Logic

Is communication e cattle without the logical connectives such as or, ND, implies, not, if and only if ? - Logic introduction ?? [200 words] 5. Why we treat mathematical truths as certain? Why in logic we me- aphasia on autologies” 2 rather than contradictions? [200 words] (Consistency) an attribute of a logical system that Is so constituted that none of the propositions deducible from the axioms contradict one another 4. [n] – a harmonious uniformity or agreement among things or parts Tautology: a statement that is necessarily true (like 2+2-4) 1 6. What is wrong with the following argument?

The more you study, the more you learn. The more you learn, the more you know. The more you know, the more you forget. The more you forget, the less you know. The less you know, the less you learn. So, why study? 7. Analyze the following argument: God is All Powerful, omnipotent and omniscient. If God can do anything, can He create something that even He can’t a etc? (e: A stone so heavy that He can’t lift It) God can do anything that Is Possible. Even God can’t do something that Is not possible to be done Can God create a stone so heavy that even He can not lift it? 8.

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In a harsh totalitarian country an innocent person is arrested on Sunday evening and Marilyn condemned to execution, which they are told will take place on one of the following eve mornings. To make matters worse, they are told that they will not know the day before which morning it will be. After several hours torment the prisoner fails into a peaceful sleep as they realize that such a threat cannot be carried out. They reasoned thus: The execution cannot take place on Friday morning; for if they are still alive on Thursday night then the execution must take place on Friday.

But they were told that they would not know the day before which day it would be. So it cannot be Friday, and so Friday can be counted out as a possibility. But by the same reasoning it cannot be Thursday either. For if they are still alive on Wednesday night then the execution must take place on Thursday. But they were told that they would not know the day before which day it would be. So it cannot be Thursday, and so Thursday can be counted out as a possibility. But by the same reasoning it cannot be Wednesday either……. The same reasoning covers Wednesday, Tuesday and Monday and so the prisoner can have a sound nights sleep.

The prisoner is, however, greatly surprised to ND themselves facing the executioner on Wednesday (or indeed any other) morning. What went wrong with the prisoner’s reasoning? Write down the steps clearly and show how paradox 3 arises in the above situation? Paradox: An apparently sound argument leading to a contradiction. Some famous 2 PHI 142: Introduction to Logic Mid Semester Exam Date: 19 February 2013 Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology Kanata Answer all of the following questions. Write answers in a separate booklet.

Max. Marks: 30 Time: 2 hours; 17. 30-19. 30 PM We may define faith as the firm belief in something for which there is no evidence. Where there is evidence, no one speaks of . We do not speak of faith that two and two are four or that the earth is round. We only speak of faith when we wish to substitute emotion for evidence. …… Bertrand Russell Answer whether the following statements are True or False. Justify it prefer- ably with a very short answer. 1. The following argument is valid: If computers can reason, they can ask questions. Computers can reason.

Therefore, computers can ask questions . The following argument is an instance of Fallacy of accident fallacy . ” Oh my lord, don’t take any courses in the biology department not even as open elective, as they are really tough and terrible. I took EBBS:322 and it was a disaster. ” 3. The categorical propositions, All who are non intelligent are non-college students and all who are college students are intelligent are contradictory to each other 4. I am sure that you will agree that we should not vote Mr.. Panky Saxons for the next presidential elections in this hostel.

If he gets elected, we will all be deprived of mom of the privileges that we are enjoying at this moment. Anyone not agreeing with this will be fired immediately from this wing A-top. In the above argument, the arguer is said to be committing straw-man fallacy. 5. False Cause fallacy is committed when the conclusion rests on the presumption of a causal link between two phenomena, when in fact all that has been shown is a correlation. No concepts are expressive intuitions on aversion converts to All concepts are non- expressive intuitions 7.

The categorical propositions, All logic students are bright people No logic students are non-bright people re contradictory to each other. 8. The following argument is invalid If Newton’s theory is correct, then light should not be deflected by gravity. In this experiment, we can see that light is deflected by gravity. Therefore, Newton’s theory is not correct PHI 142: Introduction to Logic Mid Semester Exam Date: 19 February 2013 2. Which of the following passages contains arguments and which are not I. E. , Non-arguments 1 . If there is one theme that will be the topic of digital business this year, it is mobile.

Commerce, which tracks Web and mobile usage, published a report about what hap- need in 2012, and what to expect in 2013. It shows that the effects of a movement toward mobile are everywhere, from shopping to media to search. According to the report, “2013 could spell a very rocky economic transition,” and businesses will have to scramble to stay ahead of consumers changing behavior (anytime. Com). 2. Ordinary glass is soda lime glass and is a mixture of silicates of sodium, potassium, calcium and aluminum etc. It is brittle because its molecular structure is composed of tetrahedral crystals.

These crystals do not have a good large area orderly resealing structure. 3. People are not free, although human freedom has been highly prized throughout our history. Its value is affirmed by religious doctrines. Civil and criminal Justice systems incorporate the idea that behavior is freely chosen into sentencing guidelines. Clearly it has been an important concept in many areas of human activity. 3. Identify the type of Fallacy of Weak Induction from the following arguments 1 . I cracked most of my crucial exams (board exams) in the past while wearing my green tea shirt and writing an exam with my parker pen.

Therefore, green color tea hire with a parker pen is a lucky combination and brought lot of success. Hence I should not forget to take it when I go for an exam again for achieving success in the exam. 2. If once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he comes next to drinking and Sabbath breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Once begin upon this downward path, you never know where you are to stop. Many a man has dated his ruin from some murder or other that perhaps he thought little of at the time. 3.

Famous theologian William Palely argument from design suggests that a watch and the universe are similar as both display order and complexity. If order and complexity constitute evidence of design in the case of a watch, though, then they must also constitute evidence of the product of intelligent design that the universe must be a product of intelligent design too. 4. In 1742, Christian Goldberg conjectured that every even number greater than 2 is the sum of two primes. Mathematicians have been trying to prove Schoolbag’s conjecture ever since, but no one has succeeded in doing so.

After two and a half entries, I think we can safely conclude that Goldberg was wrong. 4. Identify the type of Fallacies of Relevance 4 committed by the following arguments. Justify your answer with a brief explanation 1 . Social Security old age benefits ensure you can retire with dignity. If you become injured or are unable to work, Social Security disability benefits will help keep you afloat. But, Mrs.. Sheila’s arguments against cuts in Social Security are worthless. As a recipient of Social Security benefits, she would naturally be expected to argue exactly the way she does. Page 2 of 4

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