Literature Review on Online Gaming

Table of Content


Chapter 2


The old chapter explained the intent of this survey which is to map out and see the relationship between MMORPG game participant personalities and manner based on participant type theory and game players’ believing penchants in order to increase gross revenues, chance to better in game development and use believing penchant to offer personalize in-game merchandise or publicity by utilizing model of Player type theory and Whole encephalon believing penchant theoretical account relationship. This chapter provides a reappraisal of overall construct and theory among different researches from different writers which are discussed with different subjects as follow:

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  1. On-line game
  2. MMORPG game
  3. Player type theory
  4. Whole Brain thought penchant theoretical account

2.1Brief history of PC/online games play of import functions.

Computer games’ influence is turning continuingly as research shows that the age of kids playing games continue to be younger and internet use among kids becomes more popular. Furthermore, the cyberspace entree has become widespread since 1990s, which impacted people’s working, socialising and behaviours ( Dindar & A ; Akbulut, 2014 ) . The Internet become an of import media function in information age particularly for kids and young person who are a group that influences by cyberspace usage ( Makesrithongkum, 2009 ) . The cyberspace besides has a great impact on marketing constructs particularly in the game sectors in footings of alarming relationship selling activities with clients ( Maklan & A ; Klaus, 2011 ) .

Online games become synergistic because they allow game participants around the universe to interact with each other in one individual platform. Finally, on-line games began to going the of import factor of our societal civilization ( Nuangjumnonga & A ; Mitomo, 2012 ) and ( Williams et al. , 2008 ) . Online games besides bring people together to organize society which participants interact with each other in practical universe that are ever on. These universes, called “massively multiplayer on-line games” or MMOs ( Steinkuehler & A ; Williams, 2006 ) .

As the computing machines and on-line games market grew quickly many people particularly teenager spend great sums of clip playing on-line games ( Boyle, Connolly, & A ; Hainey, 2011 ; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Toledo-Delgado, Collazos-Ordonez, & A ; Gonzalez-Sanchez, 2014 ) . Challenges for marketing industry in measuring of on-line game players’ interaction with a game become critical since it is an of import key for company sustainability ( Tony, Richard, & A ; Paul, 2009 ) . Furthermore, there is a few cognition about how client experiences on on-line game that would be from their ingestion which might be interpreted into client value perceptual experience ( Iyanna, Bosangit, & A ; Mohd-Any, 2012 ) .

2.2Brief history of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games ( MMORPGs ) play of import functions.

The history of MMORPG was born in 1970s and was started as a “Multi User Dungeons ( MUDs ) ” on the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network ( ARPANET ) back in the mid-1970s and presently this industry is continue to turn quickly ( Daniel & A ; Daniel, 2012, fellow. 41 ; Hou et al. , 2011 ; Lo & A ; Wen, 2010 ; Rezaei & A ; Ghodsi, 2014 ) . MMORPGs are signifier of MUD games that offer a relentless 3D practical universe to back up 1000s of participants to playing together on the Internet or PCs ( Lo & A ; Wen, 2010 ) . “In an MMORPG, the universe exists before the user logs on, and continues to be when the user logs off” ( Yee, 2006 ) .

In the twelvemonth of 2003, “Ragnarok Online” , on of MMORPG licensed from Gravity Corporation, South Korea. It was localized into Thai linguistic communication to function Thai gamers. “This game was an huge success, with the highest peak Concurrent Users of over 110,600” ( ASIASOFT CORPORATION PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED, 2013 ) .

Massively multiplayer on-line role-playing games ( MMORPGs ) provide game participants many game-play options. It allow participants to link and interact with other participants in open-world practical landscapes filled with a assortment of possible activities. It able participants to be able to make and command their ain embodiments to play with others either as Alliess or rivals in 3D graphical picture environments ( Steinkuehler & A ; Williams, 2006 ) . These games attract lots sum of participants of all ages, nationalities, and businesss, and mean playing clip for these games is normally in surplus of 20 Hs per hebdomad ( Griffiths, Davies, & A ; Chappell, 2004 ; Williams et al. , 2008 ; Yee, 2006a ) . The popularity of massively multiplayer on-line role-playing games ( MMORPGs ) makes it really of import to look into how they impact on gamers’ lives ( Zhong, 2011 ) . Furthermore, it is even more of import to understand how to plan a successful MMORPG that can fulfill the mark game participants ( Ang, Zaphiris, & A ; Mahmood, 2007 ; Lo & A ; Wen, 2010 ; Zhong, 2011 ) and retain them ( Hou, Chern, Chen, & A ; Chen, 2011 ) .

In footings of game concern, one of the prima game company in Thailand with the offering of 17 MMORPGs game ( merely count the 1s offer in Thailand ) , Asiasoft Corporation Public Company Limited ( the “Company” or “AS” ) has generate their gross by offering ( 1 ) Air Time sale in which participants have to pay base on their hours of playing MMORPG games ( 2 ) Item sale in which participants able to play MMORPG games free of charge but company will sell in-game points such as equipment, accoutrements or some other points that make that participant go better in someway than other participant who does non buy in-game points. In-game points sometime come with selling run by offering on gross revenues monetary value in order to pull participant to buy them. Presently, gross theoretical account of on-line game has shift from Air Time sale to Item sale. The ground buttocks is that there are more opportunity for game participant to be attracted because they can play MMORPG game for free which besides increase the opportunity to sell in-game points subsequently on ( ASIASOFT CORPORATION PUBLIC COMPANY LIMITED, 2013 ) .

MMORPGs brought a important function in on-line game participant interactions within game industries. MMORPG users experience more complicate gambling behaviour compared to other practical games participants so this issue leads to farther research in the MMORPGs industry ( Stetina, Kothgassner, Lehenbauer, and Kryspin-Exner ( 2011 ) ; Rezaei & A ; Ghodsi, 2014 ) . In package industry, package developer which provide consumers with individualized merchandise based on single penchant have been shown to be better picks ( Murray & A ; Haubl, 2009 ) .

There are multidimensional influences of motivational factors those were comparatively neglected in old related surveies including research of ( Nuangjumnonga & A ; Mitomo, 2012 ) which has done the research that seek for the correlativity that exists between character functions in games and leading in mundane life. The research is about functions in the game and leading manners are linked and how they influence each other utilizing ( Multiplayer online conflict sphere ) MOBA game genre and three manners of leading which develop from IBM’s research undertaking. The research workers besides conduct a study sing gameplay behaviours and leading behaviours distributed in Thailand to place the game roles which taken by the game participants and besides to place their leading manners. The consequence shows correlativities between relationship of game and leading manner.

Some of research reference about bet oning environment have enormous impact and participants are motivated to prosecute them ( Ryan, Rigby, & A ; Przybylski, 2006 ) . There are theories of motives that have been applied to game and motivate participant. Yee ( 2007 ) has presented surveies focus on ( Massively Multiplayer Online ) MMO games that involve with participants interact in practical environment ( in game ) through on-line game character. In his research, he identified different factor analysis including overarching, non-exclusive, motivations. These factors were derived from Bartle’s type theory.

Another theory has been address which is called Self-government. In its early development, research worker focal point on motive based on the built-in satisfactions derived from action ( Ryan & A ; Deci, 2000a ) . Base on Self-determination theory, intrinsic motive is the nucleus type of motive underlying drama and athletics ( Frederick & A ; Ryan, 1993, 1995 ; Ryan, Rigby, & A ; Przybylski, 2006 ) , and it is a type of motive related to computing machine game engagement in which people typically play these games because they are per se fulfilling ( Malone & A ; Lepper, 1987 ; Ryan, Rigby, & A ; Przybylski, 2006 ) or, as Bartle ( 2004 ) province that participants are seeking “fun” .

2.3Player type theory

One of the major concern about MMORPGs survey is to place the motives of game participants to prosecute in bet oning environments. Bartle’s ( 1996 ) participant taxonomy was among the first surveies to depict participant motives in practical universes. Bartle’s ( 1996 ) participant type theory was stated that there are four chief grounds why people continue playing Multi-User Dungeon ( MUDs: ascendants of MMORPGs ) which are to accomplish in the game, infliction others, explore through the game, and socialise with other participants. This theory foremost get down off with taxonomy of game participants of MUDs or Multi-User Dungeon which is the multiplayer on-line game that allow many participants to fall in at the same clip. Harmonizing to Bartle’s participant type theory, there are four things that people typically enjoyed personally about MUDs were:

  1. Accomplishment within the game context – Players set ends or mission by themselves and seek to accomplish them. In MMORPG game, they would be the 1s that try to derive point and deriving degree as their chief end. They will research merely to seek for new points or hoarded wealth. Socializing is needed when they wants to cognize about how to bettering their points in the game and addition cognition to use to be better participant in the game. They will be killing others merely to extinguish challengers or acquire rid of people who get in the manner or deriving some point which awarded from killing other participants. Achievers are concentrating on maestro the game. They analyze which manner they would carry through the game and accomplish them establish on their action. They focus on moving ( function drama in the game, mission and end ) and universe ( game environment that makes them accomplish something in the game ) .
  2. Exploration of the game – Players try to cognize every bit much as possible about the practical universe in footings of mapping. They normally go in the wild and out-of the manner topographic points. They seek for interesting topographic points and characteristics in the game. Scoring point is merely necessary when it allows participant to be able to entree to other new topographic points. They focus on interacting with the universe. They are proud from cognizing about the game more than other participants.
  3. Socializing with others – Players use the role-playing game to interact with other participants. They involvement in people over than context of the game itself. Scoring point is merely necessary when it allows participant to be able to derive entree to some communicating which available merely for the 1 who meet the mark. Exploration is merely necessary for participants when they merely want to cognize what others are speaking about. Killing is merely for retaliation upon person who has cause hurting to a friend.
  4. Imposition upon others – Players use tools provided by the game to pique other participants. They normally find arms and use it to another participant in the game. Knowledge about the game does non needed but merely necessitate when it can use to the individual. They are proud of their repute and combat accomplishments.

Figure 5: Player type theory graph

2.4Whole encephalon thought theoretical account

In the yesteryear, there are Numberss of researches that have tried to place believing manner of people. There are some theories and research which able to place different thought manner which will be apply in this research. Whole encephalon thought penchant theoretical account was develop in the twelvemonth of 1996. This instrument is based on belief that parts of the encephalon ( left and right hemisphere, intellectual and limbic encephalon ) signifier a grid that divide into quarter-circles ensuing in different encephalon laterality of each individual ( Orcik, Vrgovic, & A ; Tekic, 2013 ) .

2.4.1 Triune Brain theory

Triune Brain theory was invented by Paul McLean in 1968. The theory itself separate human encephalon into three beds which works otherwise for each portion ( McLean, 1990 ) . It consists of the reptilian encephalon ( nucleus encephalon ) , the limbic system ( mid bed ) , and the intellectual system ( outer bed ) ( McLean, 1990aˆ¬ ) which is described as follows:

The Reptilian encephalon functional to command every basic map of our life. It maintains forms and wonts of human organic structure and controls crude behaviour, esthesis, and endurance. Environment does minimum effects to this portion of encephalon.

The Limbic system is considered to be primary centres of emotion thought, signifier and sequence which play a cardinal function in memory transmutation and retrieval ( Andrew, 2001 ) . McLean acknowledges that the senses we feel about the reason of our ideas has its roots in this system of emotional intelligence ( McLean, 1990 ) .

The Cerebral system ( Neocortex ) is a portion that does all planning, analysis, synthesis, concluding thought, job resolution and decision-making which see to be the most complex portion. It supply logical and formal operational thought possible and allows us to be after for the hereafter. It is kept all gained cognition and allows us to recycle that cognition in the hereafter.

2.4.2 Left Brain/Right Brain theory

Theory of Left Brain/Right Brain was discovered in 1970 by Roger Sperry. The experiments revealed that the left and right hemispheres of the encephalon were really working independently from each other. Right side of the encephalon map as acknowledging faces, showing emotions, musical ability, intuition, creativeness, wit and metaphor. However, left side of the encephalon is able to work as analytical, linguistic communication, logic, critical thought, Numberss, clip sequencing and logical thinking.

2.4.3 Whole Brain thought penchant theoretical account

Whole Brain Thinking is the ability for persons to move outside of their ain preferable Thinking Preference ( Brian, 2011 ) . Each person has their ain laterality believing penchant hence, tools to mensurate is needed. Ned Herrmann bunch homo encephalon into four different parts by uniting between the theory of Triune Brain ( McLean, 1990 ) and Left Brain and Right Brain theory ( Roger, 1985 ; Springer and Deutch, 1985 ) . Ned Hermann developed the Whole encephalon theoretical account that can be measured each individual and categorise them into one of the four quarter-circles by utilizing Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument as a tool. The consequence shows grade of laterality of a individual in four believing constructions of human encephalon.

The Whole Brain theoretical account divided human encephalon into a grid that contains four equal quarter-circles, and labeled by utilizing foremost four letters of alphabet to bespeak A as an upper left quarter-circle, B as a lower left quarter-circle, C as a lower right quarter-circle, and D as an upper right quarter-circle. The letters A and D represent the intellectual system, and the letters B and C represent the limbic system ( Herrmann, 1996 ; Brian, 2011 ) as shown in the figure below and depict subsequently on.


Figure 6:Whole Brain Model

Quadrant A refers to Analyzer who deals with logical, analytical, fact based, and quantitative. Analyzer tends to believe logically, analyze facts and procedure Numberss. Persons who rely in this quarter-circle will execute logic believing to make job resolution and have realistic thought ( Rittippant, Ruyaporn, Hongpaisanvivat, Limrahaphan, & A ; Kasemweerakul, 2013 ) .

Quadrant B refers to Organizer who deals with organisation, consecutive thought, planning and item. Organizer tends to do everything goes swimmingly and absolutely based on their programs. Persons who rely in this quarter-circle besides like to acquire things done on clip. They are detail oriented and does non utilize emotion to do a determination and tend to avoid hazards and do everything cautiously ( Rittippant, Ruyaporn, Hongpaisanvivat, Limrahaphan, & A ; Kasemweerakul, 2013 ) .

Quadrant C refers to Personalizer who deals with kinaesthetic, emotional, feelings based and interpersonal accomplishments. Personalizer tends to be people-oriented and stamp. Persons who rely in this quarter-circle ever care others’ feeling and looks to other people’s values. They will be a friendly, swearing and empathic individual ( Rittippant, Ruyaporn, Hongpaisanvivat, Limrahaphan, & A ; Kasemweerakul, 2013 ) .

Quadrant D refers to Visualizer who deals with intuitive thought, integrating, synthesizing, and a holistic attack. Visualizer tends to be able to see the large image and seek to work out job based on their inherent aptitude. Persons who rely in this quarter-circle are airy and inventive. They like altering, disputing and hazard pickings ; dislikes any signifiers of regulations and ordinances ( Rittippant, Ruyaporn, Hongpaisanvivat, Limrahaphan, & A ; Kasemweerakul, 2013 ) .

Each of human being has different encephalon laterality. Furthermore, most people tend to hold at least one dominant or preferred quadrant based on whole encephalon theoretical account. There are no better or worse among each of laterality quarter-circles. Finally, each of the laterality quarter-circles will show Thinking Preference in that individual. These will take to different game playing manner in MMROPG genre.

2.4.4 Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument ( HBDI )

Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument ( HBDI ) is a tool to mensurating the grade of penchant between each of the four person thought constructions ( quarter-circles ) and each of the four-paired constructions ( manners ) . HBDI is the lone appraisal based on the metaphor of how our encephalon really works. It is merely used to find thought manners and penchant instead than the psychological science of personality or behaviour. The Whole Brain theoretical account divided human encephalon into four equal quarter-circles, and labeled by utilizing foremost four letters of alphabet including A as an upper left quarter-circle, B as a lower left quarter-circle, C as a lower right quarter-circle, and D as an upper right quarter-circle. The letters A and D represent the intellectual system, and the letters B and C represent the limbic system ( Herrmann, 1995 ; Brian, 2011 ) .

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