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Precast System In Malaysia Construction Industry Construction

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    The universe has presently been alarmed with the issue of environment and sustainability, and so the building industry has invariably been worried by the increasing cost of constructing care and lifecycle issues. Therefore, in the last decennary, IBS was promoted to heighten the importance of prefabrication engineering instead than conventional method. Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) can be defined as a building system in which constituents or elements of the construction such as column, beam, slab etc are manufactured in mills, on or off site, transported, positioned, assembled and constructed into construction with minimum extra site work. Malayan authorities has adopted the IBS since 1960ss and underwent great attempts in this field ( Thanoon et. Al. 2003 ) . The early effort to use IBS in Malaysia was the two pilot undertakings, the first undertaking was Pekeliling Flats in Kuala Lumpur in 1964 and this undertaking was undertaken by Gammon/ Larsen Nielsen utilizing the Danish System of big panels in a pre-fabricated system. The 2nd undertaking was Taman Tun Sardon undertaking, Gelugor, Penang in 1965 and this undertaking was awarded to Hochtief/ Chee Seng utilizing Gallic Estoit System ( Din 1984 ) . In Malaysia, Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB ) has classified the IBS system into 5 classs as Pre-cast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box Systems, Formwork Systems, Steel Framing Systems, Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems and Block Work Systems. The advantages used of IBS such as the decrease foreign workers, less wastage, less volume of edifice stuffs, increased environmental and building site cleanliness and better quality control etc. therefore these advantages besides enhanced a safe and more organized building site, and cut down the completion clip of building. Unfortunately, the acceptance of precast system in IBS still low in current province of Malaysia building industry.

    1.2 Problem Statement

    Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) was good known in many developing states as it provides high degree quality building, more cost competitory, quickly increases building period, reduces dependance on foreign labor, reduces wastage environmental-friendly and maintains cleanliness at building sites. The Government ‘s IBS Roadmap 2011 to 2015 will increase the bing IBS content to 50 per cent in the private sector Malaysia. Till now, the use of IBS content in the private sector is less than 10 per cent. The roadmap besides plans to prolong the bing impulse of 70 per cent IBS content for the public sector. IBS Survey 2010 highlighted that the usage of system formwork such as metal, aluminum, fictile etc. gained its popularity late due to its flexibleness, because it can be used in many undertakings, reclaimable at many stage of building and can be used in different types of design construction. System formwork is non dependent on economic system of graduated table and commercially viability ( Kamar et al, 2011 ) . However, the precast system plays a important function in IBS, but the usage of precast system still low. What is the perceptual experience and consciousness to the acceptance of precast system in Malaysia? What are the jobs in the execution of precast system? The quality of precast system is adequate sustainable? Precast system inflexible to alter?

    1.3 Aim and Aims

    The purpose of the survey is to analysis the execution of precast system in current provinces Malaysia building industry. To accomplish this purpose, the following aims have been identified:

    To find the benefits of acceptance of precast system.

    To place the jobs on acceptance of precast system.

    To find the factors affect the standardized of precast design

    1.4 Hypothesis

    Adoption of precast system can provides high degree quality building, more cost competitory, quickly increases building period, reduces dependance on foreign labour, reduces wastage environmental-friendly and maintains cleanliness at building sites.

    1.5 Scope of Study

    The range of survey will concentrate on the precast system of IBS merely.

    Data aggregation will carry on in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor merely.

    1.6 Research Methodology


    100 questionnaires will direct by mail or station to developer companies, adviser patterns, contractor companies and makers in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor.

    The design of study questionnaire includes several procedures such as literature reappraisal on study and IBS ( precast system ) itself. It is of import to heighten cognition in study method. The inquiries provide chiefly quantitative informations, and are often used in collateral research. In finding the aim of this research, close-ended inquiry was widely used as it could supply the reply in a scale format.


    Follow up interviews besides were used in this research as a verification or to add more information on IBS ( precast system ) from the respondents.

    Chapter 2


    2.1 Definition of Industrialised Building System

    In Malaysia building sector, Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) is defined as building system which constituents are manufactured in mills, on or off site, transported, positioned and assembled into construction with minimum extra site work ( IBS Survey CIDB, 2003 ) .

    IBS besides defined as which all edifice constituents such as floor slab, column, wall, stairway and beam are mass produced either in mills or at site with good quality control and cut down on site activities ( Trikha, 1999 ) .

    Warswaski ( 1999 ) asserted that an industrialization procedure is an investing in equipment, installations, and engineering with the aim of maximizing production end product, understating labour resource, and bettering quality while a edifice system is defined as a set of interrelated component that joint together to enable the designated public presentation of a edifice.

    An IBS is a continuum get downing from using craftsmen for every facet of building to a system that make usage of fabricating production in order to minimise resource wastage and enhance value for terminal users ( Esa and Nuruddin, 1998 ) .

    Lessing et Al, ( 2005 ) defined IBS as an incorporate fabrication and building procedure with good planned organisation for efficient direction, readying and control over resources used, activities and consequences supported by the used of extremely developed constituents.

    2.2 History of Industrialised Building System

    Presents, the execution of Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) is non new and non merely occurs in Malaysia building industry. The history of utilizing IBS started in the United Kingdom lodging industry on the mid of 1900 & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s, when IBS and other types of prefabricated building system or technique were used to work out the deficit of houses due to the job of widespread devastation of lodging stock during the Second World War. The attending and acceptance of IBS were acquiring more concerned in building sector after the Second World War due to the demand to rapidly work out the critical deficit of houses.

    In Malaysia, the acceptance of IBS began in early 1960s when Ministry of Housing and Local Government of Malaysia visited several European states and evaluated their lodging development plan ( Thanoon et al, 2003 ) . In twelvemonth 1964, our authorities had launched 2 pilot undertakings by utilizing IBS. The first pilot undertakings with acceptance of IBS in Malaysia was constructed on 22.7 estates of land along Jalan Pekeliling which included the building of 7 blocks of 17 floor flats, and 4 blocks of 4-storey flats consisting about 3,000 units of low cost flats and 40 floor store tonss. The first pilot undertaking was awarded to the Gammon/ Larsen Nielsen by utilizing the Danish System of big panels in a pre-fabricated system. Afterwards, the authorities of Malaysia had launched the 2nd undertaking, a six block of 17-storey flats and three blocks of 18-storey flats at Jalan Rifle Range. This undertaking was awarded to the Hochtief/ Chee Seng by utilizing the Gallic Estoit System ( Din, 1984 ) .

    A public presentation of comparing in term of cost, quality and productiveness has been carried out between IBS and conventional building method by mentioning on the two pilot undertaking launched by our authorities. From the comparing in term of cost, it invented that the first pilot undertaking was 8.1 % higher meanwhile the 2nd pilot undertaking was 2.6 % lower than by utilizing conventional system for a similar type of edifice or undertaking. For productiveness or clip frame, both undertakings required 27 months to finish, while include of the clip needed to put up the rewording mills. In term of quality, the quality of both pilot undertakings was discovered good and better than the conventional building method. From the public presentation of comparing of both pilot undertakings, it showed that the challenger between the IBS and the conventional building method.

    Today in the Malaysia building industry, complete undertakings use of IBS is bit by bit increasing nevertheless it & amp ; acirc ; ˆ™s still decelerate and non satisfied as prediction particularly in private sector. Although, the Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB ) has been actively advancing and promoting the execution of IBS since a decennary. In twelvemonth 2003, the Cabinet Minister has approved the IBS Roadmap 2003 to 2010 with one of the cardinal elements is to is to implement the use of IBS content for 30 % for any authorities edifice undertaking in 2004 and bit by bit increasing this to 50 % in 2006 and 70 % in 2008. Afterwards, The Government ‘s Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) Roadmap 2011 to 2015 has approved which will replace the IBS Roadmap 2003 to 2010 and this new IBS Roadmap will more pay attending on the acceptance of IBS in private sector edifice undertaking. The chief end of the new IBS Roadmap is to increase the bing use of IBS content to 50 % in the private sector edifice undertaking boulder clay 2015 in Malaysia building sector which till now the acceptance of IBS content in the private sector is less than 10 % . The IBS roadmap 2011 to 2015 besides plans to prolong the bing impulse of 70 % IBS content for the authorities edifice undertaking boulder clay 2015.

    2.3 Categorization of Industrialised Building System

    Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) is building system or technique which constituents are aggregate manufactured in mills whether on or off site with good quality control, transported to piece into construction so that can cut down the site activities. There are five chief types or groups indentified and classified by Construction Industry Development Board ( CIDB ) are used in Malaysia building industry ( CIDB 2003 ) : –

    Pre-cast concrete framing, panel and box system are the most ordinary type of Industrialised Building System ( IBS ) among other types in Malaysia building industry. The elements are columns, walls, beams, floor slabs, 3D elements such as lift Chamberss, stairwaies, lavatories and balconies, lasting concrete formwork etc. These elements or constituents are produced or manufactured in mills with good quality control and so transported to site for install or assembly.

    Steel formwork system are the most popular group which can to be used in assorted types of design structural and many stage of building in our industry because of its flexibleness and reclaimable. Besides that, steel formwork system is easier for used and installing among other groups and offer a high quality coating. It suited applied in tunnel signifiers, columns and beam molding signifiers and lasting steel formworks.

    The elements of steel framing system are steel beams and columns, roof trusses and portal frames which usually used together with precast beams, column and floor slabs. In add-on, this system is suited for clip effectual and skyscraper building undertaking.

    Prefabricated lumber bordering system is usually adopted as lumber frames, and roof trusses of a edifice. This system ever has been used extensively in western states lodging developments. Furthermore, it offers a unique and interesting design while the rate of lumbers is bit by bit increasing in presents.

    Nowadays, many of development edifice undertakings are used block work system such as meshing concrete masonry units ( CMU ) and lightweight concrete blocks. The component of block work systems usually used as bricks in constructions and meshing concrete block paving.

    2.4 Precast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box System

    2.4.1 Introduction

    Precast concrete can specify as elements or constituents are cured and manufactured in mills or works environments with high quality control and so transported to site for installing and assembled into construction. The use of precast system in Malaysia building sector is non new, particularly for rapid building undertaking with high truth, productiveness and quality such as schools, infirmaries, Light Rail Transit ( LRT ) , Mass Rapid Transit ( MRT ) , flats, drain substructures etc. However, the application of precast concrete system still low as calculating while authorities was actively advancing it. The industry chooses to utilize the conventional building method and disregard the benefits of utilizing precast system. The most common types of precast concrete system structural elements in pattern: –

    Precast Slab

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