Lactobacillus acidophilus milk Scientific Classification: Kingdom:BacteriaDivision:FirmicutesClass:BacilliOrder:LactobacillalesFamily:LactobacillaceaeGenus:LactobacillusSpecies:L.
acidophilusWhat Is Lactobacillus Acidophilus?Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) is the most commonly used probiotic, or “friendly” bacteria. Such healthy bacteria inhabit the intestines and vagina and protect against the entrance and proliferation of “bad” organisms that can cause disease. This is accomplished through a variety of mechanisms.
For example, the breakdown of food by L. acidophilus leads to production of lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and other byproducts that make the environment hostile for undesired organisms. L. acidophilus also produces lactase, the enzyme that breaks down milk sugar (lactose) into simple sugars.
People who are lactose intolerant do not produce this enzyme. For this reason, L. acidophilus supplements may be beneficial for these individuals.Other potential probiotics include a variety of Lactobacillus species (spp.
), such as the caseiGG, rhamnosus, NCFM, DDS-1, and johnsonii strains, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Saccharaomyces boulardii, Bacillus spp., and Escherichia coli.Prebiotics refers to the soluble fiber component found in certain foods or supplements that stimulate the growth of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract.Primary Dietary Source of L Acidophilus:Milk enriched with Acidophilus, yogurt containing live L Acidophilus cultures, miso (bean paste), and tempeh (cooked, fermented soybeans).
How Are Acidophilus products manufactured?Acidophilin (meaning it contains acidophilus bacteria) used to be prepared in milk products by having a Lactobacillus Acidophilus-based mixture, and a Streptococcus lactis subsp. lactis or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Now the starter culture consists of L.
Acidophilus, S. Lactus subsp. lactis and kefir culture (a dairy-based beverage). The cultures are mixed in a ratio of 1:1:1 before inoculation into the milk.
The product is made from pasteurized (90-92°C for 3 minutes), homogenized milk, inoculated with 6-9% of a mixed culture. The milk is incubated at 18-25°C until 75-80°Th (titratable acidity) is produced, followed by cooling, packaging, and cold storage.In order to increase the proportion of L. Acidophilus in the product, the pasteurized milk is fermented with 5-8% of a mixed culture at 32°C for 6-8 hours until 75-80°Th is produced, followed by cooling and packaging.
Acidophilin is industrially made only in limited quantities possibly because of the product’s variable composition and organoleptic properties, as well as the complexity of the starter culture.Food ValueThe final product has an acidity between 75 and 120°Th (titratable acidity) and contains organisms in the ratio of 97% S. Lactis subsp. lactis, 2% L.
Acidophilus and 1% yeast.Nutritional Benefits of Acidophilus-Supplemented Milk Products:The breakdown of nutrients by L. acidophilus produces lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and other byproducts that make the environment hostile for undesired organisms. Other benefits include:1.
Replacing “friendly “ intestinal bacteria destroyed by antibiotics.2. Aiding digestion and suppressing disease-causing bacteria.3.
Preventing and treating diarrhea, including the infectious kind, particularly from rotavirus (virus that commonly causes diarrhea in children)4. Treating the overgrowth of “bad” organisms in the gastrointestinal tract (a condition that tends to cause diarrhea and may occur from the use of antibiotics).5. Alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and, possibly, inflammatory bowel disease.
6. Preventing and/or reducing the recurrence of vaginal yeast infections, urinary tract infections, and cystitis.Improving lactose absorption digestion in people who are lactose intolerantEnhancing the immune response. Studies have suggested that consumption of yogurt or milk that contains specific strains of Lactobacillus or supplements with Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium may improve the natural immune response.
Further research is needed to confirm these early findings and to best understand how the improved immune function may or may not help in warding off infections.Aiding the treatment of respiratory infections such as sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. More research is needed in this area.Lowering risk of allergies.
Examples include asthma, hay fever, food allergies to milk, and skin reactions such as eczema.Helping to treat high cholesterol. More research is needed.Reducing the risk of recurring bladder tumors once this cancer has been treated.
Much more research is needed in this area.13. Other conditions under investigation for use of probiotics include colon cancer, HIV related diarrhea, and Helicobacter pylori, an organism that can lead to development of ulcers.How does Acidophilus Milk differ in taste, texture, and nutritive qualities with ordinary milk?The adding of Lactobacillus Acidophilus to this pasteurized milk does NOT change its natural flavor (pH 6.
5-6.7), composition, nutritive characteristics, and consistency. This is because these bacteria do not grow at refrigerator temperatures.Other ways L.
Acidophilus has benefited the Milk Industry:Abu-Tarboush et al (1996), reported improved weight gain in calves with two probiotic preparations, in comparison with a control. With a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophilus plus L. plantarum, weight gain was greatest in weeks 7-9 after weaning, while with the L. acidophilus product, weight gain was observed to increase in weeks 10-12.
In this case, probiotic treatment started at weaning. By contrast, Jenny et al (1991) started Holstein calves on a variety of probiotics from two days of age, and found a positive effect on feed efficiency during weeks 1 to 4.The excellent review by Wallace and Newbold (1995), although now dated, lists a number of studies on the application of probiotics in young calves. These are summarised in table 1.
As can be seen, different effects result from the different probiotic species applied. For this reason, a multi-strain probiotic preparation is likely to prove beneficial, to provide a full spectrum of the effects reported.Summary of the reported studies reviewed by Wallace and Newbold (1995) on probiotic use in pre-ruminant calves:TypeSpeciesReported effectsBacterialLactobacillus sp (various)Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faeciumReduced scouringReduced coliformImproved feed intakeImproved lightweight gainReduced scouringImproved feed intakeObviously, milk yield and quality is of the utmost importance in dairy cattle. Quality can be improved by adjusting the fatty acid profile of the rumen, which affects the triacylglycerides formed in the milk.
Improvements in milk have been the subject of study for many years.As early as 1954, Renz reported that the inclusion of live yeast in cattle feed increased milk yield by 1.1 kg/day. Since then, there have been many attempts to improve milk yield and quality.
R E F E R E N C E S 1. Kurmmann, Joseph and Rasic, Jeremija. Encyclopedia of FermentedMilk Products: An International Inventory of Fermented Milk. NewYork: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 19922.
Lactobacillus Adophilus. April 2002. 8 April 2007.<http://www.
umm.edu/altmed/ConsSupplements/Lactobacillusacidophiluscs.html3. What Is Milk, 2005.
8 April 2007.http://www.havemilk.com/article.
asp?id=58054. Hillman, Kelvin. Probiotics Of A Ruminant Livestock: A Brief Review.8 April 2007.