heat coevals systems and emanations from solid waste incineration activities.
Other preventative steps in cut downing the pollution, wastewaters from rhe airdrome besides need to be control. The wastewaters from airdrome operations fundamentally consist of stormwater overflow from paved surfaces and healthful effluent from public and employee services and from aeroplanes. This state of affairs happened can be associated with leaks and spills of oil, Diesel, and jet fuels during operation and care of land service vehicles, and fuel storage and handling aircraft activities. The operations of any airdrome in the universe will be confronting with unsafe points or easy contaminated.
These includes the storage and handling of fuels such as jet fuel, Diesel, and gasolene chiefly associated with aircraft fueling activities every bit good as with land support vehicles. Fuels may be stored in aboveground or belowground storage armored combat vehicles and conveyed to distributing locations via aboveground or belowground shrieking systems that may be capable to inadvertent releases during transportation or leaks due to tank and shrieking containment failure.Hazardous stuffs which are unsafe to human wellness and environment should be managed expeditiously in order to forestall inadvertent releases, fire, or detonations. Training in managing with the risky waste should be carried out more frequent as the readying if something happened.
The cognition about the chemicals handling is a must for the operators.Basically, an International Airport will have different types of aircraft landed in the airdrome. All these aircraft will bring forth waste that need to be handled by the airdrome operators. For case, riders in the commercial airdromes may bring forth solid, nonhazardous, waste nutrient from nutrient constitutions, boxing stuffs from retail installations, and paper, newspaper, and a assortment of disposable nutrient containers from offices and common rider countries.
Food waste from international flights is considered a potentially infective stuff by some national legal powers. Some air hoses may besides dispose of pillows following the completion of every flight. Airport operations may besides bring forth liquid or solid risky wastes such as used lubricating oils and dissolvers from aircraft and land service vehicle care.Recommended waste direction schemes include:Promote a recycling plan or usage biodegradable stuffs that will be dispose easy particularly nutrient container, plastic bags and so forth.
Besides that the nutrient waste can be use as agricultural fertiliser and animate being provender.Airline crew members and cleaning operators can segregate all the waste by dividing the aggregation through recycle plan harmonizing to the features such as documents, plastic and metallic container. Used pillows besides can be recycled.The cleanliness and hygiene of nutrient readying is a must to avoid diseases.
Food providing waste should be managed harmonizing to the regulations and ordinance set by the wellness organisation in order to protect human being.The operation of the airdrome may necessitate important degrees of energy for running the machines, airing, infinite chilling and warming in terminuss, illuming and the operation of baggage conveyance systems. Water ingestion may depend on the types of rider and aeroplane care services offered and may include the operation of healthful installations for big Numberss of pass throughing riders or cleaning activities in general. Recommended schemes and methods for energy and H2O preservation are presented in the General EHS Guidelines.
Finally, before the building of new Kuala Lumpur International Airport started, we besides have to look at the cost benefit analysis.First, is to place and take into consideration of all geographical impacts of the undertaking without restriction of the environing countries. We have to see the impact to the local community, other local community within the same province and eventually other provinces in the state as describe in the figure below.It is expected by the development of new airdrome will give economic return to the state.
By promoting more investors and tourers throughout the universe semen to Malaysia, it is belief it will increase the demand for local industries particularly in hotel and resorts, eating houses and so away as the new interesting topographic point to see. A big postion of investing is required to develop this airdrome. Therefore, the border rate of return besides should be high.The new airdrome besides will give economic benefit to the state.
Harmonizing to economic analyst, the major benefits will be ( I ) incremental net visitant outgos, ( two ) clip nest eggs of riders, and ( three ) the value of foregone rider and lading traffic. Besides that, the cost nest eggs in domestic aircraft operation and clip landed in the airdrome will besides included in the analysis.The allotment of the undertaking cost will be approved by the authorities. This cost should include ( one ) civil plants, ( two ) building, ( three ) equipment and its installing, and ( four ) confer withing technology design and supervising.
Besides that, the suspension cost besides should take into consideration in order to cut down the pollution which will harm the community and human existences.During the building period, the monitoring procedure should be required in order to do certain that the building of the airdrome is harmonizing to the agenda and the quality of the edifice is harmonizing to the universe criterion. Therefore, it will incur some cost that should be borne by the contractor. The minor cost of the equipment required for supervising environmental impacts is besides included in the undertaking cost.
The building of the new airdrome besides will bring forth the non quantified environmental impacts from airdrome development and increased other development off-site, including noise pollution, air pollution, and surface H2O pollution, were considered fringy, and extra economic appraisal. Therefore, as mentioned earlier, the suspension cost besides should be included in the undertaking cost.As a decision, the development of new Kuala Lumpur International Airport is one of the mega undertakings that authorities should originate. Supports from all are needed in order to do certain that the undertaking execution is successful.
However, assorted facets particularly in the environmental impacts need to be considered before the undertakings can be proceed. With the development of new airdrome in Kuala Lumpur it is expected that it will give more benefits to the state in regard of diplomatic relationship, economic betterment and rapid growing in all facets of economic system.