Men had originally deprived women of legal rights, of the right to their win property, Of custody Of their children in cases Of divorce, Of the right to higher education, of full participation in religious worship and activity, and of the right to vote. Ii. Attendees approved all but one of the resolutions unanimously. The last, which was voted against, was thought too radical. D. The struggle for women’s rights was only one of many reform movements that emerged in the United States in the wake of the economic and social disruptions of the market revolution that deeply affected regions like Seneca Falls.
. Many of the reformers belonged to liberal religious groups with wide social perspectives. F. Seneca Falls- early asses- ‘Temperance Reformation”- a more limited, but extremely popular reform cause dedicated to promoting abstinence from alcohol. G. Nation’s best-known woman reformer- Lucrative Moot I. Well known antislavery orator- Elizabeth Caddy Stanton h. The reforming women of Seneca Falls, grouped together on behalf of social improvement, had found in the first women’s rights convention a way to speak for the needs of working women.
2. Immigration and Ethnicity Introduction I.
The impact of the market revolution was most noticeable in cities because of immigration. B. Patterns of Immigration Immigration increased began in the sass and increased dramatically after 1 830 1. 20,000 in 1831 to 430,mini 1854 2. Declined in the years prior to the Civil War 3. Proportion of immigration in the population increased from 1. 6% in 1820 to 11. 2% in 1860. 4. Foreign born By 1 860, almost half New Work’s population was ii. Most of the immigrants came from Germany and Ireland. 1. Political unrest and poor economy in Germany Potato Famine (1845-1849) in Ireland Irish arrived poor 4.
Most of the Irish and some of the Germans were Catholic and this provoked a natives backlash among Protestant Americans Industries needed immigrants for workers. 1 . Many of the changes in industry and transportation that accompanied the market revolution would have been impossible without immigrants. 2. Irish contract workers-?Erie Canal (1825) Irish- Lowell Mill Few immigrants had an easy or pleasant life in America 1. Endured harsh living and working conditions. The state governments dealt with immigrants; not federal governments New York did not establish an official reception center until 1855 c.
Irish Immigration I. The Irish had been emigrating to the United States long before the Potato Famine 1. Young people who wished to own land, but knew they could not in Ireland came to the US ii. The British, who were governing Ireland as a colony, could not handle the Potato Famine 1 Irish were forced to either Starve or die 1 mil died, 1. Mimi emigrated b. They were starving, diseased (typhus), and poor iii. The Irish immigrants lacked the money to settle inland, so they settled in cities close to the New England Coast. 1 . They settled in New York, but did not make a big difference. 2.
Boston had a smaller population and there was a big difference there (by 1850, 1/4 of population Irish). A. Puritan-rich Boston did not appreciate the influx of illiterate Irish Catholic peasants. “No Irish Need Apply” for jobs in the area. D. German Immigration Pennsylvania population. I. By 1 790, Germans made up 1/3 of I I. The typical German immigrant was a small farmer of artisan dealing with the same problems of the market revolution Germans were not nearly as poor as the Irish 1. Germans could afford to move away from the coastal cities Major ports Germans left from were Bremen (N. Germany) and El Have (N.
France) 1 . These ports were also the main ports for the importation of American tobacco and cotton a. The tobacco ships took the immigrants to Baltimore and the cotton ships took them to New Orleans v. Gold Rush in California drew in a lot of Chinese people 1. Chinese workers made up 90% of the people building the Central Pacific Railroad 2. San F-romantic’s Chinatown is the oldest Chinese enclave in America e. Ethnic Neighborhoods churches and schools their own “Little Germanium” 1. Irish raised money to erect Catholic ii. Germans build Formed leisure organizations and churches Published German-language newspapers iii.
Americans were suspicious of the ethnic neighborhoods f. Ethnicity and Whiteness in Urban Popular Culture 1820-1860-?New York experienced the replacement of artisan labor with waxwork, two serious depressions (1837-43 and 1857), and a large influx of immigrants 1. Response: violence Brawls, riots, gangs Irish immigrants were depicted as monkeys similar to blacks, but Irish insisted on their “whiteness” iii. Astor Place Riot of 1849 began as a theater riot by Irish immigrants and escalated into a battle between mod and militia (22 dead) iv.
Actors (mostly Irish) would paint their faces black and perform 425-431 urban America It was within the new urban development that new American political and social forms began to emerge. B. The Growth of Cities I. The market revolution dramatically increased the size of America’s cities 1. 7% in 1820, 20% in 1860 a. Largest population juju pm in American history Nation’s top five largest cities: New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Boston, and New Orleans (New Orleans replaced Charleston from 1800) New York- most populous city, largest port, and financial center of the nation. Iv.
Result of market revolution- “instant cities” at critical points in the new transportation network c. Class Structure and Living Patterns in the Cities Presidential cities in America had been small and compact to where people, rich and poor, lived near their workplace in a small scale housing pattern that encouraged friendliness 1 . Growth of immigration changed that ii. Although the per capita income had almost doubled be;en 1 800 and 1850, the gap between rich and poor also increased greatly 1. The top 1% of the population owned 40% of the nation’s wealth while 1/3 of the population owned virtually nothing a.
Poor- unskilled working jobs, lived in cheap rented housing, moved frequently, depended on more than one income b. Artisans and skilled workers- lived In cramped quarters that doubled as shops c. Middle class- nice houses d. Rich- mansions and townhouses with servants, multiple houses 2. “Streetcar suburbs” Sanitation was a big problem 1. Lacked municipal water supplies, sewers, and garbage collection a. People drank from wells, used outhouses that often contaminated the water supply, and threw garbage out the door Yellow fever, cholera, typhus 2.
Some cities completed water systems, but only the wealthy could afford them 3. People usually left the area When disease epidemics hit, rich iv. Slums developed as middle class families left the area 1 . Worst slum in New York was Five Points 4. Immigrants, free blacks, criminals Starvation and murder were common Diseases were blamed on the slums CiViC order I. The challenges of the middle class were publicized by political papers and popular “penny papers” (began 1833) These challenges were the inspiration for authors like Democratic Parry activist and poet, Walt Whitman (Leaves of Grass, 1 855) 2.
Edgar Allen Poe wrote “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” (1841) and “The Mystery Of Marie Roger” (1842) about contemporary American crimes a. B. Working-class used the streets for parades, celebrations, and marches. New Orleans was most notable for this African American bands played funeral processions Dances in Congo Square attracted hundreds of slaves Choctaw Indians drummed Respectable middle-class men rang cowbells as they took part in rowdy protests “frolics” 1. Iii. New Work’s New Year’s Eve Members of the lower class paraded through the streets playing music 2.
By 1 828, the event was taken over by gangs who walked through the city vandalizing it. 3. 1829- parade was banned iv. New Work’s first response to violence was to hire more city watchmen 1 . Militia was called to restrain riots Deaths were common 1845- NY created a permanent police force Beginning in 1 sass, series of riots broke out against Catholics (Irish) and free blacks e. Urban Life of Free African Americans I. ‘h mil free blacks by 1860 (11% of black population) 1 . More than half lived in North Competed with immigrants and poor people for jobs Free African Americans faces discrimination and segregation 1.
Residential segregation, pervasive job discrimination, segregated public schools, severe limitations of civil rights 2. Exclusion from leisure activities and places and public transportation a. Frederick Douglass was denied admittance to a zoo, a public lecture, a restaurant, and a public omnibus all within a span off few days iii. African Americans, like the Irish and German, created their own communities 1. Formed associations for helping the poor of their community, self-improvement, and socializing 2. Established their own newspapers 3.
Major itty organization- African Methodist Episcopal (NAME) or black Baptist Employment prospects for black men deteriorated 1 . Forced from jobs and sons were denied apprenticeships 2. Blacks made up a large portion of sailors Pay was poor, conditions were miserable b. More equality on ships than land 3. Women worked as domestic servants, washerwomen, and seamstresses Free African Americans worked to help slaves 1. There were many riots against the free blacks themselves also a. Philadelphia- “City of Brotherly Love” was the worst 431 -434 The Labor Movement and Urban Policies I.
Traditional political leadership of wealthy elite was replaced by professional politicians. B. The Tradition of Artisan Politics I. Urban centers had been strongholds of craft associations for artisans and skilled workers 1 . Workers’ organizations were strong and solid Riots and demonstrations over matters simple and complex were traditions by workers 1 . Serbian workers had been an integral part of the older social order controlled by the wealthy elite. By the 1 sass, the status of the artisans and independent craftsmen in the nation’s cities had changed iv.
Open antagonism between workers and employers was new 1 . Workers realized they had to depend on other workers, not their employers, for support. C. The Union Movement I. Urban worker protests took forms of party politics 1. The Workingman’s Party (founded in Philadelphia 1827) a. “Worries” campaigned for 10 hour day and the preservation Of the small artisan shop b. Jackson Democrats picked up on their themes Neither major political party really spoke for the workers 1 . Unhappy with the political parties, workers turned to labor organizations ii. Between 1 833 and 1837 there was a wave of strikes in NY 1 .
Workers wanted higher wages and the strike was won because a bunch of other errors helped 2. Formed General Trades Union (GUT) in 9 different trades a. Forty strikes between 1833 and 1837 Formation of more than 50 unions Formed National Trades Union (.NET) iii. Employers very upset with Unions 1 . One case in NY, employers took tailors to court over strikes a. Judge Ogden Edwards declared the strikers guilty of conspiracy and declared unions UN-American b. GUT responded with a burned effigy of Edwards c. GUT cool lapsed during the Panic of 1 837 Early unions included only white men in skilled trades 1 .
Made up only a small portion of all workers 2. Majority of workers were excluded Big-City Machines I. Workers were not able to create strong unions or political parties that favored their interests, but they managed to shape urban politics 1. As population grew, so did the number of voters Half of the voters were foreign born by 1 855 There was a big difference between the immediate immigrant suffrage and the contain nuking restrictions on African Americans b. At the time, America was the only nation where property less white men had the right to vote ii.
Old system of leadership= social unity of eighteenth century cities; new machine system= class structure of nineteenth century cities 1. Feelings of community were now cultivated politically 2. Legally, three years of residence were required before citizenship, but evidence of faster naturalization was evident 3. Irish typically were Democrats while Germans, who were less politically active, voted Republican a. Irish and Germans destroyed the Whig party Tammany Society- a fraternal organization of artisans begun in the asses that evolved into a key organization of the new mass politics in New York City 1 .
If elated with Democrats Parades, rallies, current songs, party newspapers iv- Tight system of political control beginning at the neighborhood level with ward committees and topped by a Harriman of a citywide general committee v. Machine politics- bosses, at the citywide level, bartered the loyalty and votes of their followers for positions on the city payroll for party members and community services for their neighborhood 1 . The machines offered personal ties and loyalties to recent arrivals in big cities and help during hard times to the workers who voted for them Critics said the big-city machines were corrupt; they often were 435-442 5.
Social Reform Movements I. Middle class people tried to deal with the social changes in their community by joining groups dedicated to reforms. Printing presses greatly intensified the messages of the reforms. B. Evangelism, Reform, and Social Control fundamental to social reform 1. I. The Evangelical religion was Evangelism;personal reform;social reform was possible for all Christians to personally understand and live by God’s will and thereby become “as perfect as God” 3. Members of evangelistic religions really expected to convert the world and create the perfect moral and religious community on earth ii.
The new middle class set the agenda for reform 1 . Reformers realized that large cities had to make large-scale provisions for social misfits and that institutional (I. E. Insane asylums) rather than private efforts were needed iii. Moralistic dogmatism 1. They knew they were right and intended to see improvements enacted 2. People did not always want to be the subject of the reformers concern Evangelical reformers promoted dangerous hostility towards Catholics (Irish and German immigrants 1. Sought uniformity rather than tolerance Strong natives infected American politics between 1840-60 v.
Regional and national reform organizations grew from local projects to dealing with drinking, prostitution, mental illness, and crime 1 Lyman Beechen- General Union for Promoting the Observance of the Christian Union Beechen also leader of anti-Catholic and anti-immigration movement Substantiations- reform movement that aimed to prevent business on vi. Sundays 1. Controversial a. 6-day workers upset that their taverns were forced closed on Sundays b. Were unable to stop the traffic of passenger and freight boats c. Education and Women Teachers I.
Women became involved in reform movements through their chi ruches 1 . Women got together to talk about how to raise their children-?reflected a new and more positive definition of chi Ellwood 2. Puritans believed children were born with sin and punishment was harsh and physical. . Educational reformers believed children needed gentle nurturing and encouragement Schooling for white children aged 5-19 was common 1. Term only a month or so long uniformity in curriculum and grading spread rapidly to other states iii. The spread of public education created the first real career opportunity for women 1.
Grades separated by age were created Wanted to create a friendly atmosphere Who better than women? Iv. Women usually taught in years between their own schooling and marriage 1 . Though teaching was an adventure Half the pay as male teachers Teaching was appealing for marriage prospects Temperance I. American Society for the Promotion of Temperance- Largest reform organization of its time dedicated to ending the sale and consumption Of alcoholic beverages ii. Temperance- Reform movement originating in the asses that sought to eliminate the consumption of alcohol.
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