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Research Proposal: Depression in Children & Adolescence – A Cause for Concern? Sample

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    Sadness among kids and striplings seems to be lifting. but labeling it as depression and prescribing antidepressants are uneffective and perchance harmful. ( Timimi. S ( 2005 ) . isn’t it about clip we focus on the underlying grounds? Common misconceptions and responses to hearing that a kid is depressed or has depression are. ‘but what do they hold to be depressed about? ’ . Merely 40 old ages ago. many doctors doubted the being of important depressive upsets in kids. chiefly because they believed that kids lacked the mature psychological and cognitive construction necessary to see these jobs. ( World Wide Web. aafp. org ) .

    The ground why this affair is worthy of an probe is because it is or possibly will necessarily go a serious societal concern. This I feel is true because aren’t kids suppose to be the hereafter? If this affair is left un dealt with. what will go of our hereafter? I feel it is really of import to get down turn toing the issues environing depression now in order to learn the following coevals on how to be resilient against these affairs if possible.

    I propose to look into this affair farther by looking at the societal factors environing depression in modern-day Britain. I propose to seek out how this has happened by looking at the ontological facet of this phenomena. I aim to turn out that depression in kids and striplings is a major cause for concern in society. The epistemology of this societal concern is besides of great value to the research of this survey as I intend on happening out why are our kids and striplings depressed? When transporting out research I found many books on the intervention for depression. with a deficiency about significances behind it. I intend on look intoing the sociological facets concerned with depression in kids and stripling so that society can get down to understand more of the world of its being. Western society’s thoughts about childhood and kid raising have changed radically in the past 60 old ages. ( Timimi. S ( 2005 ) .

    The West’s attitude to child rise uping changed from sing dealingss between grownups and kids chiefly in footings of subject and authorization to a focal point on tolerance and single rights. In add-on. whereas the theoretical account used before the Second World War prepared kids for the workplace within a society of scarceness. the post-war theoretical account prepared them to go pleasance seeking consumers ( along with their parents ) with economic system. ( Jenkins. H 1998 ) . Is capitalism the underlying lending factor – Or are at that place many? I aim to prove 5 psychosocial variables associated with current. yesteryear and future depression of kids and adolescence in order to set up any correlativities. The five I intend on testing is age. gender. household ( one or two parent household ) . category. current depression. nutrition.

    Literature Review

    S. Timimi ( 2005 ) identified that increasing Numberss of kids are being treated for depression. with at the terminal of 2003. over 50. 000 kids were being prescribed antidepressants with over 170 000 prescriptions a twelvemonth for antidepressants were issued to people under 18 old ages old in the United Kingdom. ( Guardian 2003 ) . These figures are non good and stand for the increasing concern that our kids are depressed. but why? There are many sociological grounds as to why this may be the job. they are issues concerned with the altering household forms in modern society. issues of gender. populating conditions in the Twentieth Century. media representations and values and ethical motives altering to suit in with Modernity.

    The impact of down parents can hold an consequence on their kids. In a survey on the relation between down adolescences and down female parents ( Hammen & A ; Brennan. 2001 ) . found that the down kids of down female parents had more negative interpersonal behaviour as compared with down kids of non-depressed female parents. This is reinforced when a survey ( Chen & A ; Rubin. 1995 ) shows that the parents of down kids are less warm and caring and more hostile than parents of non-depressed kids. Because of this negative interpersonal relation between childs and their parents. kids can develop a negative position of their household. This negative position can take to the feeling of deficiency of control and holding a high hazard of struggle. rejection. and low self-pride ( Asarnow. Carlson. & A ; Guthrie. 1987 ) . S. Timimi ( 2005 ) argues that the alterations in organisation of household life are lending to childhood unhappiness with the new kid centered permissive civilization being a boom to consumer capitalist economy.

    He suggests that there may be a echt addition in the sum of sadness experienced by kids as a consequence of turning up in a cultural context that has seen immense alterations in kid raising patterns. household constructions. life styles and instruction. Changes in Western economic systems. working pattern in competitory planetary markets and capitalism’s need for ne’er stoping growing mean that more parents experience forced to work for longer hours. State support for kids and households has been cut ( peculiarly in the 1980s and 1990s ) . ensuing in widespread kid poorness. With the addition in the figure of divorces and two working parents. male parents and female parents are around their kids for less of the twenty-four hours. lending to a coevals of ‘home aloners’ – kids who have mostly to raise themselves.

    The job I feel we are confronting roots from ignorance of a cardinal jurisprudence of human nature. viz. that offspring demand to larn from their parents. This demand arises because. as so competently shown by Wilfred Trotter ( 1916 ) . adult male is. basically. a herd animate being. For the proper operation of human society we must be taught to keep our inherent aptitudes of self-preservation in favour of the demands of society. so the construct of a peaceable permissive human society is nonsensical because a permissive society will destruct itself.

    Michael Rutter and David J. Smith argue that there is much grounds to propose that kids and striplings in the West experience greater mental wellness jobs as a consequence of sociocultural alterations. In the 2nd half of the last century. rates of psychosocial jobs such as offense. self-destructive behaviour. anxiousness. sadness and substance maltreatment. increased aggressively among kids and striplings in Western societies. For illustration. an addition in household decay ( from factors such as divorce rates ) is associated with additions in young person force. substance abuse. and self-destruction. Context deprived theoretical accounts. such as childhood depression. that conceptualize jobs in individualistic footings. hence taking to individualistic intercessions ( such as pharmacotherapy and cognitive therapy ) . push more context rich intercessions ( such as systemic 1s ) to the borders.

    However. Kedar Nath Dwivedi ( 1997 ) claims that the outgrowth of depressive upsets can be understood in footings of single emotional development. He argues that emotions are extremely specific physiological responses to peculiar events. However. by looking at the contributory factors in the generation of depressive orders Dwivedi has found a really complex interplay of biological and environmental forces. There is frequently an intricate interaction between the environmental. biological and familial factors in the development of depression amongst young persons. In a survey by Kelvin ( 1995 ) even the siblings of down kids appeared to hold three times – that is 42 % . reported prevalence of community samples.

    Dweivedi ( 1997 ) makes the reader cognizant that depression has besides become a major concern for schools because of its impact on acquisition and because of the hazard of self-destruction. Schools are now acknowledging it as a serious job. responsible for take downing the societal and academic operation of kids. It can be associated with negative equal rating. hapless self-esteem. hapless academic public presentation. hopelessness about trials and lessons. negative instructor rating. behavior upset. societal backdown. weepiness. school refusal. hapless concentration. distractibility and larning troubles in the school context.

    Nolen-Hoeksema. & A ; Girgus. 1994 suggested that there are a batch of interpersonal dealingss when it comes to gender. such as the favoritism against gender in an academic scene. This is really outstanding in females. where misss can confront increased outlooks to conform to the criterions set forth by society. to prosecute feminine type activities and businesss. It appears that parents tend to hold “lower expectations” for misss when it comes to school. As a consequence of that lowered outlooks. parents tend to non force their girls toward a high-profile occupation. alternatively trying to do their girl conform to the stereotype of society. like going a instructor or a nurse. In fact. in 1986-1987. adult females merely garnered 15 % of the bachelor’s grades awarded in technology as compared to 76 % and 84 % for instruction and nursing. severally ( Nolen-Hoeksema. & A ; Girgus. 1994 ) . Interrupting the societal norm can take to depression ( Nolen-Hoeksema. 1991 ) ; the more intelligent a miss is. the more likely she is to go down.

    This positive correlativity could be attributed to the more intelligent misss being able to out-perform the male childs yet acquire punished for making so. However. in today’s more modern-day society misss are every bit given as much opportunity as male childs to win. nevertheless. surveies have shown misss are more likely to acquire down than male childs due to biological factors and emphasiss. Bing depressed as a female stripling can hold effects in the long tally in footings of societal operation. calling. and enjoyment of life. Theoretically. if one were to be depressed in high school. so their classs would endure. hence restricting the options that would be available to them after school. The different experiences of each gender can besides be the cause of depression in kids and adolescence. the experience can change by the age of the kid or adolescences.

    For illustration. after the age of 15. females are twice every bit likely to go down as compared with work forces and in another survey of 11-year olds. merely 2. 5 % males met the standards for major depression while merely 0. 5 % females met the standards. nevertheless in a survey of 14-16 twelvemonth olds. 13 % of the females met the standards while 3 % of the male childs did non ( Nolen-Hoeksema. & A ; Girgus. 1994 ) . This disconnected rise of depressive upsets in females during the mid-to-late adolescence old ages can be attributed to the more concerns a miss has every bit compared to boys. These concerns and concerns can run from their accomplishments or deficiency of. organic structure dissatisfaction. sexual maltreatment. and low self-pride ( Lewinsohn. Gotlib. & A ; Seeley. 1997 ) . This is reinforced when another survey found that between the ages of 15-18. the prevalence of depression in misss will increase to twice the prevalence of male childs ( 20. 69 to 9. 58 ) but will taper off during 18-21 old ages of age for both genders ( 15. 05 and 6. 58 ) ( Hankin. Abramson. Moffitt. Silva. McGee. & A ; Angell. 1998 )

    David Pilgrim and Anne Rogers ( 1999 ) . discourse five major sociological positions to sketch societal causes for depression. They are societal causing. social reaction ( labeling theory ) . critical theory. societal constructivism and societal pragmatism. These five positions bear the several imprints of major subscribers such as Durkheim. Weber. Freud. Foucault and Marx. Pilgrim ( 1999 ) explains that different theoretical positions have been popular and influential at different times nevertheless. he makes it evident that it is of import to admit that there is no set of boundaries to neatly periodise disciplinary tendencies. The accent within a societal causing attack is upon following the relationship between societal disadvantage and mental unwellness. with the chief indexs placed on societal category and poorness.

    The advantage of this psychiatric epidemiological position is that it provides the kind of scientific assurance associated with objectivism and empiricist philosophy ( methodological confidence of representativeness and arrows towards causal relationships ) . Pilgrim ( 1999 ) besides rectifies that there is a greater accent excessively on the relationship between societal construction and human bureau in deriving penetrations into the nature of wellness inequalities. Recent sociological analysis have made usage of the impressions of societal capital. personal individuality and the located actions and determinations made by persons. when researching wellness inequalities. The deficiency of societal ‘capital’ implies that the quality of societal relationships and most significantly our perceptual experiences to where we are comparative to others in the societal construction are likely to be of import psycho-social go-betweens in the hereafter cause of depression in kids and adolescence.

    Data/Information Required

    To roll up the secondary informations in order to reply my research inquiry I have began seeking relevant books. diaries. articles and web sites to help me with my findings. However my chief purpose is to roll up primary informations. I recognise that it would non be an easy assignment to seek and undertake a big sample of immature people who may happen it uneasy speaking about their personal life’s. It may be difficult to near legion immature people that will answer in my limited clip frame to give me significant consequences that would be dependable and valid in order to generalize my decisions. Therefore I thought it might be more appropriate to inquire my pupil equals on their experiences with depression so so finding any psychosocial correlativities linked with depression. I realise this may consequence the cogency of my research. nevertheless I have to take into consideration the ethical issues of inquiring bush leagues for personal inside informations.


    I intend on utilizing a qualitative attack to transporting out my research as I feel the survey is a really complex issue to seek and undertake with quantitative research as quantitative research was considered both impractical and inappropriate. Quantitative research allows for the building of ‘big picture’ statements such as ‘depression in kids and adolescence is merely apart of turning up’ . but these sorts of statements are ‘data compressors’ . taking big. intellectually diverse populations and compacting their positions into a statistic. Qualitative research on the other manus is a signifier of ‘data enhancement’ : it seeks to explicate what positions are held and why. leting deceits to be corrected and new. more complex representations of the topic to emerge.

    With utilizing qualitative schemes I intend on taking a societal ‘constructivism’ attack because a cardinal premise to this wide attack is that world is non axiomatic. stable and waiting to be discovered. but alternatively it is a merchandise of human activity. In this wide sense all versions of societal constructivism can be identified as a reaction against positivism and naive pragmatism. ( Pilgrim. D ( 2001 ) . My chief purpose is to happen causal relationships between the variables I have chosen to follow the relationship between societal disadvantages to depression in kids and striplings.

    The methodological and research techniques I will utilize to roll up the primary research for this survey will dwell of the study attack where I will carry on questionnaires. I intend on utilizing a graded random trying method where I will inquire 20 pupils ( 10 misss and 10 male childs ) . from 5 different modules of Leeds Metropolitan University to make full out a ego completion questionnaire. I have chosen to utilize this method because I feel it will be relevant to a broad scope of attitudinal characteristics that are relevant to the survey of depression. A self completion questionnaire will be handed out with a set of devised inquiries to be answered in at that place ain clip. I feel this is a better option than structured interviews as it eliminates any personal embarrassment. the campaigner protects their individuality. but chiefly it eliminates any prejudice that may be evident from me ( the interviewer ) .

    I may happen when the questionnaires have been completed that really no 1 has had any experience of depression in their childhood and adolescence ; therefore I would hold to reconsider my attack to the whole survey. If I had longer clip I feel the best consequences I could achieve would be from a longitude survey because prospective longitudinal informations are valuable because the clip relationship between variables will normally enable the way of the causal influence. ( Rutler. M Smith. D ( 1995 ) . I understand that I will meet some jobs while carry oning my field work as the respondents will surely non be representative of all immature British kids and adolescents. nevertheless it may be give me an thought.

    Once informations is collected I will be able to analysis my informations with an inductive analytic attack by prosecuting the aggregation of informations I have collected until no instances that are inconsistent with a conjectural account ( aberrant or negative instances ) of this phenomena are found. ( Bryman. A ( 2001 ) . By utilizing ‘Coding’ of my information I will sharpen my apprehension of the informations collected so hopefully will be able to see correlativities between. for illustration. gender Female = 1. Male =2 – against ‘current depression’ Past = A. Present = B and see if I can place any tendencies. In order to derive entree to the information I am looking for I will hold to derive informed consent from each participant and should non take portion in covert research or seek to lead on them in any manner. I would hold to clearly specify what my research involves as non to harm anyone when information is released. this is indispensable sing the Data Protection Act ( 1998 ) . ( Bryman. 2001 ) . The effect of non esteeming a person’s namelessness. privateness and confidentiality are hazardous so I must be prepared to expect and cover with ethical issues. Although some issues are evident before I begin to roll up my informations. I must be wary of others originating as I proceed.

    My survey should non be a timely or dearly-won reappraisal and I would be in a place to supply a thorough and comprehensive reappraisal in the hereafter. If I happen to happen that my consequences don’t show a important relationship so this could subsequently take to me proving other variables such as degree of instruction. spiritual background and any other variables that might bespeak a ‘non’-rational frame of head to see whether they have an overall cause for grounds behind depression in kids and striplings.


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