Impression Formation - FIA Essay Example

SACE NUMBER: 215877W Impression Formation Proposal: The question being posed is does different stimuli affect a person’s impression of something or someone - Impression Formation introduction. This report seeks to learn if video and audio stimuli has an effect on peoples view on a certain subject or person. The investigation type that will be used for this investigation will be experimental, as the researchers can manipulate and measure the variables and the effect they have on the participants.

Two groups of participants will be given either an audio or video stimuli, the results will then be recorded and compiled. It is hypothesized that the video stimuli will have a greater impression on the participants than the audio stimuli. The data type that this information will be compiled into will be subjective quantitative because there are numbers with opinion being recorded. The data collected will be displayed in a table format .

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The dependent variable in this experiment will be changing impressions of the subjects while the independent variable will be the audio and video stimuli. Therefore this investigation hopes to discover the effect of audio and video stimuli on the impressions people form. This investigation is ethically correct according to SACE regulations. Word Count: 191 This experiment will focus solely on impression formation, how an impression of a character forms itself in us. There are things to consider that affects the impression you make of someone.

Basic communication, and non-verbal communication, for example physical characteristics (gender, height, weight, skin colour, age), face (attractiveness, shape, features), eye contact (staring often considered hostile, eye contact untrustworthy) lead to general assumptions and ideas that beautiful people, and people with baby faces are perceived as ‘good’ and more trustworthy than others. Stance, movements and gestures, para-language, and verbal communication also play a part in how we form impressions of people- what we see and hear largely affects this.

Which cues, verbal or non-verbal, are to be considered more crucial when forming an impression related to the effectiveness of a teacher, instructor, or presenter? The question being posed is does different stimuli affect a person’s impression of something or someone. This report seeks to learn if video and audio stimuli have an effect on peoples view on a certain subject or person. The investigation type that will be used for this investigation will be experimental, as the researchers can manipulate and measure the variables and the effect they have on the participants.

Two groups of participants will be given either an audio or video stimuli of a television presenter and asked to score how strongly formed their impressions of that presenter are. The results will then be recorded and compiled. It is hypothesized that the video stimuli will have a greater impression on the participants than the audio stimuli. The data type that this information will be compiled into will be subjective quantitative because there are numbers with opinion being recorded. The data collected will be displayed in a table format .

The dependent variable in this experiment will be changing impressions of the subjects while the independent variable will be the audio and video stimuli. Therefore this investigation hopes to discover the effect of audio and video stimuli on the impressions people form. Two ethics considered in this investigation are informed consent and thorough debriefing of the study. Results: Group 1 Results of first group exposed to 10 second video stimuli | First Impression Scale Score| Mean | 842. 33| Standard Deviation| 158.

5| * Group 1 formed the strongest impression of all four groups of the subject after being exposed to the 10 second video stimuli * The mean of this group of scores is 842. 33 * The standard deviation of this group of scores is 158. 5 Group 2: Results of second group exposed to 10 second audio stimuli | First Impression Scale Score| Mean| 805. 33| Standard Deviation| 138| * Group 2 formed a strong impression of the subject after being exposed to 10 second audio stimuli * The mean of this group of scores is 805.

33 * The standard deviation of this group of scores is 138 Group 3: Results of third group exposed to 60 second video stimuli | First Impression Scale Score| Mean| 711. 5| Standard Deviation| 115. 5| * The impression formed by group 3, after being exposed to a 60 second video stimuli, was the weakest of all four groups * The mean of this group of scores is 711. 5 * The standard deviation of this group of scores is 115. 5 Group 4: Results of fourth group exposed to 60 second audio stimuli

| First Impression Scale Score| Mean | 783| Standard Deviation| 134| * After being exposed to a 60 second audio stimuli, group 4 formed the second weakest impression of the group * The mean of this group of scores is 783 * The standard deviation of this group of scores is 134 Discussion: The data collected cannot support the set hypothesis that a different stimulus affects how we form impressions due to a large standard deviation of each group’s distribution.

Although the results of this investigation indicate that there is a relationship between impression formation and the type of stimuli, where the 10 second video stimuli resulted in the strongest formed impressions, and the 60 second video resulted in the lowest weakest formed impressions, the results are too largely scattered and too unreliable to support the hypothesis. Although unsupportive of the hypothesis, the results to indicate that there is a relationship between how strongly we form an impression of someone, and how we are exposed to them.

In this case, the length of exposure time seemed to be the biggest factor in forming impressions. Group 1, who were exposed to a 10 second video clip of a television presenter, formed the strongest impressions of that presenter. The group who formed the second strongest impressions were group 2, who were exposed to a 10 second audio clip of that same presenter. The group who formed the third strongest impression was group 4, who were exposed to an extended 60 second version of the video stimuli.

The group who formed the weakest impressions was the third group, who were exposed to an extended 60 second version of the audio stimuli. By these results, it can be said that the length of the stimuli has the biggest effect on impression formation, more so than the form of the stimuli as the groups who watched and listened to 10 second clips formed the strongest impressions. This could suggest that the more you learn about a person by seeing and hearing them, the more difficult it is to form an impression of them.

It would be easier to take a quick glance and immediately form an impression of one’s character, but longer exposure means more factors to affect the impression you make, such as posture- open and closed posture, affects how we perceive people, gestures reflecting strong or weak personalities (i. e. fist pointing and counting off fingers is strong, fingers in the mouth is weak), proxemics, distant cues one may make that shows interest (moving closer) or hostility (invading personal space), and how one verbally communicates. However, there were still numerous weaknesses in the investigation.

Firstly, there was no control group, therefore nothing to compare the results with. The control group would have watched both the 10 and 60 second audio and video clips, their results compared with the other four groups, and the significance of the different stimuli could have been more easily identified. Another weakness in the research was the fact that all willing participants in the investigation were psychology students, which may have resulted in sample bias, where the results may be questionable due to the fact that there was no random allocation of the sample group; they were all

from the same class. There was also the weakness of the fact that in the classroom there was no range in age groups, and the ratio between male and female participants. To accurately represent the population, an even number of male and female participants, and a wider range of age groups is needed. Although the results do show a link in the hypothesis, due to the fact that the length of the stimuli affected the strength of the group’s impressions, the data is not eligible to represent the Northern Territory population.

According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012, the population of the NT is 211,945 people, and an appropriate sample size to represent the NT must be at least 460. 4 people (v211945n= 460. 4). As the sample size in this investigation is only ten people, the experiment is not valid to represent the Northern Territory. The ethics considered in this investigation were informed consent and debriefing, both important requirements to ensure that participants are aware of the potential risks and costs involved in the procedure.

Ethics in the investigation were important to ensure respect, and no harm, was shown to the participants. Thorough debriefing is the procedure in which participants are given a general idea of the experiment and their role in it, an important ethic to consider as participants needed to be well educated about the investigation they participated in, and not harmed by it any way. Before a study can begin, researchers must have informed consent from all participants, and give the purpose and procedures involved in the experiment.

Along with debriefing, informed consent is a fundamental ethic to be considered when conducting an investigation. Overall, the investigation was valid, as it did somewhat measure what it was designed to, but it was not reliable due to the weaknesses encountered. The results showed that there is a relationship between how strongly we form an impression of someone and how we are exposed to them, however having being no control group, no diversity in participants (age, occupation etc. ), and not a large enough sample size were factors that affected the reliability of the investigation .

If the investigation were to be done again with all weaknesses considered and altered, there would be different, more accurate and reliable results valid to represent the Northern Territory population. Conclusion: In conclusion, although the results of this investigation indicate some truth in the hypothesis that different types of stimuli affect impression formation, it cannot support the hypothesis due to the fact that the standard deviations of the results are too scattered to be considered reliable, and the sample size used in this investigation was far too small.

It is possible that the unsupportive results were due to evident weaknesses in the design. Overall the validity and reliability in this investigation were low due to unsupportive results, encountered weaknesses, and the sample size being too small to represent the people of the Northern Territory. Reflection: Our group worked well together as a team. Ideas and suggestions were put forward for our proposal, which each of us wrote, with aspects of each combined into one. The same went for our introduction. I was happy with the effort my group members put into the investigation, and worked well with each individual. Word count: 1,403

Bibliography Casey S Etal (2005) Psychology Key Ideas SACE Stage 2. Adelaide Tuition Centre, Adelaide Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) 2011 Quickstats, Northern Territory. Accessed 27th February, 2013. www. census. abs. gov. au/census/2011/quickstat/7? opendoccument+&navpos)=220 ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Casey S Etal (2005) Psychology Key Ideas SACE Stage 2. Adelaide Tuition Centre, Adelaide [ 2 ]. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) 2011 Quickstats, Northern Territory. Accessed 27th February, 2013. www. census. abs. gov. au/census/2011/quickstat/7? opendoccument+&navpos)=220

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