Foreign Literature About Cigarettes Smoking

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A drug has been defined as any substance that when absorbed into a living organism may modify one or more of its physiological functions. The term is generally used in reference to a substance taken for a therapeutic purpose and as well as abused substances. Drug abuse has also been defined as self-administration of drugs for non-medical reasons, in quantities and frequencies which may impart inability to function effectively and which may result in physical, social and/or emotional harm. Another author has defined it as the unspecified use of a drug other than for legitimate purposes. Using this latter definition, substances that have been abused in Kenya would include antibiotics, anti-diarrhea, laxatives and pain-relieving drugs. Why do so many students using cigarettes to under age? We all know need to be of age to use cigarettes must have aged the use of cigarettes. If minor smoking . abused the student under the age so many dying under the proper age. What should you do to avoid smoking students and How can we stop smoking student and in what way to stop smoking student? You cannot stop smoking student. No time not restricted smoking students. If we help to prevent smoking students can find a student who restrained them smoke. and conform to ever lose that cigarette in the Philippines to life. and not allow the government to use and purchase of cigarettes and none of dying early deaths student.


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Most people who become smokers start in their teens. Tobacco companies are desperate to get teens hooked; as hundreds of thousands of adult smokers die off and quit, tobacco companies need teens to start smoking, so the tobacco companies can stay in business. Teens need to know how tobacco companies are targeting them, so they can fight back. Each day, between 82,000 and 99,000 young people around the world start smoking.Smoking rates for youth climbed in the early 1990s, but have been slowly declining. Almost 20 per cent of Philippian teens (aged 12-19) currently smoke (daily or occasionally). In Philippines the smoking rates are generally higher among males than females.On average, males smoke more cigarettes a day than females. Youth smokers make more attempts to quit smoking than adult smokers.

Why do teens start smoking?
Teens give many reasons for why they start smoking:

“My friends smoke.”
“I just wanted to try it.”
“I thought it was cool.”
“My parents smoke.”

Cigarette smoking during childhood and adolescence produces significant health problems among young people, including an increase in the number and severity of respiratory illnesses, decreased physical fitness and potential effects on the rate of lung growth and maximum lung function. Key facts about cigarettes use among children and teenagers: 1.Among adults who smoke, 68 percent began smoking regularly at age 18 or younger, and 85 percent started when they were 21 or younger.4 The average age of daily smoking initiation for new smokers in 2008 was 20.1 years among those 12-49 years old. 2. Every day, almost 3,900 children under 18 years of age try their first cigarette, and more than 950 of them will become new, regular daily smokers.6 Half of them will ultimately die from their habit. 3. People who begin smoking at an early age are more likely to develop a severe addiction to nicotine than those who start at a later age. Of adolescents who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, most of them report that they would like to quit, but are not able to do so. General Smoking Facts:

Cigarette smoking has been identified as the most important source of preventable morbidity (disease and illness) and premature mortality (death) worldwide. Smoking-related diseases claim an estimated 443,000 Philippines lives each year, including those affected indirectly, such as babies born prematurely due to prenatal maternal smoking and victims of “secondhand”
exposure to tobacco’s carcinogens. Smoking cost the Philippine over ₱193 billion in 2004, including ₱97 billion in lost productivity and ₱96 billion in direct health care expenditures, or an average of ₱4,260 per adult smoker. Objectives:

Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents Why and how the cigarettes industry sells to young adults: Evidence from industry documents: To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults’ lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers’ progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916).. Virtually all tobacco control programs emphasize primary prevention for children and teens or smoking cessation for adult smokers. Tobacco control efforts aimed at young adults (aged 18–24 years) are generally limited to cessation for pregnant women,military personnel,or college students.Despite the widely accepted view that smoking initiation occurs only before age 18, smoking frequently began during young adulthood in the early and mid-20th century and still does among some ethnic groups.Rates of current cigarette use among young adults increased steadily, from 34.6% in 1994 to 41.6% in 1998, and then declined slightly, to 39.7% in 1999 and to 38.3% in 2000.The prevalence of
current smoking among college students increased from 22.3% in 1993 to 28.5% in 1998. The number of young people at moderate to high risk for established smoking increases throughout the teen years, with more people in the early stages of smoking initiation (open to smoking, experimenting, and nonregular smoking) at ages 14 to 19 than at 11 to 14.The number of 18- to 19-year-olds in the early stages of smoking initiation is more than twice the number of 18-year-old established smokers.These youths are at risk to become established smokers as young adults and thus are prime targets for interventions to make them nonsmokers again. Since 1998, more than 40 million pages of previously secret tobacco industry documents have been made available to the public. Previous investigations with these documents concentrated on proving that tobacco industry marketing targeted youths.We analyzed the documents to find why and how the tobacco industry markets to young adults and drew 3 conclusions. First, the industry views the transition from smoking the first cigarette to becoming a confirmed pack-a-day smoker as a series of stages that may extend to age and it has developed marketing strategies not only to encourage initial experimentation (often by teens) but also to carry new smokers through each stage of this process.Second, industry marketers encourage solidification of smoking habits and increases in cigarette consumption by focusing on key transition periods when young adults adopt new behaviors—such as entering a new workplace, school, or the military–and, especially, by focusing on leisure and social activities.Third, tobacco companies study young adults’ attitudes, social groups, values, aspirations, role models, and activities and then infiltrate both their physical and their social environments.Understanding this process can help public health practitioners to develop better tobacco control programs and physicians to encourage nonsmoking among young adult patients.

Significance of the study:
The rates of college students smoking in the Philippines have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the Highschool years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption. Cigarette smoking on Highschool campuses has become an important public health issue and there has been increase in
campus wide smoking bans and other preventative programs to reduce the rates of students smoking. Statement of the problem:

Smoking is the drug of choice among youth, often with devastating consequences. Smoke is a leading contributor to injury death, the main cause of death for people under age 21. Smoking early in life also is associated with an increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder at some time during the life span. Data consistently indicate that rates of smoking and smoker-related problems are highest among Prevalence rates of smoking for boys and girls are similar in the younger age groups; among older adolescents, however, more boys than girls engage in frequent and heavy smoking, and boys show higher rates of smoking problems. This article summarizes research on the epidemiology of youth smoking, including the consequences of youthful smoking, risk and protective factors and smoking trajectories, and information on special populations at particular risk for smoking-related problems.

Conceptual Framework:

Behavior Health Socialization

The conceptual structure of problem-behavior theory is both complex and comprehensive. As originally formulated, the theoretical framework included three major systems of explanatory variables: the perceived-environment system, the personality system, and the behavior system. Each system is composed of variables that serve either as instigations for engaging in problem behavior or controls against involvement in problem behavior. It is the balance between instigations and controls that determines the degree of proneness for problem behavior within each system. The overall level of proneness for problem behavior, across all three systems, reflects the degree of psychosocial conventionality-unconventionality characterizing each adolescent. The concepts that constitute the perceived-environment system include social controls, models, and support. Perceived-environment variables are distinguished on the basis of the directness or conceptual closeness of their relations to problem behavior. Proximal variables (for
example, peer models for alcohol use) directly implicate a particular behavior, whereas distal variables (for example, parental support) are more remote in the causal chain and therefore require theoretical linkage to behavior. Problem behavior proneness in the perceived environment system includes low parental disapproval of problem behavior, high peer approval of problem behavior, high peer models for problem behavior, low parental controls and support, low peer controls, low compatibility between parent and peer expectations, and low parent (relative to peer) influence. The concepts that constitute the personality system include a patterned and interrelated set of relatively enduring, socio cognitive variables—values, expectations, beliefs, attitudes, and orientations toward self and society—that reflect social learning and developmental experience. Problem behavior proneness in the personality system includes lower value on academic achievement, higher value on independence, greater social criticism, higher alienation, lower self-esteem, greater attitudinal tolerance of deviance, and lower religiosity. The concepts that constitute the behavior system include both problem behaviors and conventional behaviors. Problem behaviors include alcohol use, problem drinking, cigarette smoking, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, general deviant behavior (delinquent behaviors and other norm-volatile acts), risky driving, and precocious sexual intercourse. Involvement in any one problem behavior increases the likelihood of involvement in other problem behaviors due to their linkages in the social ecology of youth—with socially organized opportunities to learn and to practice them together—and to the similar psychological meanings and functions the behaviors may have (e.g., overt repudiation of conventional norms, or expression of independence from parental control). Conventional behaviors are behaviors that are socially approved, normatively expected, and codified and institutionalized as appropriate for adolescents. They include church attendance, and involvement with academic course work and achievement. Both church and school can be seen as institutions of conventional socialization, fostering a conventional orientation and enlisting youth into the traditional and established networks of the larger society. Problem behavior proneness in the behavior system includes high involvement in other problem behaviors and low involvement in conventional behaviors. In summary, within each explanatory
system, it is the balance of instigations and controls that determines psychosocial proneness for involvement in problem behavior; and it is the balance of instigations and controls across the three systems that determines the adolescent’s overall level of problem behavior proneness—or psychosocial unconventionality.

Importance of the study:
OBJECTIVE To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general’s 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking. DATA SOURCES General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors’ personal files. STUDY SELECTION Reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking. DATA SYNTHESIS Adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem, attitudes, and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other psychosocial variables. CONCLUSIONS Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and predictor variables. Analyses should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some attempt in the multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. The apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy.

Basic Assumption:
Researchers have made bold claims about cigarette smoking leading to
depression. It has long been known that smokers have higher rates of depression than nonsmokers, but researchers from the Philippine investigated the link further, and say they have found a causal relationship. The team took figures from over 1,000 men and women aged 18, 21 and 25 years. Smokers had more than twice the rate of depression. Using a computer modeling approach, their analysis supported a pathway in which nicotine addiction leads to increased risk of depression. According to the researchers, “this evidence is consistent with the conclusion that there is a cause and effect relationship between smoking and depression in which cigarette smoking increases the risk of symptoms of depression. Her team recruited 63 regular smokers with no history of diagnosed depression, 61 with past but not current depression, and 41 with both current and past depression. All were given either a “nicotinized” or a “denicotinized” cigarette following a positive mood trigger. Those who had experienced depression showed an enhanced response to the positive mood trigger when smoking a nicotinized cigarette. The researchers wrote, “Self-administering nicotine appears to improve depression-prone smokers’ emotional response to a pleasant stimulus.” The reason for this effect is not clear. Again using nicotinized and denicotinized cigarettes, they found that smokers do feel better after a cigarette, but only when they haven’t smoked since the previous day. The improved mood after abstinence from smoking was a “robust” finding. However, cigarettes “only modestly” improved negative mood due to other sources of stress — in this case, a challenging computer task, preparing for a public speech, and watching negative mood slides. Hypothesis:

Cigarette smoking kills over 400,000 people a year, making it “the largest preventable cause of death and disability in developed countries”(National Cancer Institute, 1). Smoking increases the risk of coronary heart disease and heart attack to up to five times the normal risk. This occurs as a result of smoke lowering the quantities of antioxidants in the bloodstream, which help to protect the heart. Without antioxidants in the bloodstream, or with lowered amounts, the heart is more prone to disease. Smoking also increases the risk of emphysema and cancer. In addition, it is not only smokers who are affected by smoke. Passive or second hand smokers run the same health risks as smokers just from inhaling other’s cigarettes smoke,
including increased risk of heart disease. Second-hand smoke also has tentative links to diverse ailments such as various cancers, strokes, sudden infant death syndrome, and an increase in the effects of cystic fibrosis and asthma. Cigarette smoking should affect blood pressure and heart rate because nicotine narrows the blood vessels that lead to extremities on the body, forcing the heart to work harder to supply blood to these extremities. This helps to explain why so many smokers are prone to strokes and aneurysms. Although many studies have been done to prove that smoking is dangerous to the health of both smokers and non-smokers, and most smokers will admit that smoking is not a healthy activity, there has not been a significant decline in the number of smokers, with the amount of people who start smoking balancing out the number of smokers who quit smoking or die. For all of these reasons, our student-generated lab is pertinent and important, especially within our peer group. Recent surveys indicate that 44.1% of eighth-graders, 44.1% of tenth-graders, and 64.6% of high school seniors have smoked at least one cigarette. 17.5 % of eighth-graders, 25.7% of tenth-graders, and 34.6% of seniors smoke regularly, and 3.3% of eighth-graders, 7.6% of tenth-graders, and 13.2% of seniors smoke at least a pack per day. These figures, taken from a 1999 survey of Michigan students, seems somewhat frightening, as they indicate that, by age 18, almost one-third of the population smokes. The problem is not confined solely to Michigan, or the United States, for that matter. Smoking is prevalent worldwide as well, making our research relevant not only on a local, but a global scale. There is evidence that quitting smoking at an early age (or never beginning) greatly reduces any long-term detrimental health effects. It is our hope that the results of our study, since they will be taken from the Western population, will hit “close to home” and further encourage people to stop smoking. In addition, we hope that smokers will realize the harmful effect that their smoking has on nonsmokers and will make a conscious effort not to smoke in nonsmoking areas. SURVEY QUESTIONS

Please fix the answer. Just circle the correct answer

1. Gender?
A. Male B. FemaleC. Gay
2. Weight (if you don’t mind us asking)?

3. Have you smoked at least 100 cigarettes in your life?
A. Everyday B.Once a dayC.A week trapping smoke done again 4. Do you smoke now?
A. Yes B. No
5. About how long has it been since you last smoked cigarettes regularly? A. Weekly B. EverydayC. Once a week
6. Do you live with someone who smokes?
A. True B. False
7. Do you live in a smoking or non-smoking dorm?
A. True B. False
8. How often are/were you recently exposed to cigarette smoke? A. I feel great B. I do not feel the smoke
9. During the past year have you had any upper respiratory infections? If So how many? A. More infections B. Exactly C. Chronic Disease
10. Please rate your health level from on a scale of 1 to 10 (with 10 being the healthiest, and 1 being the least healthy). A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
F. 6
I. 9

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Foreign Literature About Cigarettes Smoking. (2017, Apr 26). Retrieved from

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