Self-esteem is often seen as a personality trait, which means that it tends to e sTABLE and enduring. Bullying can give a big impact on the student’s self- esteem. Some people feel good while teasing anybody and the people who have to face this problem gets afraid of going to the place where they encounter this issue. Individuals’ sense of their own self-worth is often bound up in the quality of their relationships with others so that signs of rejection can threaten self-esteem (Leary’ & Bandmaster, 2000).
According to Taylor, Appeal and Sears (2006), people with high-self-esteem have a clear sense of their own personal qualities. They think well of themselves, set appropriate alls, use feedback in a self-enhancing manner, their positive experiences and cope successfully with difficult situations. People with low self-esteem also tend to have more adverse emotional and behavioral reactions to criticism.
These individuals are less likely to generate positive feedback for themselves, are more concerned about their social impact on other people and are more vulnerTABLE to depression or rumination when they encounter setbacks or stress (Tailored, 2006). From the rapidly growing literature on bullying, it is increasingly recognized that peer relationship problems as manifested in being bullied are associated with low self-esteem. However, the literature on self-esteem in relation to children who bully others is controversial.
This study aims to elucidate further our understanding of the relationship between self-esteem and bullying in students. This will be conducted through the use of questionnaires that will identify the student’s level of self-esteem who experienced bullying. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY According to some findings, the existence of bullying in schools has become a worldwide phenomenon and a problem that can create negative impacts for the general school atmosphere and for the rights of students to learn in a safe environment without fear.
Bullying can also have negative lifelong consequences both for students who bully and for their victims. Although formal research as well as intervention programs to prevent bullying have been taking place for decades in some developed countries, the problems associated with bullying have been also discussed all over the world wherever formal schooling environments exist. Several general types of bullying have been identified in the literature (e. G. , Donahue, 2004; Owlets, 1993).
Among these are (a) Direct Bullying: Behaviors such as teasing, taunting, threatening, hitting, and stealing that are initiated by one of more bullies against a victim; (b) Verbal Bullying: Taunting teasing, name calling, spreading rumors; (c) Physical Bullying: Hitting, kicking, destroying property, enlisting a friend to assault someone for you; (d) Verbal (Non-physical) Bullying: Threatening or obscene gestures, excluding others from a group, manipulating friendships, sending threatening E-mail; (e) Sexual Harassment: A form of bullying in which the intent is to demean, embarrass, humiliate, or intro another person on the basis of gender or sexual orientation. Bullying is present in most schools in the country and has been reported to impact (to some extent) as many as 70% of students (Canter, 2005). Students of all ages and grade levels may experience the problems that bullying creates (Acre, 2001; Roberts, 1988). It is all too often symptomatic of the aggressive way in which young people interact with each other in our society (Mellon et al. , 1998). Every school should recognize the extent of bullying and take steps to stop it. When bullying is ignored or downplayed, students suffer ongoing torment and harassment.
It has been shown that bullying has a negative effect on the development of positive self-esteem in the victims (Bolton & Smith, 1 994); victims Of bullying regard themselves as responsible for what is happening to them. This attitude affects their concentration and learning (Sharp & Smith, 1994). In addition, some children experience stress- related symptoms (e. G. Headaches, nightmares) and even school phobia (Sharp & Smith, 1994). In the long term, some children continue to present low self-esteem and depression (Losses, 1993) or even commit suicide (Sleep, 1994). A study done by Ruth Yosemite Errol and Lurch Roth (201 1) from the University of Basel examined the development of self-esteem in adolescence and young adulthood.
The aim of the study was to determine the trajectory of self-esteem development; as in when does self-esteem development occur in life and in what direction. Another aspect of the study was to discover potential modifiers to individual differences in self-esteem development after recording trajectories. It was expected that self-esteem development would contain joyously increase during adolescence and young adulthood as per previous studies’ results Because of the represented effects above, the researchers decided to focus more on the most common problems in our school. The researchers conducted this study in San Pedro College Basic Education. This study aims to know if bullying has really an impact to student’s level of self-esteem.
The purpose of this study is to provide awareness to the institution and to the students of what will be the impact of bullying on one’s self-esteem. This study aims to contribute in further understanding of bullying in relationship with self-esteem. Theoretical Framework With reference to social psychological theories such as symbolic interaction’s (Blamer, 1969; Sharon, 2007), theory’ of social representations (Microscopic, 2001 a, Bibb; Philip©en & Addax, 2001), and social cognition approach (Crick & Dodge, 1 994; Dodge, Coke, & Lyman, 2006; Fiske & Taylor, 2008), how people define situations and interpret other participation’s influences their own behavior in social situations.
Any interaction, between individuals as well as groups, presupposes social representations (I. E. , shared meanings), which enTABLE the individuals to understand the various aspects of their social reality, to make sense of the world and communicate that sense o each other. They are forms Of common-sense knowledge among groups Of people. They organize social actions and communications, and function like interpretation systems that influence how people approach the world and others. By active participation in social interactions, children incorporate and co-construct a lot of social representations on various aspects of their social life in school.
Therefore, it is urgent for school psychologists and other school personnel as well as for researchers to investigate the school children’s views and culture and investigate how they interpret, define, and explain bullying tuitions to better understand their attitudes and behavior in bullying situations. Previous research indicates that schoolchildren tend to attribute causes of bullying to the victim by interpreting him or her as deviant or different (e. G. , different appearance, behavior, clothes, or way of speaking) (Basic et al. , 2006; Buchanan & Winner, 2001; Fri.©n, Holistic, & Carson, 2008; Humans & Kankakee, 2008; Hazier & Hoover, 1993; Hoover, Oliver, & Hazier, 1992; Thrasher & Salivary, 2003; Barajas et al. , 2008). A recent study has shown that peer-perceived atypical behavior of a hill is in fact related to higher levels of social rejection and peer factorization among school children (Droopier & Mercer, 2009).
According to a survey study by Hazier and Hoover (1993), students associate causes of bullying to a great extent with different kinds of possible deviance related to the victims. Some students report that they were bullied because of how they acted, what they said, who their friends were, and their size (e. G. , . 1 just wasn’t in the in- group. ). Other reported reasons are teacher favoritism and school success as well as academic or social shortcomings (Hazier & Hoover, 1993). Conceptual Framework Level/ Intensity of Bullying Figure 1 Level of Self- Esteem Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study. The independent variTABLE in the study is bullying.
The students were tasked to take self- assessment and bullying questionnaires to comply with our dependent variTABLE which is the level of self-esteem. Statement of the Problem Bullying is becoming a worldwide problem and can occur in every school. Many cases have been reported from many countries and each has its own peculiarities, or in some cases they have similarities. However, in Philippine schools, very limited formal research of this phenomenon has been nationally and internationally documented, and of course, this leads to limited identification of cases. Thus, since this study investigates the prevalence of bullying and self-esteem among the students in San Pedro College, the major problems to be addressed in this study are: 1 .
What is the Intensity of Bullying in San Pedro College Basic Education Department? 2. What are the level of self-esteem of the students who experienced bullying? 3. Is there a significant relationship between intensity of bullying and level of self-esteem? Null Hypothesis 1 . There is no significant relationship between bullying and self-esteem. Significance of the Study This study will contribute in further understanding of bullying in relation with self-esteem. Thus, this research may benefit the students to be more aware of their actions and words. This study is needed for a better understanding of the issue to develop effective bullying prevention by the school.
Scope and Limitations This study aims to find out to what extent bullying behavior among Grade 9 students of San Pedro College Basic Education during the school year 2014-2015. Definition of Terms Bullying- is a form of aggression intended to offend, harm, or embarrass the victim. One factor of bullying is the level of self-esteem. To use superior strength or influence to intimidate (someone), typically to force him or her to do what one wants Level of Self-esteem – is used to describe a person’s overall sense of self-worth or personal value in certain assessment. It is the dependent variTABLE of the research study. Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Studies Review of Related Literature Bullying can be defined in many different ways.
Bullying may be defined as he actions of continual, aggressive behavior intended to hurt another person, physically or mentally. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person. Norwegian researcher Dan Losses says bullying occurs when a person is “exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons”. He says negative actions occur “when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways. ” Ross (2002) says that bullying and harassment are not new issues that dents and schools face.
In fact, over the years, it has been viewed as being so commonplace in schools that it has been overlooked as a threat to students and reduced to a belief that bullying is a developmental stage that most youth will experience then get over. Harris & Hawthorn (2006) stated that because adolescence is a difficult time in a child’s maturation, bullying exacerbates these difficult times by forming barriers to positive connections with other students and school faculty members. Thus, the occurrence of bullying at school often creates an obstacle for young people to develop into well-adjusted adults. High school is the last opportunity educators have to work with students at building citizenship, building character, and building self-responsibility.
For some students this may be the last opportunity for an involvement to change behaviors and attitudes associated with bullying or factorization before they become adults in the workplace, with a family and in the community at large. Losses (1 973, 1978) began extensive research on the causes and effects of bullying in Scandinavian schools and has since been a leading voice on this topic. But it is only in the last ten to fifteen years that researchers in North America have been actively studying the causes that lead to bullying, the long and short term effects it has on students, and how schools and communities can effectively reduce incidents from occurring as well as intervening and supporting students when it does.
This research is a result of the increase of school violence and the media coverage it has received. Reacting out of fear for the worst is not the best approach either, because it gives a message of fear to staff and students that school violence will be the end result if these behaviors are not taken care of. Schools have been facing and educators do deed to be aware of it, prepared for it, and actively working towards ending it; the fear of school violence should not be the only reason that schools need to watch more closely for bullying behaviors. For years, students have been experiencing power struggles, embarrassment, fear, isolation, guilt, loss of self-esteem, loss of friends.
Ross (2002) summarizes characteristics of bullies, home environments that breed bullying behaviors and possible outcomes for bullies who do not receive interventions for their behavior. She has echoed Losses’ work explaining that within the category of bully there are primarily two distinct roofs; aggressive bullies and anxious bullies. The characteristics of aggressive bullies tend to be that they are stronger than average, active, and impulsive. They use threatening behaviors or postures, can be easily provoked, and have an underlying positive attitude to violence. They may experience their world through paranoid thoughts and feelings, are skillful in avoiding blame, and feel no empathy for their victims or remorse for their actions; often perceiving their actions as less severe than how the victim perceives them.
A major difference between aggressive and anxious bullies is heir self-esteem. This group may display extreme anti-social behaviors and do not fear negative consequences making any type of intervention or counseling very difficult and ineffective. Bandanna’s (1977) Social learning theory explains the development of bullying behaviors and attitudes in the family. Learning about the environment that these children grow up in, helps to understand how the victim-bully cycle takes place. Recognizing that these children who have been labeled bullies are most likely victims of bullying as well is an important factor for more effective interventions for their behaviors.
Ross summarizes a study that was done in Finland explaining that during their adolescent years bullies are just as likely to be at risk for depression and suicide as victims and when depression is controlled it is bullies who have a higher suicide ideation, concluding they are more like victims than previously believed. According to Batches & Knob (1994) & Losses (1993) students who engage in bullying behaviors seem to have a need to feel powerful and in control. Studies indicate that bullies often come from homes where physical punishment is used, where the children are taught to strike back physically as way to handle problems, and where parental involvement and warmth are frequently lacking.
Students who regularly display bullying behaviors are generally defiant or oppositional toward adults, antisocial, and appropriate to break school rules. In contrast to prevailing myths, bullies appear to have little anxiety and to possess strong self-esteem. There is little evidence to support the contention that they victimize others because they feel bad about themselves. Students who are victims of bullying are typically fearful, insecure, careful, and suffer from low self-esteem, rarely defending homeless or reacting when confronted by students who bully them. They don’t have group of friends or not much skilful and they are often socially isolated. Victims tend to be close to their parents and may have parents who can be described as overprotective.
The major defining physical characteristic of victims is that they tend to be physically weaker than their peers–other physical characteristics such as weight, dress, nerd looks, do not appear to be significant factors that can be correlated with factorization. Harder (1993) noted that one of the most important concepts during adolescence is that of self-esteem. Collaboration with other people is important for an adolescent and plays a vital role in the development of self- esteem. Kayak & Cakes (2004), stated that self-esteem refers to a developed attitude about one’s personality and is an important factor in directing behavior throughout the various aspects of life.
Self-esteem refers to “individual’s evaluations of their own self-worth, that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent and decent” (Aaron’s, Wilson, Akers & Fear, 2001). In this respect, social support is an important factor in he formation of self-esteem during adolescence. It is also well known that the relationship of parents and peers with the adolescent supports the development of self-esteem (Hoffman, Levy-Shift & Ship, 1988; Skillfully, 2001 Coppersmith (1967) stressed that the attention an individual received from other people and the degree of acceptance and respect he or she feels play a role in self-esteem development.
The theory’ of ‘the looking glass self asserts that individuals view themselves from the perspective of others and integrate these perceptions into their existing self-concept (Cooley, 1902; Mead, 1934). This is important because the amount of perceived acceptance obtained from others may be incorporated into an individual’s personal feelings of self- worth and self-esteem (Murray, Holmes & Griffin, 2000). It can be read in the article of Massachusetts Citizens for Children Website, Prevent Child Abuse America (2002) that boys who are victimized by bullies experience such a drop in their self-esteem level that they are eight times more likely to contemplate suicide than kids who are not bullied and four times more likely than girls who experience some form of bullying.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, Health Children Magazine 2008), a child who is bullied enough can lose any sort of self-esteem or confidence she ever had. The more a bully taunts a child, the more her self- esteem suffers and the more she begins to believe that what her bully says is true. For example, if her bully tells her she’s ugly and stupid on a regular basis, her self-esteem will start to suffer and she will begin to see these negative comments as truthful. In this case, the child may withdraw from her parents and friends and, no longer attends in social events. In the article of Beverly Names, Ph. D. On the Effects of Subtle Peer Group
Bullying on Development of the Self (201 2), the intense effects of peer groups on our development of self must be recognized by those who suffer from low self-confidence and lack of self-esteem. The development of a distorted sense of self in adolescence can become the basis for persistent undervaluing of the self in the world. Expectations of rejection, humiliation, and shame can lead to the need to continuously protect oneself by limiting access to social relationships. Adults who have suffered with peer groups can be helped if they can rework the traumatic experiences of their past by gradually testing he possibility of a different reality in the present.
Related Studies Barack, K. , & Collocation’s, N. (2014) study about Cybernetic and self-esteem in Australian adults examined the prevalence of superbly typologies and their relationship with self-esteem within a convenience sample of 164 Australian young adults (72% being females; 17-25 years). Results found that the largest group identified were superbly/victims (62%), followed by individuals not involved (17%), cybernetics (11%) and cyber victims (10%) respectively. The ratio of males and females in each of the four superbly haplology was similar. Contrary to previous research, all four superbly typologies reported similar levels of self-esteem.
Memory & Skirmish’s (2001) co-relational study on 8,249 Irish adolescents indicated links between rates of bullying and esteem, where bullies garnered least self-esteem and anxiety. A separate study directed by Rugby and Sleep (1999) on bullying in adolescence revealed 48. 8% of males and 62. 5% of females who lacked self-esteem suffered more negativity following an assault. As a result, they have lesser peer involvement and suffer from refusal, triggering weakened self-esteem ND isolation from social settings, a core aspect of social anxiety. Thus, as predicted, it appears that self-esteem contributes notably to the domains of bullying as well as social anxiety.
Beat’s study in the UK during the Anti- Bullying Week of 600 people found that at least 90 percent of respondents admit to being bullied at some time in their lives, and more than 75 percent of individuals suffering from an eating disorder admit bullying is a significant cause of their disorder. Susan Ringworm, CEO of Beat, suggests the rising link between bullying and eating disorders is due to the fact that young children re more susceptible to having a negative self-esteem as a result of bullying. “We know that low self-esteem can lead to eating disorders,” said Ringworm. “And bullying of any kind lowers self-esteem. ” Recent studies indicate that 32% of youth between the ages of 12 and 18 report being bullied.