We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

See Pricing

What's Your Topic?

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

What's Your Deadline?

Choose 3 Hours or More.
2/4 steps

How Many Pages?

3/4 steps

Sign Up and See Pricing

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Get Offer

Milk And Milk Products Biology

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

Deadline:2 days left
"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

Agribusiness is the individual largest sector in the Pakistan, lending 21.8 to the gross domestic merchandise and using about 44.7 of the work force.Livestock is playing a critical function in the economic system of Pakistan and history for 51.8 % of the agribusiness value added and 11.3 % of the national Gross Domestic Product.The milk production in state increased by 35.6 % from 1996 to 2007 ( Anonymous,2008 ) .

Pakistan dairy sector is bring forthing 41.3 million dozenss milk and is the fifith largest milk bring forthing state in the universe.Its monolithic herd of 60.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Milk And Milk Products Biology
Just from $13,9/Page
Get custom paper

8 million cattles and American bisons produced 40.76 million dozenss of milk in the twelvemonth 2007-2008.while 56.70 million caprine animals produced 0.70 million ton ( Anonymous,2008 ) .The function of farm animal sector in the rural economic system of Pakistan is of import as 30-35 million rural population of the state derive their support from farm animal production as a primary or secondary activity ( Anonymous,2008 ) ,

Milk is defined as the whole, fresh, clean, lacteal secernment obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy milk animate beings excepting that obtained within 15 yearss before or five yearss after the calving or such period as may be necessary to render the milk practically colostrums free and incorporating the minimal prescribed per centum of milk fat and sold non fat ( Goff and Griffth,2006 ) .

Milk is a dynamically balanced mixture and is besides a perishable food.It is one of few nutrients consumed in the natural signifier throught the universe.Milk contain 87 % H2O 3.9 % fat,3.3 % protein,5 % lactose and 0.7 % ash.Milk supply organic structure constructing protein, bone forming minerals, wellness giving vitamin and energy giving lactose and milk fat.Besides supplying certain indispensable fatty acids it contain all indispensable amino acid.All the belongingss of milk make it an of import nutrient for turning kids, grownups, striplings, invalid, convalescents and patients ( Khan et al. , 2005 ) .

There is a great potency for dairy industry but the sector operates largely in the informal economic system and needs a components attempt to formalise and be able to lend better to the national economy.There are about 5.5 million little scale rural units owing less than 6 dairy herds.These little dairy holders produce 65 % of all American bison and cows milk.Out of entire milk produced,97 % is in the informal sector ( i.e.loose milk consumed in the small town and or sold in the metropoliss through aa‚¬A“Gawalasaa‚¬A? in unhygienic status and without any choice criterion ) .The little graduated table milk aggregator collect200-400 kilogram milk per twenty-four hours from different small towns.Medium scale milk aggregators collect 400-800 kilogram milk per twenty-four hours in a mode similar to the little milk aggregators, but on a big graduated table, Large graduated table milk collectos collect 5-to 10 dozenss milk per twenty-four hours and supply milk the dairy mills ( Garcia et al,2003 ) .There are barely 15 milk processing works ( chiefly UHT fluid milk, milk pulverization and yogurt in Pakistan ) .Only about 3 % milk is being processed and 97 % is consumed as a natural milk ( Malik, 2008 ) .

Milk and milk merchandises are one of the most importat nutrient merchandises with farm animal beginning which enjoy particular significance in footings of its assorted nutritionary belongingss such as protein, lactose, fat, minerals and vitamins.Many surveies have been made on its components and physiochemical features ( Walstra et al, .1999 ) .

Adulteration of milk and dairy merchandises is one of the most serious issues in the dairy industry and causes economic losingss and major wellness job to consumers.Due to the limited figure of big dairy farms, milk managing procedure in the traditional system are unhygienic and there is deficient enforcement of criterions, ensuing in hapless quality of milk products.In order to maintain the milk safe, middleman attention deficit disorder ice to the milk, in add-on microbiological taint occur due to add-on of ice in the milk.The jobber increases the milk quality by adding H2O, vegitable oil, whey pulverization and other ingredients to increase the soilds of milk.Antibiotics and Hydrogen peroxide are frequently used as a preservatives ( Garcia et al, .2003 ) .

The adulterators in milk include H2O, amylum, whey poxder, vegetable oil and hazourds substance such as antibiotics, acerb sodium carbonate, urea, formaline, detergents and other chemicals preservatives.Adulteration in milk is a really serious issues in Pakistan.Keeping in position these facts, the present will be planned.


To analyze the Physio-chemicals and microbiological quality of dairy merchandises.

To find the adulterators and residues in the dairy merchandises.

To find the relationship of physio-chemical parametric quantities with adulterators.

To do recommendation t the Govt of Punjab in the control of adulterators in milk and other nutrient merchandises.

Reappraisal of Literature:

A survey conducted on physiochemical quality of UHT milk produced from whole milk pulverization and stored at 4 C and 25 C for 48 hours. They observed that non protein N content of UHT milk increased while pH decreased with storage and the rate of alteration being greater at higher storage temperature. Sediment increased with longer storage period, but independent of storage temperature.With longer storage at both 3+-1 C and 25-+ 1 C, greater deposit and lower pH were observed in UHT milk processed from older milk powder.The development of off spirits increased in UHT milk with a prolong storage period ( Ernani et al,1997 ) .

Kuo et al.2001 studied the consequence of heat interventions on the meltability of cheese.They studied cheddar cheese of different composing and low-moisture.Cheese samples were heated to 60 C and held for 0,10 and 20 min before leting the melted cheese to flux.Mean meltabilities, over all ages of both Cheddar and Mozrella cheeses decreased significantly as keeping clip increased.Meltability of immature cheese was barely affected by the keeping clip, in contrast to that of the old cheese where increasing the keeping clip greately reduced meltability.

Khan ( 2004 ) studied the physio-chemicals alterations in UHT bottled milk and found that consequence of interventions and storage on deposit, fat, pH, sourness and SNF was extremely significant.Maaximum deposit was observed after 12 hebdomads of storage, pH bit by bit decreased and minimal value were found after 12 hebdomads.Maximum sourness was found after 12 hebdomads and lower limit was noted in the first hebdomad.

Kumar and Mishara ( 2004 ) , studied the consequence of stabilizer add-on on physiochemical, centripetal, textural belongingss and stater civilization counts of Mangifera indica soy milk fortified yogurt ( MSFY ) .Three stabilizer viz. gelatin, pectin and Na alginate were used.The add-on rate of stabilizer was 0.2 % ,0.4 % and 0.6 % w/w.Significant consequence of type and add-on rate on sourness, msture content and entire solids ofMSFY were observed.Syneresis and acetaldehyde content of MSFY was reduced significantly.Lightness and yellowness of MSFY increased with gelatin and decreased with pectin and Na alginate.Gelatin gave better consequence on visual aspect and colour, organic structure and texture, spirit and overall acceptableness in comparision with other stabilizer at 0.4 % add-on rate.Hardness, coherence and adhesion of MSFY increased up to 0.4 % stabilizer add-on, while give and cohesiveness did non follow any trend.There was a important consequence of stabilizer add-on on Streptococcus thermophillus and lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus counts.

Griffiths et al 1988, manufactured low heat skim milk pulverization from natural farm majority armored combat vehicle and creamery silo milk which had been stored at 2 C for 24 and 72 hours.During the storage period psychrotroph count increased by about 1log rhythm after 24 hr aand 2 log rhythm after 72 hours.There was no addition in thermoduric or spore counts of the milk under these storage condition.The pulverization manufactured from these milk was good bacteriological quality and conformed to ADMI recommendations sing wet content, titratable sourness and solubility.They concluded that storage of natural milk at 2 C had no deterintal consequence on the heat stableness of the pulverization manufactured from it when reconstituted to both 9 and 22 % entire solid concentrations.

Molska et al 2003 studied the microbiological quality of kefir ( 61 samples ) and yoghurt ( 92 samples ) purchased in retail web in Warsaw.The entire figure of bacteriums in at least 90 % of yogurt and 73 % of kefir was in the scope of 10 ( 7 ) -10 ( 9 ) cfu/g.The domestic group of bacteriums in kefir were mesophilic lactic acid streptococcus and in yogurt S.thermophillus.The figure of L. delbrueckii in 40 % of sample was less than 10 ( 7 ) cfu/g.More than 86 % of kefir and 97 % of yogurt analysed were free from coliform bacterium. , B.cereus, mold and barm.About 48 % of kefir samples did non fulfilled the FAO/WHO demands refering the figure of barm.

Kessel et al 2004, determine the trial for standard home base count ( SPC ) and faecal coliforms in the majority armored combat vehicle milk in the inited province.As portion of the 2002 study,861 majority armored combat vehicle milk sample were collected from farms in 21 provinces, coliform were detected in 95 % samples.There were no evident relationship between SPC and incidence of salmonella or L.monocytogenes.Although the prevalence of L.monocytogenes and salmonella was low, these pathogens represent a possible hazard to consumers of natural milk and natural milk merchandises.

Nero et al 2004 condcted a survey to avaluate the microbiological quality and the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. In the natural milk produced in 210 little and average farms located in four of import milk bring forthing Brazilian provinces.In 66 % of the selected farms the milkng was manual.In 33 % of them, the milking was semi-automatic and merely 1 % were equipped humor hfully automatic milking systems.All natural milk samples were negative for L.monocytogenes and salmonella spp.Mesophilic aerobes counts were higher than 10^5 CFU /ml in 75.7 % of the samples.In 80.4 % , coliforms were over 10^2CFU /ml.Escherichia coli were detected in 36.8 % of the samples.

Aygun et al 2005 purchased 50 indiscriminately selected samples of Carra cheese, natural milk cheese, from different retail markets in the Antakya part and were investigated for microbiological quality and some chemical analyses.In their samples, the figure of micro-organisms were found as follows: Staphylococcus aureus 2.51* 10^3 cfu/g, coliform 1.02*10^4 cfu/g, E.coli 4.27*10^3 cfu/g, Salmonella were non detected in any of the samples.Mean wet, salt and fat content of Carra cheese were found as 41.26 % ,7.82 % and 26.77 % severally.The pH value of the samples varied b/w 4.53 and 6.32 with the mean of 5.24.The microbiological determination showed the presence of high counts of micro-organisms investigated and the hapless hygienic quality of Carra cheese.

Small et al 2008 determined the microbiological quality of two retail fresh ripened and semi difficult cheeses made from natural, thermized or pasteurized milk.Raw or thermized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to degree of Staphylococcus aureus st 10^4 cfu/g, E.coli at 10^5 cfu/g, whereas pasteurized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to S.aureus at 10^3 cfu/g and E.coli at 10^3 cfu/g.Salmonella was non detected in any samples.They emphasize the demand for using and keeping good hygeinc patterns throught the nutrient concatenation to forestall taint and bacterial growing.Labelling of cheeses with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from natural milk besides requires betterment.

Sheppard et al 1985 demonstrated the application of assorted analytical methods to the sensing, designation and quantitation of vegetable oil debasement O ice pick.Total fat content, steroid alcohol, long and concatenation fatty acid, vit E, Reichert aa‚¬ ” Meissle values and Polenske values were measured in ice pick.All method except entire fat finding were capable of observing vegetable oil debasement.Sterol finding was the most effectual and various measuring because it provided information non merely on the sensing and extent of debasement but besides on the possible individuality of the adulterator.

Fox et al 1988, described a trial for everyday showing of Mozrella Cheese and butter for vegetable fat debasement.Fat is extracted and sponified.The K salts of the fatty acids are measured through direct gas chromatographic analysis.A ratio, calculated from the concentration of butyric acid and oleic acid is used to avaluate the puroty of the samples.The trial offers good preciseness and can observe less than 10 % partly hydrogenated vegetable fat.

Kumar et al 2002, reported that debasement in milk and milk merchandises has reached an alarming phase.Milk fat is being assorted or replaced with cheaper vegetable oil.Therefore, frequently more than one trial has to be employed to corroborate the pureness of milk fat.The assorted method for the sensing of debasement in milk at is based on the physical belongingss, chemical belongingss and presence or absence of specific components of either milk fat or adulterating fats.

Jha and Matsuoka 2004, conducted a survey on the debasement of natural milk by man-made milk, prepared by blending appropriate sum of vegetable oil, carbamide, detergent pulverization /shampoo, acerb sodium carbonate, sugar /salt and skim milk pulverization to H2O.Detection of adulterators is hard by a individual method and sometimes more than two methods are required to corroborate the presence.The potency of near-infrared spectrometry were investigated ( NIRS ) in the wavelength scope of 700-1124.8 nanometer.

Material And Methods:

Collection of Samples:

The dairy merchandises samples will be collected from the market and so analysis will be performed at Dairy Laboratory, National Institute of Food Science & A ; Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.


Butter samples of three different trade name viz. Gourmet, haleeb and Nurpur Dairies will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.


Yoghurt samples of three different trade names viz. Gourmet, haleeb and Nurpur Dairies will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.


Cheese samples of three different trade names viz. Adams, Military dairy Factory and Nurpur Dairies will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.

Milk Powder:

Milk Powder samples of three different trade names viz. Gourmet, haleeb and Nurpur Dairies will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.

UHT milk:

UHT milk samples of three different trade names viz. Gourmet, haleeb and Nurpur Dairies will be collected. Three samples from each trade name will be collected.

Sampling Procedure:

Dairy merchandise samples will be collected in clean sterilised container and set in ice thorax, whereas milk pulverization will be collected in nothing polythene bag. These samples will be transported for analysis to the Dairy Laboratory, National Institute of Food Science & A ; Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.


All glasswork like pipette, trial tubings, petri dishes, beaker and flasks will be exhaustively cleaned and sterilized in an oven at 180 C for 2 hours.All media and solution will be prepared in distilled H2O and autoclaved at 121 C at 15 Ib force per unit area for 15 min utilizing the process of AOAC ( 2000 ) .

Physiochemical Trial:

The samples will be subjected to different physic-chemical trial which are detailed as under.

Melting Resistance and Melting Quality:

Melting Resistance and Melting Quality will be determined by the method as prescribed by Bhadari ( 2001 ) .


Fat will be determined by utilizing Gerber method as described by the Kirk and sawyer ( 1991 ) .


The pH of all the interventions will be determined harmonizing to AOAC ( 2000 ) method no. 981.12.

Moisture and ash

All the interventions will be analyzed for wet and ash harmonizing to their several methods mentioned in AOAC ( 2000 ) .

Entire solids

Entire solids called per centum residues will be determined by drying the sample in hot air oven harmonizing to method described in AOAC ( 2000 ) .


Protein content will be determined by utilizing Kjeldhal method as described by AOAC ( 2000 ) .

Microbiological Trial:

Dairy merchandises samples will be tested for entire home base counts, Coliform counts, Staphyloccus aureus and Yeast and Mould count by the method prescribed by AOAC ( 2000 ) .

Chemicals Adulterants Detection Trial:

Dairy merchandises samples will be tested for the adulterators viz. Formaldehyde, Boric acid, Hydrogen peroxide, Starch, Neutralizers ( Sodium carbonate, hydrogen carbonates, Sodium hydrated oxide by the method prescribed by AOAC ( 2000 ) .

4.7 Statistical analysis

Consequences will be analyzed statistically to find the degree of significance ( Steel et al. , 1997 ) .

Literature Cited:

Anonymous, ( 2008 ) .Economic study of Pakistan.Ministry of finance, economic sciences adviseraa‚¬a„?s flying Islamabad.

AOAC, ( 2000 ) .Official Method of Analysis International. 17th edition.Association of office analytical chemists Washington, DC.

AOCS, 1990. Official Methods and recommended patterns of the American Oil Chemist Society.

Atlas, R. M.2004.Handbook of Microbiology Media 3rd ed.New York.Pp 345-356.

Aygun, O. O. Aslantas and S. Oner,2005. A study on the microbiological quality of Carra, a traditional Turkish cheese.J. Food Eng 66 ( 3 ) : 401-404.

Bandyopadhyay, A. K. and P. K.Ghatak, 2007.Practical Dairy Chemistry.ISBN.13 Kalyani Publishers, Iyall.book depot.New Delhi, India.PP 25-74.

Battu, S. R. B. Singh and B. K. Knag 2004.Contamination of liquid milk and butter with pesticides residues in the Ludhiana Distt. Of Punjab province, India.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Saftey,59: 324-331.

Bhandari, V. 2001.Ice pick industry and technology.Tata McGraw Hill pub. co. Ltd.New Delhi.

Blake, A. J. , J. R. Powers, L. O. Luedecke and S. Clark 2005.Enhanced lactose cheese milk does non vouch Ca lactate crystals in finished Cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 88: 2302-2311.

Cheesebrough, M. 2002. District research lab pattern in tropical states.UK. Cambridge Univesity Press. Pp: 382-389.

Ernani, L. , M. Lyer, Celestino and H. Roginski 1997.Reconstituted UHT treated milk, effects of natural milk, pulverization quality and storage status of UHT milk on its physio-chemical properties and flavor.Intl. Dairy J. , 7 ( 2 ) :129-140.

Fleet, G. H. , M. A. Mian 1987.The occurance and growing of barm in dairy merchandises. J. Food Micro. , 4 ( 2 ) : 145-155.

Flint, S. , J. L. Drocourt, K. Walker, B. Stevenson, M. Dwyer, I. Clarke and D. McGill 2006.A rapid, two hr method for the numbering of entire feasible bacteriums in samples from commercial milk pulverization and whey protein dressed ore pulverization fabrication workss. Intl. Dairy J. , 16 ( 4 ) :379-384.

Fox, R. J. , A. H.Duthie and S. Wulff 1988.Precision and sensitiveness of a trial for vegetable fat debasement of milk fat. Journal of Dairy Science, 71: 574-581.

Garcia, O. , K. Mahmood and T. Hemme 2003.Areview of milk production in Pakistan with Particular accent on little scale manufacturer. International Farm Comparision Network FAO, Pp 11-21.

Griffiths, M. W. , J. D. Phillips, I. G. West, A. W. M. Sweetsur and D. D. Muir 1988. The quality if skim milk pulverization produced from natural milk stored at 2 C.Food Microbiology,5 ( 2 ) :89-96.

Guler, Z. 2007.Level of 24 minerals in local caprine animal milk, its labored yogurt and salted yogurt ( tuzlu yoghurt ) .Small Ruminant Research, 71 ( 3 ) : 130-137.

Kuo, M. I. , Y.C. Wang, S. Gunasekaran and N.F. Olson 2001.Effect of heat interventions on the meltability of cheeses. J. Dairy Sci. , 84 ( 9 ) : 1937-1943.

Leea, j. , H. J. Kima, Y. Yoona, J. Kima, J. S. Hamb, M. W. Byuna, M. Baekc, C. Jod, M. G. Shine 2009.Manufacture of Ice pick with improved microbiology safety by utilizing gamma irradiation.78 ( 7-8 ) : 593-595.

Lin, T. Y. , C. W. Lind, C. H. Leeb 1999.Conjugated linoleic acerb concentration as affected by lactic civilizations and added linoleic acid.Food Chem. , 67 ( 1 ) : 1-5.

Little, C. L. , J. R. Rhoades, S. K. Sagoo, J. Harris, M. Greenwood. , V. Mithani, K. Grant and J. McLauchlin 2008.Microbiology quality of retail cheeses made from natural, thermized or pasteurized milk in the UK. Food Micro. , 25 ( 2 ) :304-312.

Malik, A. H. 2008.Dairy sector deficiencies policy focal point. Internet, Ed. Daily Dawn, Jan,28.

Mayer. , H. K. 2001.Bitterness in processed cheese caused by an overdose of a apecific emulsifying agent.International Dairy Journal.4 ( 7 ) : 533-542.

Molska, I. , R. Nowosielska and I.Frelik 2003.Changes in microbiological quality of kefir and yogurt on the Warsaw market in the twelvemonth 1995-2001. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig.,54 ( 2 ) :145-152.

Murtaza, M.A. , M. Din, N. Huma, A. Shabbir, S. Mahmood 2004.Quality rating of ice pick prepared with different stabilizers /emulsifier blend. Inter J.Agri Bio. ( 1 ) : 65-67.

Nero, L. A. , M. R. Mattos, V. Beloti, M. F. Barros, D. P. Netto, J. P. Minto, N. J. Andrade, W. P. Silva, Bernadette and D. G. M. Franco 2004.Hazards in non-pasteurized milk on retail sale in Brazil, prevalence of Slmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and chemicals residues. Braz. J. Microbiology. , 35 ( 3 ) :478-486.

Otero, J. L. , M. H ermida and A. Cepeda 1995.Determination of fat, Protein and entire solids in cheese by near infrared coefficient of reflection spectrometry. J. AOAC. Intl. 78 ( 3 ) :802-806.

Cite this Milk And Milk Products Biology

Milk And Milk Products Biology. (2016, Dec 09). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/milk-and-milk-products-biology-essay/

Show less
  • Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay
  • Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself
  • Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay
  • Do not copy and paste free to download essays
Get plagiarism free essay

Search for essay samples now

Haven't found the Essay You Want?

Get my paper now

For Only $13.90/page