An Annotated Bibliography on the Effects of Physical Education on Self-Esteem

Table of Content

The International Journal of Academic Research published a study by Bahadir, Z. (2013) on the class management behaviors and life satisfaction of physical education teachers. The findings can be found in volume 5(4), pages 170-175. The article is available at

In Turkey, Bahadir’s article examines the classroom management of physical education teachers. The study explores multiple factors including gender, age, teaching experience, and other variables. Following an analysis of these findings, the teachers were surveyed about their level of life satisfaction. On average, they rated their life satisfaction at 25 out of 35 points.

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In 2012, a study was conducted by Mitrovic, Todorovic, and Markovic to investigate the correlation between anxiety and self-esteem in students studying sport and physical education. The results of this study were published in Research In Kinesiology, volume 40, issue 2, pages 133-139. For more information, the full article can be accessed at

The purpose of this study is to improve our comprehension of the connection between anxiety and self-esteem in psychology. Despite a definite link, it remains unclear which one has a greater influence on the other. Additionally, this study did not provide any findings regarding whether increased physical activity can decrease anxiety. Nevertheless, the authors propose that more research should be conducted on this matter. Similar to previous studies, the conclusion of this research emphasizes a significant negative correlation between anxiety and self-esteem.

The article titled “The effects of fitness testing on social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem” by Prusak III, J. E., Whitehead, J. R., Brinkert, R. H., & Eklund, R. C. (2013) was published in the Pamukkale Journal Of Sport Sciences (Vol 4(2), pp 146-157). It can be accessed at

This study aimed to assess the potential negative impacts of physical fitness tests on college-aged students, as well as express concerns regarding testing younger generations, including elementary-aged children. One notable discovery was that these tests can effectively contribute to education and motivation while not causing harm to students’ self-esteem.

The article titled “Sport history: We’re more than just the back in Back to the Future” by Wrynn (2014) can be found in the Kinesiology Review. It is available online at

Alison Wrynn uses the movie, Back to the Future, to demonstrate the significance of history in shaping the future of various domains, including physical education. She highlights the reliance on certain past works until 1970 and the extensive research conducted on the relationship between sports, politics, and the two world wars. Wrynn emphasizes the importance of cross-disciplinary scholars who can connect history and sociology with sports and physical education. She further notes that the kinesiology field already incorporates this approach.

Zhang, J. (2011). Quantitative analyses about market- and prevalence-based needs for adapted physical education teachers in the public schools in the United States. Physical Educator, 68(3), 140-149. Retrieved from

The aim of this study is to determine if there is a requirement for additional adapted physical education teachers who are specifically trained to assist individuals with disabilities. Zhang examined student-teacher ratios, the market-based needs of these teachers, and prevalence-based needs. The findings of the study demonstrate a notable deficit of these specialized instructors.

Also, around 10% of the teachers hired for adapted physical education were either unqualified or not fully certified. These findings are in line with previous research.

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An Annotated Bibliography on the Effects of Physical Education on Self-Esteem. (2023, Feb 22). Retrieved from

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