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International Airport On The Island Of Chek Lap Construction

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    Located in the dumbly built up Kowloon City territory, Kai Tak has small enlargement range due to miss of available country. It is one of the busiest airdromes and requires immediate enlargement as it exceeds its rider and lading handling capablenesss taking to holds due to miss of infinite for aircrafts and being limited to merely one track. With big substructure being built in the Centre of the metropolis, the people of Hong Kong face terrible hazards in footings of bad lucks or accidents. This undertaking is required because:

    1. To pull off the day-to-day rider and lading demands of one of the universe ‘s largest economic metropoliss. ( mean i? 750 takeoffs per twenty-four hours, 3.5 million metric tons of lading per twelvemonth )
    2. To take limitation of  “lone twenty-four hours flights ” that bind Kai Tak airdrome due to resound pollution, because of which dark clip flights are restricted.
    3. To let range of farther enlargement in the hereafter as economic system and population grows.
    4. To cut down clip taken to go to the airdrome due to high congestion and traffic.
    5. To guarantee safety of citizens every bit good as aircraft and riders presently at hazard because of location and track length of Kai Tak airdrome.

    Undertaking Requirements

    This undertaking requires: Joining of Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau by make fulling in clay in the 2.4 kilometers broad spread and flattening it for building of airdrome and terminus. Construct a 35km transit web including 2 tunnels, 2 Bridgess and expresswaies. A 3rd submerged tunnel to be built out of Hong Kong Island linking the mainland, to cut down congestion. New main road linking cardinal Hong Kong to burrow to be built above bing main roads for easier connectivity.

    Construct a high velocity railroad conveyance system. Station to be built by widening land through landfill out on H2O. Mainland and North Lantao island to be connected by a suspension span with two 700 pess support towers and 1 metre diameter overseas telegrams. Extend incline of mountain to make infinite and stable land for main road building by landfill.

    Secure foundation of airdrome terminus by driving hemorrhoids and construct universe ‘s largest terminus, ATC Centre and a lading cargo Centre. Construct World category airdrome with 2 tracks: 3800m X 60m  one class 2 and another class 3A on the outskirts of Hong Kong World ‘s largest individual terminus ( Terminal 1 ). 1.3 kilometers in length, 560,000 square metres in country with 8 narratives designed to defy typhoons and other natural complaints. 59 frontal, 27 remote and 34 lading bases for docking.

    State of the art Air Traffic Control with an 84 metre tower and 9 fuel armored combat vehicles capable of keeping 180 billion liters of fuel. World ‘s Largest Air Freight Centre and providing houses and central offices of Airport Authority of Hong Kong and Cathay Pacific. Patrons for fiscal aid and advice – estimated costs $ 20 billion.

    Land – reclaimed land between 2 islands – Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau ; landfill to make an island big plenty to house the undertaking. Increase land country from 302 hectares to 938 hectares. Transportation corridor from bosom of Hong Kong Island to the airdrome ; 34 kilometer in length integrating a high velocity rail system, building of 2 Bridgess ( one universe ‘s largest dual Dekker suspension span at 2.5km length ) , 2 tunnels and a six lane freeway.

    Stakeholders

    • Hong Kong/British Government – 23-hk-airport.jpg
    • BCJ JV ( British Chinese Japanese Joint Venture: comprises of AMEC international building, Balfour Beatty Construction, China State Engineering Corporation, Kumagai Gumi and Maeda Corporation )
    • Patrons – for Financing and puting in the $ 20billion undertaking
    • Aviation Authority of Hong Kong – to counter hazard and run better from the new installation
    • Chinese Government ( Later phases ) – in instance undertaking could n’t be completed in stipulated clip
    • Airline Companies – to halt holds and operate at dark to cut down costs
    • Passengers – to halt holds and to let travel at dark
    • Logistics/Cargo Carriers – For larger lading cargos and decreased costs from less holds

    Companies involved in undertaking: Airport Authority of Hong Kong, BAA Plc, Balfour Beatty Major Projects, Bank of America NA, BMCE Bank, British Energy Generation Ltd, British, Trade International, Capital and United Kingdom, CMS Cameron McKenna, Costain Group, CSE International, David W Myles, Defence Procurement Agency, Denton Wilde Sapte, Freshfields, Bruckhaus Deringer, Halcrow Linklaters & A ; Alliance, MEPC, Mott MacDonald, National Air Traffic Services, PA Consulting Group, PLC Consultants, Thames Water Utilities Ltd, The Institution of Civil Engineers, The Underwriter Insurance Company, Union Railways, WS Atkins Consulting Ltd

    Undertaking Team:

    • Douglas Oakervee – Airport Authority Project Director
    • Russell Black – Mass Transit Railway Project Director
    • Multiple Project directors for each undertaking looking at work sections
    • A immense undertaking force of representing contractors, bomber contractors, workers, applied scientists and designers for each undertaking for unit of ammunition the clock building.
    • Besides required a undertaking force of explosive experts, surveyors, deep sea frogmans and mountain climbers for accessory work to assist set up airdrome and path to it.

    Time Frame:

    • To be started in September 1991, with an estimated completion clip of 7 old ages for all undertakings tentative handover to Airport Authority of Hong Kong in June, 1997 ( Actual handover day of the month July, 1998 )
    • 5 old ages for completion of span
    • 2 old ages for completion of tunnel
    • 5 old ages for completion of main road system.

    Approving Authority:

    • Airport Authority of Hong Kong ( AAHK ) & A ; Project Director for each person undertaking
    • Undertaking Directors for each undertaking undertaken
    • Change Management: All alteration petitions will be documented, submitted to, and assessed by the Project Manager for analysis of impact and undertaking necessity prior to blessing. If alteration is approved, the undertaking agenda, range, and budget will be updated consequently and communicated to appropriate stakeholders. Then PM/project squad will pass on the sanctioned alteration and updated agenda to the staff/contractor responsible for implementing the alteration.

    Constraints:

    1. First undertaking built at such a big graduated table
    2. Political hazard of handover to Chinese authorities, therefore hindering any work
    3. Removing hills and making landfill for the spread between the islands in short period of clip – Universes biggest land traveling exercising
    4. Sea Floor uncluttering for stable land for landfill exercising of Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau
    5. Finding a manner out of Victoria seaport. Existing tunnels cramped and congested. Deep submerged tunnel ( around 50 meters ) needed to be created to link Hong Kong Island to mainland.
    6. New main road needs to be built above the bing main roads ; merely at dark because of traffic connectivity to bing airdrome could non be restricted.
    7. Long spread between North Lantao Island and mainland needed to be covered. Underwater tunnel can non be constructed, chiefly due to depth and heavy transportation traffic, doing safety concerns. Bridging the spread with a simple span could non be done because of environmental hazards.
    8. New rail theodolite system needs to be created ; new island for station to be build on manmade island at sea because of deficiency of infinite on Hong Kong Island.
    9. Highway way along seashore line consisted of steep inclines, demands landfill for main road building.
    10. Construction of universe ‘s largest air terminal base needs to be bolted down with hemorrhoids to avoid harm by nature ; typhoons, hurricanes etc. Roofing for big country besides a concern.

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