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Science Investigatory Project Proposal

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    Baldness was found as a typical problem now a day. Baldness or Alopecia Androgenetica is a hair loss condition considered an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system, which is designed to protect the body from foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria, mistakenly attacks the hair follicles, the tiny cup-shaped structures from which hairs grow. This can lead to hair problems and hair loss on the scalp and elsewhere. If you have a close family member with the disease, your risk of developing it is slightly increased.

    If your family member lost his or her first patch of hair before age 30, the risk to other family members is greater. Overall, one in five people with the disease has a family member who has it as well. In alopecia, immune system cells called white blood cells attack the rapidly growing cells in the hair follicles that make the hair. The affected hair follicles become small and drastically slow down hair production. Fortunately, the stem cells that continually supply the follicle with new cells do not seem to be targeted.

    So the follicle always has the potential to regrow hair. My friends were talking about the hair loss of their grand parents or also their parents and one of them said that if a young boy or girl got loss of his/her hair, what will they do or what treatment will they use?. Well, coincidentally, one of them thinks of what they are going to do to prevent or experience such a thing. This was when we got the idea of making an investigation on such a matter. We, researchers, being very curious themselves, tried to fill their curiosity.

    Trying to find out if natural or herbal plants can be an ingredient to create or turn it out as a great and best one to prevent hair loss or baldness. After a lot of inquiries and brain storming, we finally found how to execute the experiment with the aid of all our sources including the websites to derive to our conclusion. For millions of adults, male and female, hair loss is a serious concern. Prescription products are available that can help to cure hair loss or even aid in growing hair, but not without potentially harmful side effects.

    Luckily, there are a number of natural ways to stop hair loss and promote hair growth without resorting to harsh medicines. Home remedies are becoming more and more popular each day as people seek alternative means to cure or relief their health issues. Many home remedies and natural cures or medicines can easily be made at home using natural ingredients such as herbs, vegetables, and fruits you can grow you or purchase at a local store. Listed below you will find articles relating to home remedies including aromatherapy, herbal medicines, Ayurvedic, and other natural cures used for everyday health problems

    Introduction A. ) Background of the study Okra, (Hibiscus, or Abelmoschus, esculentus), herbaceous, hairy, annual plant of the mallow family (Malvaceae). It is native to the tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere and is widely cultivated or naturalized in the tropics and subtropics of the Western Hemisphere for its edible fruit. The leaves are heart-shaped and three- to five-lobed; the flowers are yellow with a crimson centre. The fruit or pod, hairy at the base, is a tapering, 10-angled capsule, 10–25 cm (4–10 inches) in length (except in the dwarf varieties), that contains numerous oval, dark-coloured seeds.

    Only the tender, unripe fruit is eaten. It may be prepared like asparagus, sauteed, or pickled, and it is also an ingredient in various stews and in the gumbos of the southern United States; the large amount of mucilage (gelatinous substance) it contains makes it useful as a thickener for broths and soups. The fruit is grown on a large scale in the vicinity of Istanbul. In some countries the seeds are used as a substitute for coffee. The leaves and immature fruit long have been popular in the East for use in poultices to relieve pain. .Health benefits of Okra The pods are among the very low calorie vegetables. They provide just 30 calories per 100 g besides containing no saturated fats or cholesterol. Nonetheless, they are rich sources of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins; often recommended by nutritionists in cholesterol controlling and weight reduction programs. .The rich fiber and mucilaginous content in okra pods help in smooth peristalsis of digested food particles and relieve constipation condition. .The pods contain healthy amounts of vitamin A, and flavonoid anti-oxidants such as beta carotenes, xanthin and lutein.

    It is one of the green vegetables with highest levels of these anti-oxidants. These compounds are known to have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision. .Vitamin A is also required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural vegetables and fruits rich in flavonoids helps to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers. .Fresh pods are the good source of folates; provide about 22% of RDA per 100 g. Consumption of foods rich in folates, especially during the pre-conception period helps decrease the incidence of neural tube defects in the offspring. The gumbo pods are also an excellent source of anti-oxidant vitamin, vitamin-C, providing about 36% of daily-recommended levels. Research suggests that consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the body develop immunity against infectious agents, reduce episodes of cold and cough and protect the body from harmful free radicals. .The veggies are rich in B-complex group of vitamins like niacin, vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), thiamin and pantothenic acid. The pods also contain good amounts of vitamin K. Vitamin K is a co-factor for blood clotting enzymes and is required for strengthening of bones. The pods are an also good source of many important minerals such as iron, calcium, manganese and magnesium. B. )

    Statement of the problem 1. )General objectives . To find out the possible effects of extract “Okra” in baldness. . To wash and condition your hair and scalp as frequently as necessary. . To strengthen hair and roots and grow the hair. . To add bounce and volume to your hair. 2. )Specific objectives . To determine the best treatment in baldness or hair loss , Is it the natural herbs or in the medicine? To take a naturopathic control by avoiding carcinogens and other toxins in commercial alternatives. C. ) Hypothesis . Extract “Okra” can be made into a great treatment for baldness or hair loss. . There is a significant effect in using this kind of natural herbs in treatment. . “Okra” is safe to become a treatment. D. )

    Significance of the study Given that many men are strongly motivated to seek help with their AGA, the treatment objectives may variously include the prevention of further hair loss, the maintenance of existing hair, the regrowth and retention of lost hair, or any combination of the three. In most cases, however, prevention and maintenance are the most realistic therapeutic options. In this context, it must be recognized that there is frequently a disparity between what the physicians assumes are the patient’s needs or requirements, and what the patient actually expects. Although there is a lack of rigorous scientific studies of men’s attitudes towards regrowth of their lost hair as compared to the prevention of further hair loss, some indications are available in the literature.

    For example, in a study in which men with AGA completed the Hair Loss Effects Questionnaire (HLEQ), a high proportion gave responses that were directed towards a future rather than a present state: 93% worried about how much hair they would lose, 87% reported trying to estimate if they were losing more hair, and 8o% tried to imagine how they would look with more hair loss Cash” has also reported that balding men who anticipated more hair loss in the future experienced significantly greater negative events and cognitive preoccupation, and were also less satisfied with their hair and overall appearance than men who anticipated minimal future hair loss. Some anecdotal evidence, based on market research among 2200 men with at least some degree of hair loss, strongly supports the importance of prevention rather than regrowth to the patient.

    Thus, when asked directly whether they were more concerned about the amount of hair they currently had (i. e. egrowth) or the rate at which they were losing it (i. e. prevention), most respondents (61%) were equally concerned about the two; of those expressing a greater concern for one or the other, two-thirds were more concerned with prevention and one-third with regrowth. Although the ideal for most of the men involved in this research would clearly be a hair treatment that produced both regrowth and prevention, slightly more respondents thought that prevention (43%) rather than regrowth (34%) was essential in a hair loss treatment. Therefore, it seems that many men are more anxious to prevent further hair loss in the future than they are to regrow the hair they have already lost.

    Nonetheless, physicians may incorrectly believe that the patient will only be satisfied with overt regrowth, when in fact he would be content with retaining his remaining hair. This is an important point because secondary prevention, that is the prevention of further loss, is currently a more realistic treatment goal for the physician to offer. This is demonstrated by the drug treatments that have been or are now available. You can sustain hair loss from a shock to the hair follicles. This can be from a change in hormone levels, physical trauma, crash diets or surgery. The two most common reasons are chronic stress and dieting. Exercise can prevent certain types of hair loss.

    If you’re losing your hair because of stress or inadequate nutrition, changing your lifestyle to incorporate exercise and healthy eating can prevent your hair from falling out and reverse any hair loss that has taken place. However, exercise doesn’t prevent all types of hair loss. A healthy head of hair requires adequate blood circulation to the scalp. Nutrients are carried by the blood to be distributed throughout the body, including your scalp. Increasing blood circulation or blood flow can help your hair get the nutrition it needs to grow. Exercising is a natural way to boost blood flow to your head, encouraging healthy hair and preventing hair loss. However, if your hair loss is due to an illness, you may need further treatment.

    Despite the hundreds of products and treatments sold to prevent hair loss, only two treatments are approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration: finasteride and minoxidil. Finasteride is available by prescription and is only for men. Finasteride reduces the amount of DHT in your body. By lowering your levels of DHT, the primary hormone involved in hair loss, hair loss to follicles prone to androgenic alopecia can be prevented. Minoxidil is available over the counter and can be used by both men and women. Minoxidil is a topical solution that may help stimulate hair growth, but is best suited for less advanced cases of baldness, according to Dr. Hasson.

    Another form that is slowly but surely gaining importance is Alternative Treatment. People think that such treatments are less harmful and more likely to succeed than medicine. It’s better to use natural products to stop hair fall than to go in for expensive medicine treatments, which may not help the problem. While there is no lasting damage to the body that occurs from hair loss, there is often a high level of emotional or psychological stress that accompanies it. People experiencing hair loss often rely on conventional or alternative products to stem its effects. Several of these products as well as subsequent remedies make use of herbs to help strengthen hair and combat disease.

    Hence it is important for you to understand what goes into the product when considering which remedy is best for you. For your easy comparison and evaluation, we seek out the credible ones and highlight those ingredients which are beneficial to hair loss condition. The main advantage that these products have over the drugs is that they address the problems effectively with no side effect. E. ) Scope and limitations The span of time in this study lasted for about three days, not including the preparation and experimentation. It covers only the mucilage and application of abelmolchus esculentus as an effective substitute for commercial treatment.

    It cannot affect anyone who will consume this because of its non-toxic and non-allergic properties. This project is all about the effects of the extract “okra” as a treatment in baldness. This is to determine the amount of extract “okra” used and to obtain the natural treatment. It also involves the comparison between the extract “okra” and the commercial one. F. ) Definition of terms EXTRACT- is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such ethanol or water. BALDNESS- implies partial or complete lack of hair. Balding is part of the wider topic of “hair thinning”. FOLLICLES-is a mammalian skin organ that produces hair.

    Stem cells are principally responsible for the production of hair. TREATMENT-used to remedy a health problem Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature Okra (US /?o?kr?/ or UK /??kr?/; Abelmoschus esculentus Moench), known in many English-speaking countries as lady’s fingers or gumbo, is aflowering plant in the mallow family. It is valued for its edible green seed pods. The geographical origin of okra is disputed, with supporters of South Asian, Ethiopian and West African origins. The plant is cultivated in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions around the world. The species is an annual or perennial, growing to 2 m tall. It is related to such species as cotton, cocoa, andhibiscus.

    The leaves are 10–20 cm long and broad, palmately lobed with 5–7 lobes. The flowers are 4–8 cm in diameter, with five white to yellow petals, often with a red or purple spot at the base of each petal. The fruit is a capsule up to 18 cm long, containing numerous seeds. Abelmoschus esculentus is cultivated throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world for its fibrous fruits or pods containing round, white seeds. It is among the most heat- and drought-tolerant vegetable species in the world—but severe frost can damage the pods and will tolerate poor soils with heavy clay and intermittent moisture. In cultivation, the seeds are soaked overnight prior to planting to a depth of 1–2 cm.

    Germination occurs between six days (soaked seeds) and three weeks. Seedlings require ample water. The seed pods rapidly become fibrous and woody, and, to be edible, must be harvested within a week of the fruit having been pollinated. [4] The fruits are harvested when immature and eaten as vegetable. Niacin (also known as vitamin B3, nicotinic acid and vitamin PP) is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NO2 and, depending on the definition used, one of the forty to eighty essential human nutrients. Niacin is one of five vitamins (when lacking in human diet) associated with a pandemic deficiency disease: niacin deficiency (pellagra), vitamin C ficiency (scurvy), thiamin deficiency (beriberi), vitamin D deficiency (rickets), vitamin A deficiency (night blindness and other symptoms). Niacin has been used for over 50 years to increase levels of HDL in the blood and has been found to modestly decrease the risk of cardiovascular events in a number of controlled human trials. This colorless, water-soluble solid is a derivative of pyridine, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the 3-position. Other forms of vitamin B3 include the corresponding amide, nicotinamide (“niacinamide”), where the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group (CONH2), as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters.

    Niacin and Vitamin B3 are the generic terms for both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, which are often used interchangeably to refer to any member of this family of compounds, since they have similar biochemical activity. Niacin cannot be directly converted to nicotinamide, but both compounds could be converted to NAD and NADP in vivo. Although the two are identical in their vitamin activity, nicotinamide does not have the same pharmacological effects (lipid modifying effects) as niacin. Nicotinamide does not reduce cholesterol or cause flushing. Nicotinamide may be toxic to the liver at doses exceeding 3 g/day for adults. Niacin is a precursor to NAD+/NADHand NADP+/NADPH, which play essential metabolic roles in living cells. Niacin is involved in both DNA repair, and the production of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland.

    Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid), is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. Vitamin C refers to a number of vitamers that have vitamin C activity in animals, including ascorbic acid and its salts, and some oxidized forms of the molecule like dehydroascorbic acid. Ascorbate and ascorbic acid are both naturally present in the body when either of these is introduced into cells, since the forms interconvert according to pH. Vitamin C is a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions including several collagen synthesis reactions that, when dysfunctional, cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy.

    In animals, these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries. Ascorbate may also act as an antioxidant against oxidative stress. [2] However, the fact that the enantiomer D-ascorbate (not found in nature) has identical antioxidant acivity to L-ascorbate, yet far less vitamin activity, underscores the fact that most of the function of L-ascorbate as a vitamin relies not on its antioxidant properties, but upon enzymic reactions that are stereospecific. “Ascorbate” without the letter for the enantiomeric form is always presumed to be the chemical L-ascorbate. Ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid) is required for a range of essential metabolic reactions in all animals and plants.

    It is made internally by almost all organisms although notable mammalian group exceptions are most or all of the order chiroptera (bats), guinea pigs, capybaras, and one of the two major primate suborders, the Anthropoidea (i. e. , Haplorrhini, consisting of tarsiers, monkeys and apes, including human beings). Ascorbate is also not synthesized by some species of birds and fish. All species that do not synthesize ascorbate require it in the diet. Deficiency in this vitamin causes the disease scurvy in humans. Mucilage is a term used for glue. Though that is probably the more commonly known usage, it also refers to a plant protein. In fact, the use as a term for glue came from the use of plant polysaccharides to make the glue.

    Mucilage is, itself, a polysaccharide (but necessarily the only one used to make the glue), hence the adaption of its name to adhesives made from plant gum. Jojoba (Simmodsia chinensis [Latin]) is a perennial woody shrub grown primarily in the desert regions of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Native Americans have long used jojoba oil to help heal sores and wounds. Today, jojoba oil is still most commonly used for cosmetic purposes, particularly for the maintenance of healthy skin. Jojoba oil helps promote healing of the skin in many ways. It has antimicrobial properties, which means it actually discourages the growth of some bacterial and fungal microbes that attack the skin.

    In addition, the chemical composition of jojoba closely resembles that of the skin’s natural sebum, so it is easily absorbed and rarely causes allergic reactions, even in the most sensitive individuals. Jojoba oil is actually composed of liquid wax esters rather than oil. The body’s natural sebum also contains wax esters, which act as a sort of natural moisturizer and environmental barrier for the skin. However, wax ester production steadily decreases with age, causing the skin to appear dull and emphasizing wrinkles; a reduced ester content in the skin can also lead to the development of conditions such as psoriasis, dandruff, and rosacea. Jojoba oil can prevent the skin from becoming too oily.

    Because the structure of jojoba oil so closely resembles natural sebum, it can actually trick the skin into producing less natural sebum, which, unlike jojoba, can clog pores. Jojoba oil may help treat acne, both by reducing sebum production and by protecting the skin from harmful bacteria. Jojoba oil contains many important nutrients, such as vitamin E, B complex vitamins, and the minerals silicon, chromium, copper, and zinc. It also contains a lot of iodine, which may be where jojoba gets its ability to fight against bacterial and fungal infection. In addition to acne, jojoba has traditionally been used to treat canker sores, cold sores, athlete’s foot, and warts.

    Jojoba is commonly added to soaps, shampoos, and cosmetics—jojoba oil became very important to the cosmetic industry in the 1970s, when whaling was banned and sperm whale oil was no longer available. Today thousands of tons of jojoba oil are produced each year in the United States alone, and the majority of it is sold at a high price for cosmetic use. However, researchers are beginning to look for other uses for jojoba. Jojoba oil is very stable, and has demonstrated an ability to withstand both high pressure and temperature. Jojoba has also shown some promise as an alternative fuel source, and may actually be superior in many ways to traditional diesel fuel.

    In fact, researchers at the United Arab Emirates University reported that fuel derived from jojoba oil actually gives off fewer emissions and causes less engine corrosion than petroleum-based diesel fuel. One hundred percent pure jojoba oil is available in health food stores and from online distributorships. For topical use, place a few drops of pure jojoba oil in your palms, rub your hands together, and gently massage the oil into the affected area. Discontinue use if a skin reaction should develop. It is the sole species of the family Simmondsiaceae, placed in the order Caryophyllales. It is also known as goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffeeberry, and gray box bush. 1] Jojoba is grown commercially for its oil, a liquid wax ester, extracted from the seed. The plant has also been used to combat and prevent desertification in the Thar Desert in India. Jojoba grows to 1–2 metres (3. 3–6. 6 ft) tall, with a broad, dense crown.

    The leaves are opposite, oval in shape, 2–4 centimetres (0. 79–1. 6 in) long and 1. 5–3 centimetres (0. 59–1. 2 in) broad, thick waxy glaucous gray-green in color. The flowers are small, greenish-yellow, with 5–6 sepals and no petals. Each plant is single-sex, either male or female, with hermaphrodites being extremely rare. The fruit is an acorn-shaped ovoid, three-angled capsule 1–2 centimetres (0. 39–0. 9 in) long, partly enclosed at the base by the sepals. The mature seed is a hard oval, dark brown in color and contains an oil (liquid wax) content of approximately 54%. An average-size bush produces 1 kilogram (2. 2 lb) of pollen, to which few humans are allergic Jojoba foliage provides year-round food opportunity for many animals, including deer, javelina, bighorn sheep, and livestock. The nuts are eaten bysquirrels, rabbits, other rodents, and larger birds. Only Bailey’s Pocket Mouse, however, is known to be able to digest the wax found inside the jojoba nut. In large quantities, the seed meal is toxic to many mammals, and the indigestible wax acts as a laxative in humans.

    The Seri, who utilize nearly every edible plant in their territory, do not regard the beans as real food and in the past ate it only in emergencies. Despite its scientific name Simmondsia chinensis, Jojoba does not originate in China; the botanist Johann Link, originally named the species Buxus chinensis, after misreading Nuttall’s collection label “Calif” as “China”. Jojoba was briefly renamed Simmondsia californica, but priority rules require that the original specific epithet be used. The common name should also not be confused with the similar-sounding Jujube (Ziziphus zizyphus), an unrelated plant. Jojoba is grown for the liquid wax (commonly called jojoba oil) in its seeds.

    This oil is rare in that it is an extremely long (C36–C46) straight-chain wax ester and not a triglyceride, making jojoba and its derivative jojoba esters more similar to human sebum and whale oil than to traditional vegetable oils. Jojoba oil is easily refined to be odorless, colorless and oxidative stable, and is often used in cosmetics as a moisturizer and as a carrier oil for specialty fragrances. It also has potential use as both a bio diesel fuel for cars and trucks, as well as a biodegradable lubricant. Plantations of jojoba have been established in a number of desert and semi-desert areas, predominantly in Argentina, Australia, Israel, Mexico, the Palestinian, Peru, and the United States. It is currently the Sonoran Desert’s second most economically valuable native plant (overshadowed only by the Washingtonians palms used in horticulture).

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