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Lyndon B. Johnson and Conspiracy Theories Mark Canne



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    Lyndon B. Johnson and Conspiracy Theories  Lyndon Baines Johnson also commonly nicknamed as LBJ was born on August 27, 1908 near Johnson City, Texas and became the thirty-sixth President of the United States. Because of a murder of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy in his home state, Lyndon Johnson was able to assume the role as the first Texan president and fulfill his lifelong dream of becoming one.

    HeritageLBJ once claimed that his white-haired grandfather rode his black stallion and thundered across Texas Hill the day he was born to shout at every farm that, “A United States Senator was born this morning”.[1] No one pledged remembrance over that ride into Texas Hill, nor the old man’s shout but Lyndon Johnson’s relatives claimed however that his definite features were of the Bunton strain clearly manifested in LBJ’s blood which included “magnolia white” skin, towering height of over six feet, wavy black hair, heavy and darkened eyebrows and piercing black eyes.[2] Of the usual characteristics of his Bunton ancestors, LBJ had inherited their drive for ambition in a grand scale along the Texas frontiers.  Records revealed that history was not unkind to the Buntons as LBJ’s heritage dated back to the pioneering Texas settlers who raised cattle for a living.

    The initial phase of the Bunton heritage in Texas prospered during the 1850’s and saw success until 20 years later when the market became flooded with cattle growers which substantially lowered their price.The first Bunton, John Wheeler arrived in Texas among a group of riders in the plains of Bastrop in 1835.[3] He was elected as a delegate to the constitutional convention that signed the Texas Declaration of Independence and a member of the committee that wrote the constitution of the new republic.[4] A few years later, John was joined by his brothers, one of whom was Robert, LBJ’s great grandfather who decided to live in Texas for good.

    The family fought under a Lost Cause during the Civil War along with their sons and grandsons, and Robert in his old age became an idealist who often spoke about the government.On his mother’s side of the family, LBJ descended from a pioneer Baptist clergyman, George Washington Baines, who was a church pastor of eight churches in Texas as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana.[5] George Baines who was the grandfather of Johnson’s mother Rebekah was also the president of Baylor University.Early LifeLyndon was the eldest and considered the only child for three months after his birth on August 27, 1908 to Sam Ealy Johnson Jr.

    and Rebekah Baines of Stonewall, Texas.[6] LBJ’s status as an only child in the family was foiled after he earned 3 more sisters, Rebekah, Josefa and Lucia and a brother named Sam Houston who grew up with him in a farmhouse along the poor district of the Pedernales River. Rebekah always saw to it that the children were dressed differently with the boys in sailor outfits or linen suits and the girls in dresses and pinafores and lace bonnets when they attended the Baptist Church where they were religiously affiliated.[7] Rebekah was a strong influence on LBJ who practically dominated her son and encouraged him to succeed.

    As a rule Johnson had started rebelling but sooner sought success with power and money as the negotiable consequence.[8]At the age of four, Lyndon Johnson began running to the nearby one-room “Junction School” one mile down the road daily to play with his cousins at recess.[9] This daily trips soon allowed the teacher a Miss Kathryn Deadrich, to take him as a pupil. Young Lyndon was brought up neither poor or in luxury and rode to school on his pony.

    The family soon moved to nearby Johnson City, named for Lyndon’s forebears where the young Lyndon entered first grade.[10] Money was not plenty for the family which made the teenager earn by delivering newspaper and shining shoes. With generally exemplary grades, Rebekah Johnson was decided that Lyndon should receive adequate education. Grandma Baines had once said that the young Lyndon was going to the penitentiary one day-and she would have been right had Lyndon not established enough connections early.

    Johnson became an awkward but talkative youth who soon graduated from Johnson City High School in 1924.[11] By 1925, LBJ was a hardworking teenager who worked as an elevator operator in San Bernardino, California based on his own accounts in a speech in 1964. He worked at any job he could get his hands on from waiting on tables to farm work until he became homesick. Soon he went to Southwest Texas State College in San Marcos Texas majoring in history while working as a janitor.

    [12] He once told a girl he went with in college, “I’ll see you in Washington”.[13] Soon he worked his way up through sheer hard work and diligence and obtained a better paying job at the school president’s office.[14] He graduated in 1930 with a baccalaureate degree, a far cry from his humble roots as an individual. After graduation, LBJ taught at the public school in Houston before being fascinated with politics and left his teaching post to join the newly elected Richard M.

    Kleberg in the House of Representatives as his secretary in Washington.[15] It should bear firm remembrance that Kleberg was a close friend to LBJ’s father during his campaign. While LBJ was with Kleberg for three years, he learned how Congress worked and was soon elected speaker for the “Little Congress” as a voice got the congressional workers where he made friends with Congressmen, media men and lobbyists.[16] He also became friends with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s aides that became important in his rise.

    Soon he decided to enroll and attended evening classes at the Georgetown University Law School in Washington D.C.[17]In 1934 during a vacation back home, Lyndon began courting the third young woman he was interested in, Miss Claudia Alta Taylor, of Karnack, Texas, 24 hours after they met.[18] Lady Bird, as she was known to her friends agreed to become LBJ’s wife two months later on November 17, 1934 in St.

    Mark’s Episcopal Church in San Antonio, Texas.[19] Lady Bird was a loving wife and mother and became a valuable political adviser the overbearing Johnson.[20] Lady Bird inherited from her father not only the controlling interest of the family’s ranch and his finances which provided the family with financial stability and fortune in the early 1940’s.[21]Political CareerAn earlier position at the Texas National Youth Administration enabled LBJ to create job opportunities for the younger people which soon became his leverage when running for Congress two years later.

    Before the program ended during World War II, LBJ had made contact with numerous students, clerks and maintenance workers and put non-students to work through this program that has benefited Texas today. He had resigned from representative Kleberg’s office to accept the position as the youngest state of Texas Director of the National Youth Administration (NYA) that worked to provide vocational training for unemployed youth and part-time employment for needy students.[22] Soon he resigned as Texas Director of the National Youth Administration to enter the special election for the 10th Congressional District after the death of Representative James P. Buchanan of Brenham.

    [23] Johnson had known that this was his chance and his connection and support with FDR’s office and his New Deal Platform handily won him the April 10 elections against nine other candidates. Soon Johnson was successfully elected to the House of Representatives in 1937 and used his campaign promise that: “If the day ever comes when my vote was cast to send your boy to the trenches, that day Lyndon Johnson will leave his Senate seat and go with him.”[24]In Congress, Johnson worked hard for rural electrification, public housing, and eliminating government waste in his Texas district. Although nearly 90 percent of city dwellers had electricity by the 1930s, few was existent in the rural districts as energy suppliers complained against the cost of stringing electrical lines to isolated rural farmsteads.

    The Roosevelt Electrification Administration (REA) however believed that if private enterprise could not supply electric power to the people, then it was the duty of the government to do so. Under the umbrella of the national government, electricity became available to farmlands to the farmer’s cost.[25] Such action became favorable to rural residents as private utilities began to electrify the countryside as well. Electrification proceedings made a lot of money as appliances were sold at local power companies and electric cooperatives where rural residents could buy them with loans offered with low-cost financing.

    It did not however stop migration and draining of farm communities in favor of the big cities.In the meantime, President Roosevelt found Johnson to be a welcome ally and conduit for information, particularly on issues relative to Texas’ internal politics, the machinations of Vice President Garner and House Speaker Sam Rayburn.[26] Roosevelt’s gratitude included helping Johnson obtain approval of rural electrification project with LBJ’s friends like Edward Clark who worked for the Governor of Texas. The two men became close friends.

    Later, Clark became a lawyer in Austin and helped to guide Johnson’s political career.[27] Clark also introduced Johnson to important figures in the oil industry such as Clint Murchison and Haroldson L. Hunt who both established an ongoing mutually beneficial relationship. While holding the office, Johnson conveniently steered infrastructure projects towards contractors whom he personally knew like brothers Herman and George Brown who financed most of Johnson’s political career.

    In 1940, LBJ was appointed to the Naval Affairs Committee at the prodding of FDR.[28] He earned such power in the Naval Affairs committee and likewise gained unpopularity with others for his many deals favoring his friends and close associates.[29]Military CareerThe bombing of Pearl Harbor made Johnson the first Congressional member to volunteer for active duty in the Armed Forces (Navy Division) who reported for duty on December 9, 1941. The Air Force Corp Reserve according to Johnson, did not meet the specific objectives of the 1920 Defense act but was soon organized to meet the demands of World War II under his tutelage.

    He had asked with the help of powerful friends the Undersecretary of the Navy Reserves, James Forrestal to give him a combat assignment and was instead ordered to inspect shipyard facilities in Texas and on the West Coast following a recommendation made by Forrestal to FDR. This soon prove beneficial as this gave Johnson ample opportunity to investigate and assign work projects to his friends with the aid of Forrestal who twisted tails to “keep the work in the hands of Lyndon’s friends.”[30]Johnson had reported back to Roosevelt, to the Navy leaders, and to Congress, that the conditions were highly unacceptable in the shipyard facilities he had inspected. According to him, the facilities were inferior to the Japanese planes, and fighter’s morale was bad.

    He also told Forrestal that the Pacific Fleet had a critical need for 6,800 additional experienced men. Johnson prepared a twelve-point program to upgrade the effort in the region, stressing “greater cooperation and coordination within the various commands and between the different war theaters.” Forrestal in turn was marauded with problems as he locked horns with Air Force Secretary Stuart Symington over rising defense spending but maintained close friendships and association with LBJ.[31] Congress had already made Johnson as chairman of a high-powered subcommittee of the Naval Affairs committee who probed into the peacetime “business as usual” inefficiencies that permeated the naval war and demanded that admirals shape up and get the job done.

    [32]Johnson’s mission had a significant impact in upgrading the South Pacific theater and in helping along the entire naval war effort where LBJ’s biographer once concluded that, “The mission was a temporary exposure to danger calculated to satisfy Johnson’s personal and political wishes, but it also represented a genuine effort on his part, however misplaced, to improve the lot of America’s fighting men.”[33] Soon Johnson conveniently reported to General Douglas MacArthur in Australia and was purportedly assigned a high risk mission of bombing the Japanese airbase at Lae in New Guinea.[34] Not long after, MacArthur awarded LBJ the Silver Star, the military’s third-highest medal, for going into the front line.[35]Many stories questioned LBJ’s deployment in Australia but it would be convenient for FDR to send his favored congressman to General Douglas MacArthur’s command in the Pacific after promising him men and artillery.

    By sending Lyndon Johnson, Roosevelt might have been offering MacArthur and his staff a small gesture of concern to help sustain morale until desperate help and aid could begin to arrive in the region.[36] General George C. Marshall’s staff remembered how they were once tasked to escort four congressmen to the combat area,[37] which was of course a political charade that aside from getting war attention and support back home, earned LBJ generous points and popularity. After deployment in Lae at LBJ’s insistence to observe an air raid, FDR had enough of congress representatives absent from congress duty and had them released from active war duty and returned to their offices in July 16, 1942.

    [38]Senate CareerThe first time Lyndon Baines Johnson ran for US Senate, he lost against W. Lee “Pappy” O’ Daniel expectedly but put up a good fight against the popular governor and radio personality.[39] The second time he did after his military stint and exposure, he succeeded although highly controversial as Johnson faced a famed former governor, Coke Stevenson on a  three-way Democratic Party along with a third candidate. Johnson drew crowds to fairgrounds aboard a rented helicopter, raised money to flood the state with campaign circulars, and won over conservatives by voting for the Taft-Hartley act curbing unions and by criticizing unions on the stump.

    [40] Coke Stevenson actually came in first, but without a majority, a runoff was held. Johnson campaigned even harder, in comparison to Stevenson’s poor efforts. As both candidates edged for the lead with the state Democratic committee handling the count it finally announced that Johnson won by 87 votes. [41] Many indeed believed that the 87 votes were in fact manufactured votes that certified Johnson’s senate nomination.

    One is attached to Temple publisher Frank W. Mayborn’s rushing back to Texas from a business trip in Nashville, Tennessee to cast his vote. Another allegation is John B. Connally’s involvement with 202 ballots in Duval County that had curiously been cast in alphabetical order and strengthens ideas that Johnson had the election rigged in Duval County as well as rigging 10,000 ballots in Bexar County alone.

    [42]Such an election of 87 votes were backed by Texas oil men Sid Richardson and Clint Murchison that caused J. Hoover to investigate and later had the whole affair forgotten in no time.[43] John Cofer who was a criminal attorney for Clark, Thomas and Winters, represented Lyndon B. Johnson during this accusation of ballot-rigging.

    The altered results generated charges of fraud as Stevenson realized that he had won the actual election and Johnson’s victory was delegated to his ability to manipulate final election returns.[44] Stevenson already had an idea how George Parr, the known duke of Texas counties could manage elections and arranged for landslides in his area and therefore declared the results in James Wells and Duvall counties open to suspicion. Stevenson tried enlisting the help of state and federal officials yet none was readily willing to contradict a famed and politically-backed figure like Johnson. State Democratic convention also upheld Johnson’s election win with the help of Johnson’s friend Abe Fortas and countered Stevenson with thirty possible election irregularities in his counter which soon silenced any allegations.

    [45]Yet Stevenson would not give up his fight and instead took the case to the federal court of Judge T. Whitfield Davidson who was the Federal Judge in North Texas, who in turn set the hearing on September 21. Johnson’s nine attorneys led by Abe Fortas appealed to the State Supreme Court and mapped out their strategy to overcome Stevenson’s challenge.[46] Their first line of defense was to argue that the federal court had no jurisdiction in the matter and drew up a motion citing two reasons why Judge Davidson should throw Stevenson’s petition.

    Unable to persuade Davidson, the lawyers appealed to Associate Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, an FDR appointee who was responsible for the 5th circuit. With Black’s help, the lawyers and Johnson were able to acquire a court order which saved Johnson from appearing in Davidson’s courtroom and effectively maneuvered his win and tagged himself with the nickname “Landslide Lyndon,” to refer to him.Both Dallek and Caro regard Johnson as one of the most effective Senate Majority Leaders in history as he was more than adept in gathering information to prove his cause. His close connections with media personalities and clerks allowed him information privy only to the eyes and ears of office staff and their bosses yet such was readily made available to LBJ.

    Work became a huge part of LBJ’s life with his magnificent personality while he gained the support of Washington attorneys and officials.LBJ exercised politeness during his first year in the Senate and earned attention and support from the powerful Senator Richard Russell of Georgia. Although both were of different personalities, LBJ was able to tone down Russell who was a lonely bachelor.[47] As a result of this cultivation and after a 12 seat Democratic majority to two, Johnson’s cultivation of other senators including Russell catapulted him into running for party Whip.

    [48] Although such position did not carry a power, it did help LBJ from the rut of a freshman senator and enlarged his recognition in newspapers to ensure his likely reelection.Family fortune had already risen and Lady Bird’s Johnson’s radio station KTBC which she acquired when she inherited money from her father through LBJ’s powerful friends had amassed enough. She signed over to the Texas broadcasting Company for $448,000 her radio station while looking forward to the possibility of acquiring an FCC license to construct a Very High Frequency (VHF) television facility in Austin. Yet Lyndon’s favorable position allowed the family to get hold of the Ultra High frequency (UHF) Station in Austin instead.

    [49] The Preparedness Investigating Subcommittee became Johnson’s baby at this time as investigations were conducted regarding defense costs and efficiency. In January 1953, he was chosen by his fellow Democrats to be the minority leader of the Senate and LBJ became the youngest man ever named to the post.Josefa Johnson and John KinserJosefa Johnson, the younger sister of Lyndon B. Johnson, married early and was divorced in 1937.

    She married three years after to Williard White, a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army and got divorced in 1945. She then took an interest in politics and helped LBJ in his successful 1948 senatorial campaign. In 1955 she married James B. Moss despite being an alcoholic and was often admitted to the hospital several times with health problems.

    It was rumored that Josefa had affairs with John Kinser who opened a golf course in Austin. Kinser had asked Josefa if she could arrange for her brother to loan him some money and Johnson interpreted this as a blackmail threat after learning how Josefa had told Kinser about some of her brother’s corrupt activities.[50]On 22nd October, 1951, Mac Wallace went to Kinser’s miniature golf course and shot him several times in his golf shop before escaping in his station wagon. A customer at the golf course had heard the shooting and managed to make a note of Wallace’s license plate which enabled the police force to use this information to arrest Wallace.

    Mac Wallace was charged with murder but was released on bail after Edward Clark, of the Clark, Winters and Thomas Law firm attorney arranged for two of Johnson’s financial supporters, M. E. Ruby and Bill Carroll, to post bonds on behalf of the defendant.[51] Johnson’s attorney, John Cofer, also agreed to represent Wallace with Wallace distancing himself from LBJ.

    The jury soon found Wallace guilty of “murder with malice afore-thought” and eleven of the jurors were for the death penalty. The twelfth however argued for life imprisonment and the presiding judge overruled the jury and announced a sentence of five years imprisonment. He soon suspended the sentence and Wallace was immediately freed. Josefa Johnson died of a cerebral hemorrhage on 25th December, 1961.

    Twenty-three years later, Douglas Caddy, wrote to Stephen S. Trott at the U.S. Department of Justice and claimed that Billie Sol Estes, Lyndon B.

    Johnson, Mac Wallace and Cliff Carter had been involved in the murders of several people including Josefa Johnson and John Kinser.[52]Lyndon Johnson’s first action in the senate was to eliminate the seniority system in appointment to a committee thereby favoring him at the same time. In 1954, Johnson was re-elected to the Senate, and since the Democrats won the majority in the Senate, Johnson became its majority leader. As the Majority Leader, Johnson was responsible for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957, which guaranteed open housing, accommodations, public transit, and restaurants after World War II and stronger demands for equal rights for minority groups.

    [53] In the early 1950’s, most Southern senators opposed a bill that promoted a sweeping change and stuck to the beliefs and desires of their constituencies. The demands of Northern senators encompassed demands for voting rights and ability of the federal judiciary to rule on infringements of the law. With clout, the bill passed through despite much anger from the Southern members of the Senate except of course LBJ who was still indecisive at that time. Soon, along with the majority of Southern senators and Richard Russell who wished to propel Senate leader Lyndon Johnson to greater power, the Civil Rights Act of 1957 passed the Senate, and was soon signed by President Eisenhower to become law.

    [54] It was known however how Johnson was able to manipulate people in the senate to support him through the so-called treatment that could last ten minutes or four hours in order to support this act. Assuming a tone that sounded like a supplication or accusation, cajolery, exuberance, scorn, tears, complaint and the hint of threat, he subjected his colleagues and workers to such treatment particularly soon after Johnson was appointed to the Armed Services Committee.[55]The Vice PresidencyJohnson’s success in the Senate as the minority and later on the majority floor leader made him a possible Democratic vice presidential candidate. He was now considered Texas’ “favorite son” and a candidate at the party’s national convention in 1956.

    In 1960, Johnson received 409 votes on the first and only ballot at the Democratic convention, which nominated John F. Kennedy. During the convention, Kennedy designated Johnson as his choice for Vice President without actually expecting Johnson to accept the post. In Kennedy’s desperation to win the elections against Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge, he needed Johnson on the ticket to carry the Southern states, for which LBJ did.

    Johnson at the same time sought a third term in the U.S. Senate while running with Kennedy. His popularity was such that Texas law was changed to permit him to run for two offices at the same time.

    Johnson was reelected senator, with 1,306,605 votes (58 percent) compared to Republican John Tower’s 927,653 (41.1 percent). Fellow Democrat William A. Blakley however was appointed to replace Johnson as Senator, but Blakley lost a special election in May 1961 to Tower thereby posing the idea that the government’s favoritism can no longer extend itself to the populace.

    After the election, Johnson found that he was quite powerless as Kennedy relied greatly on his senior advisors and rarely consulted him. Soon after taking office, Johnson had tried to greatly expand his role as Vice President. He had approved and sent to the White House a draft of an executive order to be signed by JFK that would have made LBJ the deputy president over space and defense programs. Although Kennedy assigned Johnson to take charge of Space Council and to head the Whitehouse in equal employment, the draft was never seen again.

    [56]In fact he was prevented from assuming the vital role that Vice President Richard Nixon had played in energizing the state parties. Kennedy appointed him to nominal jobs such as head of the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities, through which he worked with African Americans and other minorities. Though Kennedy probably intended this to remain a nominal position, Johnson served to force the Kennedy administration’s actions for civil rights further and faster than Kennedy intended to go. Johnson also took on numerous minor diplomatic missions, which gave him limited insights into international issues.

    [57] He was allowed to observe Cabinet and National Security Council meetings but Kennedy did give Johnson control over all presidential appointments involving Texas, and he was appointed chairman of the President’s Ad Hoc Committee for Science. When, the Soviets beat the U.S. with the first manned spaceflight, Kennedy tasked Johnson with coming up with a “scientific bonanza” that would prove world leadership.

    Johnson knew that Project Apollo and an enlarged NASA were feasible, so he steered the recommendation towards a program for landing an American on the moon. Johnson was thus often abroad on missions and took his assignments seriously. Johnson’s quiet operation to the nomination of Robert F. Kennedy to be the Attorney General would be one of the few services Johnson ever did for President Kennedy.

    [58]Estes ScandalIn 1962 reports soon revealed that Kennedy had considered dropping Johnson from being his running mate in the 1964 re- elections due to his involvement with Billie Sol Estes, a scandal-ridden Texas-based financier who later accused Johnson of a variety of crimes, including the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[59] Billie Sol Estes, a Texan had began amassing his fortune through the federal surplus grain program and moved to Pecos, Texas, where he sold irrigation pumps powered by natural gas, using the profits to start another successful business selling anhydrous ammonia fertilizer. The US Department of Agriculture began controlling the price of cotton, specifying quotas to farmers which affected Estes’ businesses.

    He responded by expanding into cotton production himself where he later developed a massive fraud, claiming to grow and store cotton that never existed, then using the cotton as collateral for bank loans. His involvement in Texas state politics allowed him to make political contributions to US senator and later Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson.[60]Estes’ local contact at the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, Henry Marshall, was later found dead in his car (reportedly with five gunshot wounds) on a remote part of his own ranch.[61] Marshall’s death despite the findings was reported to be carbon monoxide poisoning brought about from a hose attached to the exhaust pipe of his car, apparently ruling Estes’ accountant, George Krutilek, was also found dead from carbon monoxide poisoning after being questioned about Estes the day before.

    As a result of these deaths and investigation into his business practices, Estes and several business associates were indicted by a federal grand jury on 57 counts of fraud. According to Estes, Mac Wallace, LBJ’s hit man, clubbed Marshall and gassed him. Wallace then shot Marshall instead and was ruled as suicide with the help of Johnson’s contacts.[62]Estes had been accused of swindling many investors, banks and the federal government out of at least twenty-four million dollars through false agricultural subsidy claims on cotton production and the use of non-existent supplies of anhydrous ammonia fertilizer as collateral for loans.

    [63] Two of Estes’ associates, Harold Orr and Coleman Wade, were also indicted but conveniently died of carbon monoxide poisoning before they went to trial.[64] Estes was found guilty of fraud and sentenced to eight years in prison. Lyndon Johnson had provided and even insisted on providing Estes with his own defense attorney in John Coffer who had represented LBJ in the previous years.[65] Without calling any defense witnesses, Coffer rested Estes’ case apparently to make sure that Estes’ remained silent on LBJ’s involvement.

    [66]Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover had battled one another for control of the Estes for the investigation while Cofer, Johnson’s lawyer had successfully prevented Estes from verbally testifying in Texas or Washington.[67]Estes’ daughter wrote once that “her daddy’s preferential treatment in the Agriculture Department was paved by no other than Lyndon Baines Johnson.

    [68] Estes had originally testified once that he was present when Lyndon Johnson and two other men discussed having Marshall killed because Marshall knew too much about the alleged manipulations of cotton allotments.[69]In a 1984 letter, several years after Kennedy’s assassination and Estes’ trial, Douglas Caddy wrote to a Dept. of Justice Assistant Atty. General Stephen S.

    Trott, Caddy wrote that his client authorized him to inform Trott that Estes was a member of a four man group headed by LBJ who committed criminal acts in Texas in the 60’s. Other people mention was Mac Wallace and Cliff Carter who knew and conducted the murders on Henry Marshall, George Krutilek, Ike Rogers and his secretary, Harold Orr, Coleman Wade, Josefa Johnson, John Kinser and John F. Kennedy.[70]Other testimonies in 1962-63 came out in the grand jury hearing revealed that Johnson approved the killing of Marshall out of fear that Marshall would give LBJ’s involvement to Attorney General Robert F.

    Kennedy, the President’s younger brother.[71] It was already known that no love was ever lost between Robert Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. The deaths of key people prevented further the grand jury from continuing with the investigation and therefore sealing out the truth from the American public.Nevertheless, Estes’ conviction was later overturned as an appeal hinged upon television cameras and broadcast journalists having been allowed in the courtroom, depriving him of a fair trial.

    As a result of this scandal, Kennedy began thinking of dropping Johnson as his running mate in the 1964 election after realizing how the Estes scandal nearly brought Kennedy and Johnson down along with Estes.[72]The Kennedy AssassinationJohnson and Nixon had a common enemy which was Kennedy and both were capable of any crime including murder. Johnson had proven this in the past that he could do it even to his own family or to anybody who stand in the way of his ambition. Kennedy stood in the way against Johnson’s ambition and was a growing beacon against Johnson.

    For Johnson ultimately, Kennedy proved a stronger ally dead than alive as Kennedy’s martyrdom allowed LBJ to hinge on aspects and programs that Kennedy had begun.John Fitzgerald Kennedy, thirty-fifth President of the United States, was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p.m.[73] He was fatally wounded by gunshots while riding with his wife Jacqueline in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza by Lee Harvey Oswald, an employee of the Texas School Book Depository in Dealey Plaza.

    It was likely that all injuries inside the limousine were caused by only two bullets, and thus one shot likely missed the motorcade, but the commission could not determine which of the three. The first shot to hit anyone struck President Kennedy in the upper back, exited at his throat, and likely continued on to cause all of Governor John Connally’s injuries. The second shot to hit anyone fatally struck Kennedy in the head 4.8 to 5.

    6 seconds later. [74] The ten-month investigation of the Warren Commission of 1963-4 and the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) of 1976-9 could not alter any widespread speculation of a conspiracy and how Oswald may have had unspecified co-conspirators.Governor John Connally of Texas had made a special tri to Washington in the Fall of 1963 to convince President Kennedy to visit Texas, especially Dallas and save the Democratic Party from factionalism. Rumors had already started spreading that JFL was not keeping Johnson due to his involvement in the Estes Scandal.

    John Conally, was in fact Lyndon Johnson’s campaign manager for the Presidential nomination. Conally’s connection to Officer J.D. Tippit was through his wife’s counsel, Eugene Locke.

    Officer Tippit, a Dallas, Texas Police Officer was the man who was allegedly slain by Lee Harvey Oswald after Tippit stopped Oswald after Kennedy’s assassination.[75]Although fifty Washington correspondents were in the President’s entourage, at the moment of Kennedy’s assassination, most were corralled inside two press buses and a pool car taking them to downtown Dallas. By the time a few reporters broke loose of the entourage, the President’s car had already sped off to Parkland Hospital and reporters lamented over their loss on the actual coverage.[76] It does seem like innocent authorities and bystanders were deprived of learning the truth.

    Kennedy’s assassination was masterminded by Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson in a widespread, incredibly complex and brilliantly planned conspiracy that involved the Federal Bureau of Investigations directed by J. Edgar Hoover, the Central Intelligence Agency directed by David Atlee Phillips, the Secret Service, the United States Navy, General Curtis LeMay of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Ford Motor Company (for secretly repairing the bullet damage to the limo), the Dallas Police including Dallas mayor Earle Cabell, big oil of Texas, the Texas political establishment, the mafia, and the anti-Castro Cubans.[77] Kuntzler thinks that the Kennedy assassination changed the course of history which is why he has devoted so much time and money to something most people just shrug away with a rueful frown, his normally even-keeled voice rises considerably. Had Kennedy been alive to complete and have him re-elected, there would have been no Vietnam War, where 57,000 Americans died and 300,000 were injured.

    [78]Indeed Kuntzler’s theories spun at first from the fact that Lyndon Johnson was sworn in as the 56th President of the United States, two hours after Kennedy’s assassination in Dallas on board Air Force One. Kuntzler’s study began in 1991 and he followed his research in earnest and came to two conclusions: Lee Harvey Oswald killed no one — neither Dallas police officer Jefferson Davis Tippit nor President John Fitzgerald Kennedy. The government had restructured the evidence to bring it in line with their version of events. In Caro, one can already see the masterful responsibility of LBJ in the Kennedy assassination claiming that LBJ was in fact utterly corrupt.

    Prior to Kennedy’s assassination, JFK had plans to abolish the Federal Reserve System which prints worthless money backed by nothing yet charges interest on it. JFK wanted to use United States Notes, and he signed a presidential document, called Executive Order 11110, on June 4, 1963 that gave clearance to create true money, that would belong to the people, and eliminate the Federal Reserve Bank, and their false money.[79] Kennedy had already begun issuing U.S.

    government money that was free of debt to replace the Federal Reserve dollars we have been using. Such bills were indeed issued – with the heading “United States Note”, instead of “Federal Reserve Note” – but were quickly withdrawn after Kennedy’s death. It was clear that Kennedy was out to eliminate the criminal Federal Reserve System. Interestingly, a day after Kennedy’s assassination, all the United States notes which Kennedy had issued were called out of circulation.

    All of the money President Kennedy had created was destroyed, and not a word was said to the American people.In Kuntzler, the list of co-conspirators who plotted to kill Kennedy included:  LBJ who helped put the plot into motion and was apprised of its workings. Although he was practically a bystander; but as the legitimate beneficiary, he stood to gain more. J.

    Edgar Hoover also threw in his hat because of Kennedy’s plans to oust him as FBI chief. The CIA brass was also incensed by Kennedy’s plan to scale back the agency to the size envisioned by Harry Truman. The Texas oil industry was also furious about Kennedy’s desire to reduce the lucrative oil-depletion allowance. While the Mafia, who’d helped JFK win the 1960 election, was apoplectic at his brother Robert’s redoubled efforts to smash organized crime as attorney general.

    Cuban exiles, still smarting from the Bay of Pigs disaster and being sold out to diffuse the Cuban Missile Crisis, were also mad.  Dallas mayor Earle Cabell, who’s Brother, Charles, was also forced by Kennedy to resign as deputy CIA director after the Bay of Pigs, signed off on the last-minute change in the parade route that would bring Kennedy directly into the line of fire.The Secret Service was aware that it was going nowhere with Kennedy in power but down, and some rank-and-file agents were even told to stand down just before the motorcade entered Dealey Plaza. In a cover-up, the Ford Motor Company likewise secretly patched up the limousine, so as to erase evidence of bullets fired from the front.

    David Atlee Phillips was the CIA supervisor for Lee Harvey Oswald, a man who was unwittingly dragged and chosen to take the blame as the patsy, while leading being led to believe that he was to penetrate the group of assassins in order to sabotage the plot and prevent JFK’s assassination.[80]Poring over all of this, as the theory goes, was the specter of war in Southeast Asia, Vietnam in particular. Eisenhower had warned against the dangers of the military-industrial complex because war means money. With the whole military complex involved in the assassination, such echelons therefore stood to gain in Kennedy’s death.

    [81] They all wanted the war in Vietnam definitely against Kennedy who had signed the document, in October of 1963 favoring to pull about 14,000 advisors out. Dick Russell once said that Vietnam destroyed Lyndon Johnson politically and his rehabilitative efforts-as the Vietnam war recede into history books as an unprincipled political manipulator interested only in power and wealth.[82]Kennedy had actually walked in a roomful of cutthroats–like that of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves-when he got suckered into the Dallas Trip.[83] Kennedy had a common enemy in Johnson and Nixon and both were capable of any crime including murder when he apparently ordered a hit against his sister’s beau in his early years in the senate.

    None of the presidents in the past were as committed as Johnson and Nixon yet none were as powerful, corrupt, deceitful and bizarre as J. Edgar Hoover, the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Thus in the top hierarchy of the assassination are three of the most powerful men in the United States during that time definitely fitting the conspiracy. James Files, the confessed grassy knoll assassin who fired supposedly the fatal shot into Kennedy’s head did not only work for Sam Giancana, but was recruited in the CIA to train Cuban exiles for the Bay of the Pigs by none other than David Atlee Phillips.

    [84]In Barbara Garson’s satirical play, MacBird featured a depraved Lyndon Johnson as Macbeth, murdering his rivals for power.[85] In Arthur Schlessinger Jr.’s bookj, the unconscious argument was the Lyndon Johnson killed Kennedy and was responsible to the Dallas tragedy.Johnson had sought to gain the presidency while feeling slighted and inferior to the Harvard educated patrician with aristocratic bearings.

    Johnson had known his power in the senate but Kennedy was a fast rising phenomenon. Johnson while possessing an aura of genuine fondness for the poor and eradicate poverty was also considered one of the most corrupt men in the White House.[86] He was powerful enough to destroy whoever goes against his way topped with a colossal ego and temper.  The night before the Kennedy assassination Johnson had met with Dallas tycoons, FBI moguls and organized crime kingpins.

    Johnson’s mistress, Madeleine Duncan Brown recalled that “Johnson emerged from the conference to tell her, “after tomorrow those goddamned Kennedy’s, will never embarrass me again – that’s no threat – that’s a promise.” [87] This meeting was held outside of Dallas in November 21, 1963. Brown was stunned the next day to realize that he had made his promise. Later on, Madeliene Brown also related that Johnson had also her that it was the CIA and the oil boys who did the hit on JFK.

    [88]After the assassination of Kennedy and the death of Lee Harvey Oswald, President Johnson consulted with various government officials in a decision to form official enquiry investigation into the assassination. By Executive Order 11130 on November 29, 1963, Johnson created an investigatory commission to be headed by Earl Warren with other political figures as members of the commission. The members included Congressman Hale Boggs, Senator John Sherman Cooper, Former CIA Director Allen Dulles, Congressman Gerald Ford, a future Vice President and U.S.

    President, Former World Bank president and diplomat John J. McCloy and Senator Richard Russell, Jr. their main counsel was J. Lee Rankin assisted by other assistant counsels for the commission.

    Johnson’s decision to form a Warren Commission was a result of his growing concern over several competing congressional committees which could hold televised hearings on the Kennedy Assassination. Russell had agreed that it would be bad to have the Senate and the house conduct their own inquiries and “running over the lot” which was why Johnson adopted the idea.[89] Whatever Johnson’s reasons were, he was more than confident that with the killing of Lee Harvey Oswald by Jack Ruby, no court would ever deliberate and reach a verdict over Kennedy’s death. Abe Fortas, the attorney who helped Johnson during his questioned Senate elections in 1948 was likewise influential in lining up the members of the Warren Commission.

    [90]The Commission first met in February 1964 and returned its final report in September amidst the sworn testimony of 489 witnesses, 94 testifying before members of the Commission itself and 395 questioned in depositions by members of the Commission’s staff. Additionally, 61 witnesses gave sworn affidavits, and two others made statements; in all, 552 witnesses. Over 3,100 pieces of evidence were accepted as exhibits.[91] Although the Commission conducted its business primarily in closed sessions, these were not entirely secret sessions.

    On September 27, 1964, the Warren Commission formally titled Report of the President’s Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The Commission had concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald was solely responsible for the assassination of Kennedy and that the commission could not find any persuasive evidence of a conspiracy, either domestic or foreign. The conclusion, that Oswald had acted alone, is today called the lone gunman theory.

    The commission concluded that only three bullets were fired during the assassination and that Lee Harvey Oswald fired all of them from the Texas School Book Depository behind the motorcade. It noted that three empty shells were found in the sixth floor sniper’s nest in the book depository, and the rifle was found (with one live cartridge left in its chamber) on the sixth floor.[92]In the Warren Commission Report in chapter 8 the United States Secret Service security at the time of the assassination were lambasted with security lapses that enabled the assassination. These included: failure to identify authorized personnel to Dallas police; failing to search all buildings, windows, and roof tops surrounding the path of a motorcade; and recommended instituting a policy based upon those results.

    Likewise the security lapses included the improperly checking on the backgrounds of those in potentially close contact with Kennedy and those who were potential threats to Kennedy, particularly Oswald, whose FBI file should have alerted the Secret Service of the possible risk; assuming that security measures taken in a 1936 Franklin Delano Roosevelt visit to Dallas could be used to model Kennedy’s visit; providing insufficient personnel to accomplish the task of planning and executing security within the motorcade; failing to provide a car with a bulletproof top for the President.Attacks on the Warren Commission Report had intensified in 1966 and 1967 as many of those who had voted for LBJ in 1964, felt betrayed and angry. Had portrayed Johnson Barry Goldwater as a warmonger in Vietnam but he had escalated the American military presence in Asia dramatically with disastrous results increasing the American disrespect for him in return.[93]For Kuntzler however, Lee Harvey Oswald was indeed a patsy, and alleges that Oswald was drawn into the plot as a fall guy.

    His connections with the FBI and CIA made it more interesting as he had tried to warn bureau superior James Hosty of the plot 10 days before the assassination. Kuntzler also swears by Dr. Charles Crenshaw’s assertion that newly sworn-in President Lyndon B. Johnson called the operating room of Parkland Hospital after Oswald was mortally wounded and demanded a deathbed confession be extracted from him, which was quite an extraordinary request under the circumstances.

    [94]Fletcher Prouty, the model for the insider explainer, “Mr. X’ in Oliver Stone’s JFK agreed that Kennedy had run afoul with the power elite, whose roots go deep into the past.[95] Prouty, who had the unique assignment of being the focal point officer for contacts between the CIA and the Department of Defense on matters pertaining to the military support of the Special “covert’ operations of that agency has written that following Lyndon Johnson and the Kennedy Assassination, LBJ had known what happened in Dallas and he did not need to wait for the findings of the Warren Commission because he had known that the death of Lee Harvey Oswald, would never bring any relief to hi or to his successors.[96]Lately, Congress which had created the John F.

    Kennedy Records Act in 1992 created a five-civilian member board entrusted with the responsibility to review and declassify documents held by the CIA, FBI, Secret Service, was erected by President Bill Clinton.[97] On Monday, November 9, 1998 the National Archives released to the public all the working files of the Assassination Records Review Board (AARB) and its staff, covering the recently completed 4 year effort of that independent Federal agency to find and release government records related to the Kennedy assassination. Among the internal records released that day was a 32-page research paper written by the AARB’s Chief Analyst for Military Records, which provide compelling evidence that there were two different brain specimens examined following the autopsy on the body of JFK. President Kennedy’s brain, as was expected; and a fraudulent substituted brain specimen at a later date–and that the brain photographs in the National Archives today in the so-called “autopsy collection” are not the images of President Kennedy’s brain, but the images of someone else’s.

    All photographic records of President Kennedy’s brain have disappeared, since its pattern of damage was consistent with being shot from the front; the images of the substituted specimen show damage generally consistent with the official version of what happened, of being shot from above and behind. The final shot that killed President Kennedy came from the front, from an assassin in the storm sewer to the right of limousine, entered his right temple and exited from the back causing a massive hole in the back of Kennedy’s head. The small hole in the right temple was covered up, and in the forged photographs, a soft-matte insert was put into place to cover up the massive hole in the back of his head. On April 4, 2006, my staff and I delivered to Mr.

    Donald E. Graham, Chairman of the Board of The Washington Post a massive document supporting the fact that that there was a government-wide conspiracy that murdered President John Fitzgerald Kennedy on Friday, November 22, 1963.In the document summaries the 10 major discoveries of The Conspiracy and the document now numbers 177 pages and has a three-page bibliography, including 44 books, 17 videos, and 6 DVD’s. Among the findings is this: The reason that President Richard Nixon authorized the break-in in the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate Complex during the night of June 16-17, 1972 was that Nixon was fearful that National Chairman Larry O’Brien might have documents in his files indicating that Nixon was involved in the murder of Kennedy–he was.

    The reason that the lid has been kept on this extraordinary crime for more than 43 years is that much of the elite media were infiltrated by the Central Intelligence Agency.In Sam Giancana’s biography, Sam had stated that he knew Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon’s personal involvement along with the Texas oil millionaires and George Demohrenschild and that they all planned the John F. Kennedy Assassination together.[98]There is a good reason to believe Lyndon Johnson’s involvement in the assassination aside from the above facts being pointed out.

    If we summarize the whole events, we will find out that a major white wash at the onset of Kennedy’s assassination. Connally, Johnson’s ally had extended the invitation to Kennedy; his seating arrangement at the car; his connection to Officer JD Tippit who was allegedly slain by Lee Harvery Oswald; the lax security measures not to mention the lack of media men covering a once in a lifetime event.[99] The fact that Oswald could not have killed Tippit had he not been driven to his rooming house where Tippit’s murder took place is another question that linked all events into a major cover-up. Mark Pate, who had a garage in the area where Tippit ws slain and who knew a number of people in Dallas Police had once said that Tippit was a dirty cop.

    [100] A number of other residents have also testified that both Tippit and Oswald knew one another. The fact that people living around in Dallas seemed to clam up after Kennedy’s death adds up to the idea that information have remained hidden for many years.Why would the government go to such lengths for a cover-up such magnitude? If we take a look at the assassination events, we would know that the government and the media sang a uniform theory of a “lone assassin” and the purported “Magic Bullet” that hit Kennedy and Connally even though careful analysis showed that the media was using fraudulent photos to sell these claims. Finally trapped by his own handwritten notes uncovered in the National Archives, Warren Commission member Gerald Ford admitted that the Warren Report altered the official location of the entry wound on JFK’s back.

    His admission was made to appear quite trivial in the media, but a moment’s consideration reveals that this confession triggers some important consequences.JFK had an entry wound down on his back, over by the shoulder blade. Gerald Ford’s (and the Warren’s) official version placed the wound up by the base of the neck. The theory of the lone assassin is based on the “Magic Bullet” theory, that accepts one single bullet accounted for all of JFK’s wounds except the head wound, and on John Connelly.

    If the entry wound wasn’t where the “Magic Bullet” theory requires it to be then there is no “Magic Bullet”. If there is no “Magic Bullet”, then there is no “lone assassin”.The Warren Commission in effect lied to the public about the location of that wound. In fact this will reflect that there had been in fact a conspiracy, and John Connelly went to his grave insisting he was not hit by the same gunshot that had hit John F.

    Kennedy. This single voice had been adapted by the media and the government yet it was clear from initial police reports that one other suspect did exist. A girl in a polka dot dress who was seen leading Sirhan around early in the evening, then running from the scene of the assassination. During that time, the public was naïve, American never dreamed that our government would go to such lengths to hide the facts, yet history has shown, they did just that.

    The Kennedy assassinations and that of Martin Luther King, plus the attempted assassination of George Wallace, brought an end to that naiveté, as we watched the man who would have never been Presidents but for those entire convenient deaths walk into the White House. With the help of the FBI, which is in the business of planting false information for the express purpose of deceiving the public, we are all led to believe on the falsities.To this day, footage of the assassination could not hide the evidence that Lyndon Johnson was directly involved. He was in fact seen as ducking down in his car a good 30 to 40 seconds before the first shots were fired, even before the car turned onto Houston Street.

    LBJ’s life story would reveal an obsession of becoming a US President. His vice presidency had an expected short span owing to the many scandals unearthed during the early part of his term. His apparent dislike for JFK and Brother Robert was his problem and LBJ likewise knew that he would be dumped from Kennedy’s 1964 ticket. He was likewise one of the intimate personalities behind the Dallas Trip and ordered likewise a commission that conducted an investigation on the Kennedy Assassination while solely reporting to him afterwards.

    LBJ nonetheless ordered the seizure of all documents pertaining to the assassination immediately thereafter and ordered non-release of the Commission’s complete findings. Albeit a mixture of doubts but his apparent gain behind Kennedy’s death pointed several fingers on himself. LBJ’s request after his hospital visit was, “I asked that the announcement be made after we left the room..

    .so that if it were an international conspiracy…

    they would destroy us all.”[101] Later Congressman Albert Thomas was photographed knowingly winking at a smiling LBJ, while JFK’s grieving widow stood next to Johnson.ConclusionJohnson had to confront the grief and despair people felt over the loss of a leader and probably felt that he seemed like a usurper and an unrelenting replacement for the man the country more than ever saw as suitable for the job.[102] Yet, Johnson had invoked memories of JFK and used his memory as his ally particularly in the 1964 election campaigns.

    LBJ appealed to the memory of JFK in his campaign and painted Barry Goldwater to mean death while promising to “seek no wider war in Vietnam”.[103] Yet as soon as he won the elections by an outstanding win against Goldwater, Johnson had sent more troops to Vietnam. Kennedy’s assassination in fact not only killed an American President but was also responsible for the death of a generation of more than 58,000 Americans and untold number of Vietnamese of the 7oth parallel.[104];;Johnson, who had been the Majority Leader at the Senate was the most powerful man after the President even while Eisenhower was the President.

    He would also go down as the most powerful Majority leader in Senate history and few had doubted that he would become president one day. During the days of Civil Rights demonstrations, it was readily impossible for a Southerner to become an elected president. JFK’s presidency and his eventual assassination had allowed Johnson an opportunity to prove himself without the benefit of an election that could likely topple him at the heart of Black uprising.;;Johnson’s back door participation was brought about by Kennedy’s attitude towards him and Robert Kennedy’s snobbish ill will.

    RFK had fought to incriminate despite Hoover’s entry in the Estes Scandal that expected LBJ a resignation in Dec, 1963. None was however heard after Kennedy’s death in November 22 of that same year, a few days prior to LBJ’s expected resignation. Johnson was clearly incensed and made known his hatred for the Kennedy’s. Striking also is the fact that the only one in the Kennedy administration to oppose the Vietnam War and the commitment of US Combat Forces was President Kennedy himself.

    [105];;Bringing all the Kennedy enemies together like John Birchers who worried about Kennedy’s “deal” with Kruschev not to invade Cuba and the other supporters for war, was first on the agenda. Kennedy’s encouragement of the New Orleans exile movement was another enemy Kennedy had gained. Garry Banister had once been include but the Warren commission decidedly took him out which strengthened the idea that many groups had conspired with the FBI in the Kennedy Assassination. Many who have searched for the truth in the Kennedy files have become losers in their search for the groups that had an ample drive to have Kennedy eliminated.

    Disparate groups like the Southern groups in Louisiana, Southern Florida, Cubans and many others have a motive.;It would however be a mistake to say that Lyndon Johnson’s deep involvement in the assassination. Johnson needs the cooperation of too many people across the political spectrum as Livingstone would have it. Spreading responsibility for the shooting was all the more difficult as there were many groups and factions in Texas that day.

    Someone else masterminded the shooting and Mac Wallace likely picked the gunman for the job considering his connections to the underworld. Local cops were more likely used to plant evidence Johnson and his Texas friends likely contributed to the tandem of persons interested in getting Kennedy killed.;;Johnson’s programs in the presidency while becoming beneficial for everyone was soon dashed with the Vietnam War problems. While working for tax reduction to associate such laws for the economy and to support his battle against poverty, millions have also been suffering due to the war in Asia.

    In the end, what Johnson fought to gain explained his demise as he went down to the annals of history as the most corrupt American President.;;;;;;;;;ReferencesBugliosi, Vincent. 2007. Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F.

    Kennedy. New York: W.W. Norton.

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    2002. Master of the Senate: The Years of Lundon Johnson. New York: Alfred Knopf;Cooke, Morris L. Electrifying the Countryside.

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    ;Dolan, Richard. UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History. Volume One, 1941 to 1973, Keyhole Publishing, 2000.;;Fresia, Gerald John.

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    Mercer University.;;Hine, Darlene Clark. 2003. Black Victory: The Rise and Fall of the White Primary in Texas.

    University of Missouri.;;;Hove, Duane T. (2003). American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of World War II.

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    , and the Laws That Changed America. Houghton Mifflin.;;Koepke, Jim.2004.

    Chasing Ghosts: The Remarkable Story of One Man’s Investigation of the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. America.;Kuntzler, Paul.

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    Twenty-First Century.;Livingstone, Harrison Edward. 2004. The Radical Right And The Murder Of John F.

    Kennedy: Stunning Evidence In the murder of John F. Kennedy.Trafford Publishing;;Miller, Merle. 1980.

    Lyndon: An Oral Biography. New York; Putnam.;McClellan, Barr. 2003.

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    F.K.;McEnteer, James. 2004.

    Deep in the Heart: The Texas Tendency in American Politics. Praeger/Greenwood;Pepper, William F. 2003. An Act of State: The Execution of Martin Luther King.

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    Cambridge University.;Zelizer, Barbie. 1992. Covering the Body: The Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the Shaping of Collective Memory.University of Chicago.[1] Caro, 1982: 3.[2] Caro, 1982: 4.[3] Ibid.[4] Ibid.[5] Caro, 1982:35[6] Caro, 1982:51.[7] Caro, 1982:80.[8] Dallek, 2005:180[9] Caro, 1982:54.[10] Caro, 1982:43.[11] Dallek, 2005:8[12] Caro, 1992: 99.[13] Caro, 1992: 120.[14] Levy, 2003: 24.[15] Caro, 1992:213.[16] Caro, 1992:261.[17] Levy, 2003: 27.[18] Caro, 1992:294.[19] Levy, 2003: 37.[20] Russell, 2004: 117.[21] Caro, 1982:294.[22] Dallek, 2005:26.[23] Caro, 1982: 405.[24] Caro, 1982: 789.[25] Levy, 2003: 45.[26] Dallek, 2005:36.[27] Caro, 1982: 378.[28] Caro, 1982: 464[29] Caro, 1982 :597[30] Caro, 1982: 618[31] Dolan, 2000.[32] Caro, 1982: 641.[33] Dallek, 2005: 237.[34] Dallek, 2005: 51.[35] Caro, 1982: 127.[36] Dallek, 2005: 50.[37] Ibid.[38] Dallek, 2005: 51[39] Dallek, 2005: 70.[40] Caro, 1982: 225.[41] Woods, 2005:180.[42] Woods, 2005:217[43] Livingstone,2005:30[44] Dallek, 2005:67.[45] Dallek, 2005: 67.[46] Dallek, 2005:68.[47] Dalle, 2005:74[48] Ibid.[49] Dallek, 2005:75.[50] McClellan, 2003:[51] Stich, 344.[52] Stich: 345.[53] Hine, 2003:255.[54] Hine, 2003:256.[55] The famous Treatment in Caro defined.[56] Goldsmith, 1998: 86.[57] Goldsmith, 1998: 86.[58] Goldsmith, 1998: 86.[59] Caro, 1982: 275.[60] Livingstone, 2004:34.[61] Mc Enteer, 2005: 124.[62] Livingstone, 2004: 38.[63] McEnteer, 2005: 125.[64] Stich, 345.[65] Stich, 345.[66] Livingstone, 2004: 38.[67] McEnteer, 2004: 124.[68] Livingstone, 2004: 38.[69] Stich, 345[70] Livingstone, :34.[71] Stich, 345.[72] Mc Enteer,2004: 123; Kotz, 2005: 82.[73] Livingstone, 2004: 88.[74][75][76] Zelizer, 1992: 51[77] Kuntzler[78] Kuntzler’s lamentations[79] Tilley, 2007: 10.[80] Dankbaar, 2005: 273.[81] Dankbaar, 273.[82] Goldsmith, 1998: 180.[83] Livingstone:2005:29[84] Dankbaar, 273.[85] McEnteer, :2006.[86] Dallek, 2005: 187.[87] Pepper, 2003: 127.[88] Dankbaar, 273.[89] Goldsmith, 187.[90] Goldsmith, 188.[91] Bugliosi, 2007: 332.[92]  US, Warren Commission Report (in summary).[93] McEnteer, 2004:126.[94] Palacek, 2007: 125.[95] McEnteer, 2004: 119.[96] Frescia,1988: 122[97] Koepke,  64[98] Dankbaar, 273.[99] Livingstone, 322.[100] Livingstone, 323.[101] Miller, 1980.[102] Mc Enteer, 126.[103] Mc Enteer, 126.[104]  Jones, 2003: 1.[105] Jones, 2003: 2

    Lyndon B. Johnson and Conspiracy Theories Mark Canne. (2017, Mar 26). Retrieved from

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