Organizational Safety and Health Administration

Table of Content

1. List and discuss FOUR (4) factors that contribute to the accident. (8M)

The worker has work overtime and may face sleepiness and tired because working at maximum overtime for the last two months. This will make the worker lose his focus and the probability of accident may occur is high. The machine or equipment in the workplace has not been properly checked for the past 5 months by DOSH officer. This serious matter will make the bad circumstances will be much more to occur. Employers have to eliminate an untrained worker so that the worker may know the rules and policy of safety in the workplace. In this case, many workers had not attended any safety training and thus they are not aware to any safety policy. Also, many workers did not use any safety gear such as gloves, jacket, and helmet, provided by the company and they complained that the material made their skin unbearably itchy, this problem is an important aspect that the company has to take care of. The company should change the material so that the employees will not give any complains.

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2. Syarikat Zumaju is not complying with the Occupational Safety and Health act. Propose FOUR (4) of its noncompliance.

Syarikat Zumaju should have to relate their company to Occupational Safety and Health act. In the case that been given, I understand that the company has not conduct any OSHA meeting since 5 months ago. A company should conduct this kind of meeting every 2 months to make the workplace safe and also the company have to make a safety check within the organization workplace to keep the worker safe from any bah circumstances. Syarikat Zumaju has to responsible for their worker by giving the training/speech of the importance of safety and health in the workplace to avoid accident. The workers have to understand the policy and procedure to stay safe in their workplace. The company also has to rearrange their equipment to ensure the equipment are safe and can be conducted to an experienced worker that can handle the equipment such as machines well. A worker must be have a good health and trained well; this can help the company decrease the number of accident in their workplace. Syarikat Zumaju should not approve a maximum overtime in the workplace; they should find more workers and create a working shift to avoid over working worker that may cause negative effects such as accident and health problems because of lack of sleep and not enough rest in the workplace.

3. Based on the above incident, make FIVE (5) recommendations to Syarikat Zumaju to improve its safety and health program.

Syarikat Zumaju should put the OSHA policy notice in the work area to make the workers always aware to the safety in the workplace. By having notices in every area of the workplace, workers may always notices that safety is important and may avoid any accident that may occur. Syarikat Zumaju have to make training and speech about safety and health in the workplace to ensure the workers have knowledge about how to stay safe in the workplace and also to make them always aware to the safety and health while conducting their work. Syarikat Zumaju has to make an inspection to the equipment and the machines in the workplace every week or month. This is to ensure the equipment and machines are well guided from the company and to make the work smoothly. Syarikat Zumaju has to create safety and health center or worker consultation in their company to make the easy to communicate with the company between OSHA and Syarikat Zumaju. This will help the company being monitored well. Syarikat Zumaju has to focus on the high risk area in their workplace by concentrating health and safety enforcement. By this enforcement, Syarikat Zumaju may attract more attention to the area that has a high risk. This may help them to be more aware to the area and may reduce accidents or any negative effects.

4. Employee involvement and participation is important in any safety and health program at workplace. Explain and discuss how employee involvement will improve safety and health conditions at workplace.

Employees may give important role to the safety and health program at workplace by communicating to each other to keep their groups of worker safe in the work area. They helps in developing realistic and effective ways of protecting workers by getting involved in an issue at the planning stage. Workers are more likely to identify problems and their causes, help find practical solutions, and comply with the end results. Workers have the ability to advice, suggest, and request improvements because they experience all the working conditions, handling the equipment and machines. This tells that the participation of worker to safety and health program is important.

Question 2

1. What is occupational injury?

Occupational injury is a bodily damage resulting from working. The most usual body parts that are involved are spine, hands, head, lungs, eyes, skeleton and skin. These are affected by working with inappropriate form of sitting while doing work in the office.

2. Name the FOUR (4) parties responsible for occupational safety and health and outline the functions and duties of each.

Parties that responsible for occupational safety and health are the members that selected from labor, management, occupational safety and health, and also from the general public. They adopt and maintain occupational safety and health standards. Secondly, they consider petitions for new or revised standards proposed by any interested person concerning occupational safety and health. They grant permanent variances from occupational safety and health standards. They acts as a review body for any employer or other person adversely affected by the granting or denial of a temporary variance by the division of occupational safety and health Also holds monthly public meetings to permit interested persons to address the board on any occupational safety and health matters of to propose new or revised standards.

3. There are THREE (3) techniques to prevent accidents at workplace. Briefly explain how each technique is used in preventing accident at workplace.

Clear from any obstacles; employees/ workers have to keep the environment clean and tidy, with floors and access routes kept clear of obstacles. Rubbish removed so any bad thing could not happen. Rubbish should be removed regularly and work areas kept clear and cleaning methods and equipment must be suitable for the surface. Floors should be checked for damage regularly and maintenance carried out when necessary. Potential hazards include holes, cracks, and loose carpets and mats. Floor surfaces should be suitable for the work carried out for example; wet floors can improve their slip-resistant properties. Stairways such as the handrails are also an important aspect to cover. These matters may give high visibility and non –slip marking of the front edges of steps and good lighting can all help to prevent slips and trips on stairs.

Question 3

1. What is workplace violence?

It is usually a form of physical abuse or threat that creates a risk to the health and safety of an employee or multiple employees.

2. List and discuss any TWO (2) examples of typical violent episodes which occur in the Malaysian workplaces. Typical violent episodes which occur in the Malaysian workplace are bully. In Malaysia workplace, employees and other employees bully each other by conducting them to do their task where the other employees afraid and do the task that he/she shouldn’t do. If he/she unable to do the task, he/she may get physical abuse from the other employee. Other than that, human trafficking is also one of the typical violent that occurs in Malaysia. A company may conduct a web services which involves a worker to run the business. But, it is usually a scam which will not give any rewards to the worker but to gives profit to the company. This is usually called scam in the internet.

3. Discuss any TWO (2) categories of workplace violence and give example of each.

Armed robbery. Usually occur in a bank where the security cannot be trusted which just occur in our country. These problems happen unpredicted where it can occur anytime. For example, the bank officer shot dead by a security cause of robbing money from the safe room. Personal relationship. The perpetrator usually does not have a relationship with the business but has a personal relationship with the intended victim. This category includes victims of domestic violence who are assaulted or threatened while at work.

4. Outline any THREE (3) steps an employer can take to reduce potentially violent episodes in a workplace.

Redesign work space to prevent entrapment. Employers may have the power to redesign the workspace for employees’ safety. Employers have to tell the employee about safety procedure that they should not be working alone and must have someone to accompany him/her in the workplace while working at night. Employers have to train the staff in ways to diffuse violence.


Question 1

a) Discuss four employers responsibilities according to Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 and provide examples of each.

Four employers responsibilities according to OSHA Act 1994 are: the provide a workplace free from serious recognized hazards and comply with standards, rules and regulations issued under the OSH Act. For example, the equipment at the workplace must be have rules and regulation to use it. Employers with hazardous chemicals in the workplace must develop and implement a written hazard communication program and train employees on the hazards they are exposed to and proper precautions also a copy of safety data sheets must be readily available. For example, information and training the employers are required to train workers by December 1, 2013 on the new labels elements and safety data sheets format to facilitate recognition and understanding. Employers responsibilities is to provide employees, former employees and their representatives access to the Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses (OSHA Form 300). Example of these, on February 1, and for three months, covered employers must post the summary of the OSHA log of injuries and illnesses (OSHA Form 300A). Lastly, employers responsibilities also provide medical examinations and training when required by OSHA standards. Under the OSH Act, employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace. Employers must comply with all applicable OSHA standards and employers must also comply with the General Duty Clause of the OSH Act, which requires employers to keep their workplace free of serious recognized hazards.

b) Discuss TWO (2) employee’s responsibilities according to Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. Provide example of each.

Employees are equally responsible with their employers for safety and health at work. Many employers take a great deal of care to provide the best personal protective equipment for their workers and give adequate training on safety. However, by the attitudes of their workers many of whom seem to believe they are invicible. These employees refuse to wear the equipment given them and generally show no regard for their own safety.

Seconly, the Act requires employees to wear at all times any protective equipment or clothing provided by the employer for their safety and to comply with any instructions relating to safety. For example, safety equipment dependding on the nature of the job such as safety helmet, eye goggles, earflugs or muffs, apron, safety shoes, gloves, respirator and safety harness.

Question 2

You have been appointed as the safety officer at Belcold Sdn. Bhd. You noticed that the company does not have any safety policy.

a. Using two factors, explain to your President the importance of having a safety policy in the organization.

Two factors important to explain of having a safety policy in the organization to Presidents is a importance of OSHA policy. A written occupational health and safety policy helps promote an effective OHSA program such a policy should reflect the special needs of your workplace and should be regularly reviewed and updated. This document will assist organizations in writing and applying a policy for your workplace. This policy communicates a commitment to health and safety. It should be signed by a senior manager or president to further demonstrate the commitment to health and safety. The management should always make sure every changes in the organization should update and makes the employee know about the safety.

b. After listening to your explanation on the importance of having safety and health policy, your president urges you to design one for your company. What are the three main parts that you need to have in the policy? Discuss each part.


This part contain a brief statement of the overall intent of the employer to look after the safety and health of the workforce. Among others it should indicate that the management accept responsibility for safety and health of the employees and others who may be affected by the work activities; outline the goals of the policy establish the importance of safety and health to overall business performance; bear a reference to other parts of the policy document which go into more details and be dated and signed by the Chairman or Managing Director.


The policy document should explain the organization for safety and health responsibilities. This will be mainly about “who is to do what”.The list of safety and health responsibilities of all levels of management i.e. from top management down to supervisors, and safety and health personnel.The role of workers in the implementation of the policy. Each employee has a duty not to endanger himself or others by his actions or omissions, and to co-operate in all measures provided for his safety and health.The structure and functions of safety and health committees and other in-house safety and health organisation.


Lastly, the written policy documents deals with practical systems and procedures. It concerns mainly with potential hazards and methods of dealing with them. Among others, essentially it should specify detailed arrangements for ensuring that the General Policy is being implement including the arrangements for training and instruction information about whatever hazards there may be in certain processes, the control measures and the ways in which employees should co-operate for their own safety and health specify the company’s safe system of work including safe work procedures and rules scheme for the issuance, use and maintenance of personal protective equipment (P.P.E.),the procedure for reporting and investigation of accidents and emergency measures such as fire and first-aid arrangements.

c. Your President is placing concern on employee safety only. He told you to focus on providing employees with protective equipment and safe work procedure. However you ere of the opinion that protecting employees safety is not enough. The organization should be concentrating on aspects other than employees safety as well. Explain the TWO aspects.

Training is essential for the management to provide employee with education and training. It increase employee awareness ad knowledge to workplace hazards to which they may be exposed. Responsibility will allow each employee, supervisor, and manager to know what activities and behaviors are expected.It allows for clear communication rather than assumptions or misinterpretations of what needs to be completed. Make a list of all employees, showing date of hire, job description, and what experience and training each might have.List operations, activities, hazard controls, and training required.Once you have these lists, decide who should be responsible for what, how they will do it, and how they will interact with others. If position titles are used in the program for each item of responsibility rather than specific names, use a cover sheet with the specific names for each position title.

Question 3

Mamu is the safety officer at WoodPacker Sdn. Bhd. The company is newly operated and producing wood furniture. With more than 15 employees working in 3 different departments, the company is expected to operate its business efficiently and at the same time fulfills its obligation in protecting and securing the employees safety and health.

a)If Mamu were to do hazard identification and risk assessment at the factory, what is the first step that he needs to do? Explain your answer.

The first step Mamu were to do hazard identification and risk assessment is hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control (HIRARC) has become fundamental to the practice of planning, management and the operation of a business as a basic of risk management. The methodology of HIRARC as
proposed is intended for the assessment of physical hazards only. The purpose of this guideline is to provide a systematic and objective approach to assessing hazards and their associated risks that will provide an objective measure of an identified hazard as well as provide a method to control the risk.

b)Using below from you are required to do hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control for WoodPacker Sdn. Bhd.You are required to:

i.Based on activity/source of hazard provided in the form, identify FIVE (5) types of hazard.

1.Hand tools
2.Hand tools
4.Wet floor

ii.For each hazard identified above, explain its effects to employees/company

1.Back injury repetitive strain
2.Back injury repetitive strain
3.Back injury repetitive strain
4.Slips or falls

iii.You are required to do risk analysis for each activity/source of hazard


iv.Make a recommendation on how to improve the work activity or to reduce potential harm for each hazard.

a) Considered as acceptable and futher reduction may not be necessary. b) Requires immediate action to control the hazard as detailed in the hierarchy of control. c) Requires immediate action to control the hazard as detailedin the hierarchy of control. d) Considered as acceptable and futher reduction may not be necessary.

Question 4

a) Ergonomic problems at workplace and bad work organization had caused various occupational safety and health problem. Explain ergonomics and discuss Two ergonomic problems at workplace.

Ergonomics is the science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population. Effective and successful “fits” assure high productivity, avoidance of illness and injury risks, and increased satisfaction among the workforce. Although the scope of ergonomics is much broader, the term here refers to assessing those work-related factors that may pose a risk of musculoskeletal disorders and recommendations to alleviate them.

Common examples of ergonomic risk factors are found in jobs requiring repetitive, forceful, or prolonged exertions of the hands frequent or heavy lifting, pushing, pulling, or carrying of heavy objects; and prolonged awkward postures. Vibration and cold may add risk to these work conditions. Jobs or working conditions presenting multiple risk factors will have a
higher probability of causing a musculoskeletal problem. The level of risk depends on the intensity, frequency, and duration of the exposure to these conditions. Environmental work conditions that affect risk include intensity, frequency and duration of activities.

b) Efforts were made by International Labor Organization (ILO) to protect workers against sickness, diseases and injuries due to workplace hazards and risks including ergonomic and work organization risk factors. Discuss FOUR (4) ILO’S response to ergonomic and safety and health problem at work.

Four ILO’s response to ergonomic and safety health problem at work include the increased concern with the ergonomic problems and work related MSDs in both developed and developing countries, the ILO adopted a Global Strategy on OSHA at the 91st Session of the ILO, 2003 which is reaffirmed the importance for all countries to apply international labour standards on oocupational safety and health. Secondly, in response to this strategy, the ILO Conference adopted the Promotional Framework for OSHA for the continual monitoring, evaluation and improvement of all the different “building blocks” making up the national OSH system. Thirdly, ILO’S also response a national preventative safety and health culture is one in which the right to safe and health working environment is respected at all levels. It is also one where governments, employers, workers and other interested stakeholders actively participate in securing a safe and healthy working environment through system of defined rights, responsibilities and duties. And lastly, building and maintaining such a culture require a permanent mobilization of all available means of action, particularly education and training, to increase general awareness, knowledge and understanding of the concepts of hazards and risks and how they may be prevented and controlled. Furthermore, educational systems need to recognise the concepts of workplace hazards, risks and prevention, including them within national curricula as appropriate, thereby promoting greater continuity between public and workplace safety and health issues.

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