History Study Notes

1 - History Study Notes introduction. Why does Andrew Jackson oppose recharter of the second Bank of the United States? He believes that the rich people of America have too much power within the government because of the Bank of the United States. He thinks that abolishing this Bank will create less of a separation between rich and poor.

2. What positive functions were served by the bank? What were some of the bank’s negative consequences? It is a fiscally responsible way to manage the United State’s money. It regulated currency and did good in this respect. The capital is too vast in proportion to the wealth of the country. The political influence in the bank is too much. It is only good for the rich and horrible for the poor.

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3. What should be the proper relationship between finance, business, and government? They should all be intertwined in a way that protects each of their rights but lets them work together to better the country as a whole. Finance, business, and government are all equally important to the United States and should be treated this way.

4. What argument do protectionists make in favor of a protective tariff? How do opponents of a protective tariff respond? They believe it is in the best interest of the people. They also think that it will make the country richer and better as a whole. Opponents say that with this the country will be changed into something that it is not.

5. Which, in your view, is correct–that the Union is a creation of the states or of the people? I think that the Union is a creation of the people. Without the people there would have been no states, therefore the United States of America is a Union of the people. 6. Should states have the power to nullify federal law?

I think states should have the power to nullify federal law because each state should have a say in what happens in it. Without this say each state would be exactly the same and there would be no use for having states. 7. What factors contributed to increased voter participation? More people started to own land and become eligible to vote. 8. How does voter participation in 1840 compare to voter participation today? What in your view accounts for the difference? The voter population has decreased from 1840. I think this difference is accounted by the rise of illegal people who cannot vote and the will to vote. Some young people do not know the importance of voting.

1. What contribution to the American system of manufacturing did Eli Whitney make in the late 1790s? Eli Whitney demonstrated the first musket with interchangeable parts. This helped him manufactured 10000 muskets in just two years. At that time, arms factories could only produce about 300 a year. This was a huge advancement for mass production in the Americas. 2. What effects did the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812 have on Americans involved in shipping and foreign trade in the early 19c?

These things turned the eyes of Americans from importing goods toward the development of domestic industries. The embargo brought foreign trade to a standstill. Many shipping centers had shut down because of this act. When the war broke out and the British Navy blockaded the coastline, ships were unable to get in or out of US harbors. Americans had to invest in other things than trade.

3. Why did manufacturing develop early in the 19c in New England?

Since citizens did not have a trade system to confide in and agriculture was not very profitable, they had to invest in industry. Industry became more and more appealing to people. That is how New England became industrialized.

4. Why did slavery become entrenched in the South by the 1820s?

The demand for slaves to work on plantations was increasing. With this need for slaves people were buying more and more. As the population of slaves increased owners had to crack down on rules.

5. What were the three major components of the “American System?” How was it expected to unite the nation’s economic interests?

It establish a protective tariff, a tax on all imported goods that made European goods more expensive, established a national bank with one currency, and also improved the country’s transportation systems. It created markets for southern agriculture and northern industry. 6. Why were tariffs proposed by President Madison and promoted by Henry Clay?

Each person wanted the tariff to be passed. Madison wanted to better society. Clay thought it would benefit the people of America.

7. How were the views of Northeasterners and Southerners and Westerners different on the tariff issue? Why the differences?

Northeasterners welcomed the tariffs with open arms. People in the north and south were not eager to tax european goods. Their livelihoods did not depend on manufacturing. 8. Why was the Second Bank of the United States created?

This bank was created because some leaders thought it was necessary. Chartering the Second Bank of the United States was within the power of the federal government, and further that the state of Maryland could not constitutionally tax a legitimate operation of the federal government. 9. Describe the contributions of canals and steamboats to the improvement of water transportation in the U. S. during the early 19c.

During the first half of the 19th century, improvements in transportation developed quickly. Roads, steamboats, canals, and railroads all had a positive effect on the American economy. They provided for a more diverse United States by allowing more products to be sold in new areas of the country and by opening new markets. 10. Why was the period of President Monroe’s administration known as the “Era of Good Feelings?”

President Monroe downplayed partisanship. During this era, there was primarily only one party, the Democratic-Republican Party. This is because the old Federalist party had died out.

1. How was the Second Great Awakening the second major example of popular religion revolt in American history? The Great Awakening was the first major example of religion revolt in American history. The Second Great Awakening came next. The leaders in this reform rejected the belief that God predetermined a person’s salvation or damnation, this is whether a person went to heaven or hell. 2. How did the Unitarians’ approach to the religious experience different from the revivalists’ approach? Unitarians emphasized reason and appeals to the conscience. These people used this to
look for the path to perfection. Revivalists emphasized individualism and personal responsibility. 3. What is the connection between religious revivalism and early 19c democratic political ideals? Revivalists tried to create communities from their revival ideas. They called these communities utopias, which were meant to be perfect places. They established rules based on their religion. Revivalism and politics were deeply intertwined in these societies. 4. Explain the special appeal of Evangelical Christianity to women and African Americans in the 19c. African Americans liked Evangelical Christianity because they believed all people belong to the same God. African Americans were permitted to worship with white people. Although there were still black and white churches, religion was not very different for the two races. Women were given more rights with this form of Christianity. 5. List the characteristics of the philosophical and literary movement known as Transcendentalism. It emphasized living a simple life.

It celebrated the truth found in nature and in person emotion. It embraced imagination.
It exalted the dignity of the individual.
Believed in the importance of individual conscience.
6. In what way did Thoreau’s experience at “Walden” reflect transcendentalist beliefs? Thoreau put the idea of self-reliance into practice by living alone in a cabin on the shore of Walden Pond. He followed his inner voice to live. He wanted people to reject greed and materialism and focus on their inner being. 7. What role did The McGuffey Reader play in educating generations of American children? These books taught children reading, writing, and math. But the books also taught children the democratic values of hard work, honesty, and love of country. The books also contained moral lessons. 8. Explain the role of northern middle class women, like Dorothea Dix, in early 19c social reform movements. Dorothea Dix had a great impact on the reformation of asylums and prisons. She reviewed the people housed in prisons and noticed that there was not only criminals living there, but there was also mentally ill people. Middle class women like Dix had the voice and the right to help change things. Dix reported her findings to the Massachusetts legislature, who then passed a law to improve conditions. 9. Define the term utopian socialism and identify the major examples of
American experimentation with utopian communities during the early 19c. Utopias are considered perfect places. These communities wanted to gain self-sufficiency. George Ripley established Brook Farm, MA as a utopia in 1841. He established this town to prepare a society of intelligent people who live wholesome lives. Most utopias only lasted a few years.

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