Explain how the word ‘cloud’ might appear in a child’s lexicon. The word “cloud” comes into a child’s lexicon in three sections. It begins with the sounds that contain the word, /c/ /l/ /o/ /u/ /d/, then the definition of the word, the big, white, and fluffy object in the sky, and lastly, the part of speech, a noun that the child has an understanding that a cloud is an object). Explain how referential gestures share some of the properties of first true words. When a child is at the stage of beginning to transition from the prelinguistic stage to the one-word stage he/she uses referential gestures. These gestures speak for a precise referent and have a constant meaning in various contexts. For example, a child always puts his/her fist to his/her ear to depict a telephone. This contains properties of first true words because the gestures used are nearing a transition of communication from prelinguistic to linguistic.
Explain how overextension, underextension, and overlap are interrelated. Overextension, underextension and overlap are interrelated because each are a category of inaccuracies that children can make when creating their beginning words. Overextension is taking place when a child uses a word in an overly general fashion. Underextension is taking place when a child is overly careful to avoid potential problems at word usage. Overlap occurs when a child uses both overextension and underextension. Children use overextension in some situations and underextension in other situations.
What is the Quinean conundrum? Explain. The Quinean conundrum occurs when a child encounters problems mapping a new word to a correlated object, action, concept or event when learning the new word. In the happenstance that a word has many interpretations the Quinean conundrum occurs when the listener or new word learner can’t map the referent of that new word. There is unpredictability in mapping a word to its reference because often the word has a likelihood of several possibilities for meaning. Dr. Quine, a Harvard professor, is responsible for the word referent dilemma named the Quinean conundrum because of his study in this conundrum.
Compare and contrast the customary age of production and the age of mastery. The customary age of production along with the age of mastery are typical and standard to generalize phoneme acquisition by a specific age. Customary age of production defines the age when 50% of children can manufacture a given phoneme. The age of mastery defines the age when the majority of children can create a given sound similar to that of an adult. The child must create the phoneme accurately and appropriately in all positions of words including initial, final and middle position of words partnered with a series of other phonemes.
Describe what phonological processes are. Provide an example of a phonological process in each of the four major categories (syllable structure change, assimilation, place-of-articulation change and manner-of articulation change)—include the type, a description and YOUR OWN example of each. Use Table 6.1 but don’t copy the example from the book. Phonological processes are systematic, rule-governed patterns that characterize toddlers’ speech. Syllable structure change are differences to syllables in words. An example of this is “wa-wa” for the word water. Assimilation occurs when a child changes one sound into a syllable to take on another distinctive attribute of a different sound in the same syllable. An example of this is “tog” for the word dog. Place of articulation occurs when a child replaces a sound produced at a spot in the mouth with a sound produced at a seperate spot in the mouth. An example of this is “backpag” for the word backpack. Manner of articulation change occurs when a child replaces a sound produced in a particular manner with a sound produced in a different manner. An example of this is “pwayer” for the word prayer.
What are some of the grammatical morphemes that appear during toddlerhood? A grammatical morpheme is an inflection that occurs when words have an added aspect of grammar. Examples of these include the present progressive -ing, the plural -s, the prepositions on and in, the possessive ‘s, the irregular past tense, the regular past tense- ed, contractible and uncontractible auxiliary and -be, articles the, a, and an, and the irregular third person. Approximately these morphemes come into view during 19 months to 4 years 2 months of age.
What functions are toddlers able to express during the two-word stage? When a toddler begins to produce combining words to manufacture utterances he/she enters the two-word stage. This is the commencement of syntax. A child may realize that by using these two word utterances they can begin to use language to communicate where before they weren’t able to. Being able to comment, request for things, negate and question can arise. Another avenue that can arise is the use of a language functions, including, heuristic, informative, instrumental, interactional, imaginative, regulatory and personal. Within communicative development these functions are valuable and essential.