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Parenting Styles Annotated Bibliography

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    Lieb, R., Wittchen, H., Höfler, M., Fuetsch, M., Stein, M. B., & Merikangas, K. R. (2000). Parental Psychopathology, Parenting Styles, and the Risk of Social Phobia in Offspring. Archives of General Psychiatry,57(9), 859. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.9.859

    This study shows that high parental overprotection and rejection are closely related to an increase in social phobia rates of children. This qualitative study received data from 3,021 subjects ages 14-24. The Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology Study (EDSP) was used in the study to create a random population sample and it resulted in a response rate of 74.3% for 14-17-year-olds. EDSP is used to collect data from a random sample about risk factors, etc. of mental disorders. The connection between parenting styles and social phobia in children remained constant throughout the study, which infers that parental rejection and overprotection is a risk factor for social phobia. Therefore, permissive (rejection) and authoritarian (controlling) parenting styles allow for the possibility that a child could succumb to social phobia. This was a well-conducted study but it had a couple of limitations including a lack of direct interviews with fathers and youth not having passed the entire risk period for onset of social phobia.

    Rhee, K. E. (2006). Parenting Styles and Overweight Status in First Grade. Pediatrics,117(6), 2047-2054. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2259

    In this study, authoritarian parents resulted in the highest risk of their children becoming overweight (over the three others). In this qualitative study, 872 children were analyzed to determine the relationship between parenting styles and overweight status in first grade. Out of the total sample, 11.1% of the first graders were overweight. Children of authoritarian parents had a very high risk of being overweight. While children of permissive and neglectful parents had twice the probability of being overweight than children of authoritative parents. Parenting styles where parents are uninvolved allow the child the freedom to eat what they want and do what they want, which can lead to obesity. In addition, authoritarian parenting style is very controlling so the child wants the eat the things they aren’t able to at home so they might sneak food or eat out more, which also can result in obesity. This study was well conducted since it used multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between parenting styles and obesity and control differences in gender, race, etc.

    Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2006, September 13). Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents; Associations with Self-Esteem, Depression and Life-Satisfaction . Retreived from 9066-5

    In this study, the authoritative parenting style was found to lead to higher self-esteem, life-satisfaction, and lower depression. This qualitative study assessed 272 public school students in grades 9 and 11 on the effects of maternal and paternal parenting styles on their psychological adjustment. The measures used in this study were the acceptance/involvement sub-scale and the strictness/supervision sub-scale for maternal and paternal parenting styles, which separated the students into four different parenting style categories that assessed their well-being. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the differences in the well-being of children in each parenting style. The MANOVA uses independent variables such as the parenting style or gender, and dependent variables like self-esteem and other terms involved in someone’s well-being. Although the advantages of the authoritative parenting styles were clearly shown, other paternal styles advantages were less prominent. The results from this study show that parenting styles are related to well-being in adolescents and shows the need for involved parents in children’s lives. This was a well conducted study despite several limitations including the possibility that the relationship between parenting styles and well-being could be based on people having different adjustments to each parenting style instead of the parenting style changing the person.

    V., J. M., & J., J. (2008, January 23). Impact of parenting styles on child development. Retrieved from development/

    A Longitudinal study performed by Baumrind found that the best-adjusted children are ones that have authoritative parents. This was a qualitative study that looked at the effects of permissive, authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles on children. The results showed that children of authoritative parents were cheerful, socially responsible, self-reliant, achievement-oriented and cooperative. While children of authoritarian parents seemed to be more moody and unhappy, easily annoyed and not very pleasant to be around. In addition, children of permissive parents were usually impulsive, aggressive, rebellious, lacking in self-control and have low independence and achievement. Boys tend to be more rebellious than girls when it comes to permissive parenting. Research shows that the worst developmental outcomes are connected with a neglectful, uninvolved parenting style. Children of neglectful parents tend to have behavioral problems such as aggression and temper tantrums starting at a young age. This study suggests the need for parents to be involved in their children’s lives in order for them to develop properly.

    All of the findings from these sources fit together by repeating that authoritative parenting style will lead to the most positive development for children Whether it be a child’s personality, weight, psychological problems or social habits, authoritative parenting style consistently remains more beneficial to a child than permissive and authoritarian styles. Throughout each source, the authoritarian style of parenting is considered controlling, while the permissive style of parenting is characterized as uninvolved (Lester 2018). Children of authoritarian parents tend to have more social problems and seem unhappy or moody. Children of permissive parents are more rebellious, lack self-control and are impulsive.

    The textbook’s descriptions of each parenting style are congruent to the descriptions and results in each source I found. In the textbook, authoritative style is the most positive form of parenting and is characterized by warmth, support and limits (Kuther 2017). Just like in the studies I found, the textbook associates authoritative parenting with reduced levels of depression, psychological disorders, and behavioral problems. Although, both the textbook and my findings show that parental monitoring is associated with academic achievement, overall well-being and reduced sexual activity, parents need to understand their limits and not try to control their child’s life.

    The theory I chose is Social Learning Theory which relates to several of the findings I found like obesity and personality. When a child of a permissive parent sees their parents not caring about them, they observe that behavior as normal and they begin to not care about they and lose self-control. This goes for children of authoritarian parents too since they see their parents pushing them to do their best, they will have that mentality for the rest of their lives. Overall, parenting styles have a big influence on a child’s personality, weight, psychological problems and social habits.

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