Identical species of fish found amongst various continents in freshwater lakes. Folding/shifting of earths crust Grinding and melting of ice on rock Themes: Environment Separation of Pangaea The Great Ice Age Peopling the Americas The ice lowered the sea level, leaving access to early peoples to North America from Eurasia through the Bearing Land Bridge. When the glaciers melted, these people were able to access all of the Americas, thus populating and creating diverse civilizations, although separated from the rest of the world. – 35,000 10,000 YEA Ice freezing oceans to glaciers Nomadic Asian hunters took 250 centuries to cross
Inca, Amman, Aztec civilizations – 2,000 languages, apron. 54 million peoples American Diversity Culture Religion The Earliest Americans Agriculture, esp.. Corn growing, spread through civilizations slowly, creating civilizations that grew in population and sophistication, all the while showing no dominion over the land. Some of these tribes were able to create relatively advanced villages with small societies, and political and organizational components. – 5,000 B. C & 1,200 B. C Corn cultivation appeared Hunter-gatherers abolished and settlements created Baby aspects of modern cities began to appear Demographic Changes
Indirect Discoverers of the New World MI European explorers came across lands by chance. The goods they discovered in Asia became a demanded luxury in Europe, becoming expensive because of their difficulty to import, therefore importers searched for alternative ways to bring goods to Europe. – AD 1000 & 1492 Accidental “discovery” of Americas Riches in Asia became popular in Europe Difficult trade created eagerness for alternatives Globalization Europeans Enter Africa European expansion was further propelled by Marco polo’s discoveries to the East, Portuguese ships discovered routes that enabled access to sub-Sahara
Africa. The slave traffic system in Africa was adopted and made into an empire as the Portuguese made their way up the East coast and finally into India. – 1295, 1450 Marco Polo’s return in 1295 Portuguese discovery of sub-Sahara Africa Slave trade and plantation system Economic Transformations Columbus Comes upon a New World With Portugal controlling the south and east passages to the Indies, Spain was left with the unknown passage to the West. Spain’s growing power and wealth, along with new inventions, led Christopher Columbus, a skilled Spanish mariner to eventually led three ships into the Atlantic.
After almost two months they bumped into an island in the Bahamas, ultimately leading to an interdependent global economic system. – 1492 Spain’s success as a country Accidental discovery of the Americas in 1492 New inventions/discoveries: long-range ocean travel, printing press (1450), compass. Themes: When Worlds Collide When the Spanish arrived in the Americas they were astounded by the creatures and environment they saw, they were quick to trade their goods with foodstuffs from the Natives, these would later be incorporated into G’S of the worlds cuisine.
Both sides gave each other things that would substantially hang their cultures forever, amongst those were disease, which ultimately wiped out 90% of the Indian population and gave new diseases to the Europeans. -1493 Maize, potatoes, tobacco, tomatoes etc Smallpox, measles, plague, typhus, syphilis Horses, cows, pigs, coffee The Spanish Conquistadores Europe discovered the Americas were filled with riches, this brought many Spanish conquistadors to explore the mainland’s and surrounding islands. The conquistadors clashed with the natives but gained large amounts of silver for Spain, and eventually, established the encomia system. 1494, 1513-1542 Treaty of Tortillas -1494 Discovery of Pacific Ocean by Fiasco Ounce Balboa – 1513 Francisco Pizzeria, defeated Incas, added large amount of riches to Spanish coffers – 1532 Themes: Slavery and it’s Legacies in North America The Conquest of Mexico The Spanish conquistador Here;n Courts traveled from Cuba to Mexico, in search of gold and glory. He encountered the Aztec civilization, and advanced upon it, knowing from ambassadors sent from the Chieftain bearing gifts, that it was filled with riches. Courts and his 700 men were welcomed but soon fought due to increasing greed from the Spanish, this led to the demolition of
Ethnocentric;n (murder and disease) and establishment of European culture and heritage in Mexico. – 1519, 1520, 1521 Enoch Tries -June 30, 1520 Smallpox epidemic – August 13, 1521 Departure from Cuba – 151 9 Demographic changes American diversity The Spread of Spanish America The Spanish society spread rapidly throughout Peru and Mexico, but other European powers had also become aware of the wealth and promising land in the New World. An Italian that sailed for England named Giovanni Cabot was sent to explore the Northeastern coast of North America, while two French men, Giovanni De Overgraze and Jacques Carrier, explored the North
American coast and SST. Lawrence River in Canada. The Spanish tried to defend themselves by setting up forts and spreading into what is now New Mexico, but their control was weak and religious dominance was put down by Pueblo native rebels. -1497-1769 Fortress at SST. Augustine, Florida built – 1565 Expedition of Giovanni Cabot – 1497, 1498 Pops Rebellion – 1680 Chapter Two – The planting Of English America – 1500 – 1733 North America remained relatively untouched by Europeans until the early seventeenth century, when the Spanish, French, and most importantly, the English established distant claims on the new land.
England’s Imperial Stirrings In the early 1 ass’s, England and Spain were allied, so England didn’t have much interest in establishing overseas colonies, as Spain was the dominating power in the New World. But when England became mainly Protestant mid century, it began to rival with Spain, breaking their pact, and also giving England a few reasons to begin colonizing in the newly discovered territory. Ass’s – sass’s King Henry Vic’s separation from Roman Catholic Church of Protestant Elizabeth – 1558 English crush Irish (catholic) uprising – sass’s & sass’s Reform War and Diplomacy Elizabeth Energize England sass’s Coronation In order to favor their side in the rivalry between Spain and England, England sent buccaneers to pirate Spanish ships for gold and spread Protestantism, after the return of loot that raised the profit of Queen Elizabeth considerably, the Spanish sought revenge with an Armada, which was destroyed by English forces.