The Nickel Mines school shootings An examination of the community before and after

October 2, 2006 changed the course of Amish life forever. On this day, Charles Carl Roberts IV entered an Amish schoolhouse near Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania carrying several guns. The rage inside of Roberts prompted him to shoot and kill five young school girls while seriously wounding five others.[1] Prior to this incident, the vast majority of the general public would never consider that such terror could come to the peace loving Amish communities spread throughout this area of the country. The old American myth that the Amish were sheltered from the problems of the rest of the world was shattered on this day.[2] The quiet and tranquil Nickel Mines community would never have predicted the horrific events that unfolded on October 2, 2006. However, the way this community came to terms with the tragedy and did not allow it to change their peaceful outlook is a testament to the inner strength and firm religious beliefs that the Amish people rely so heavily upon. Instead of reacting with shock, outrage and vows of revenge, the Amish people of Nickel Mines chose to forgive the shooter and extend their grace to his family.[3] An analysis of the community of Nickel Mines before and after the shooting is offered and is applied to the contextual and historical perspective of this community compared to other communities who have faced a similar crisis as well as the contextual and historical perspective of this act of school violence compared to the recent phenomenon of school violence in the United States.

The Town of Nickel Mines

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            Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania is located in Lancaster County within Bart Township. The name of the town stems from the presence of several nickel mines in the area. When these mines began to become profitable, settlements began to form around the area. Amish settlements make up a great deal of the population of this area. In the Old Order Amish community of Nickel Mines is a one room school house called West Nickel Mines School. Approximately eight hundred families live within a four mile radius of the small town.[4] The area surrounding the quiet town is mostly rural consisting of several farms, some small businesses and homes that sit along the curving roads. The West Nickel Mines School is located in a small valley off of Mine Road. Traveling along Mine Road, one will see a few scattered houses and some farmland before reaching the school.[5] The campus of the school was surrounded by a white fence and consisted of the school building, two outhouses and a ball field. The one room school house was a typical nineteenth century school with a rooftop bell. A few horses grazed peacefully in the fields surrounding the school.[6] This is the type of setting that allows human beings to believe that are there still places in the world immune from danger. However this idyllic setting was changed forever on the morning of October 2, 2006 when the Amish community suffered enormous loss and their community was changed forever.

Who Was Charles Carl Roberts IV?

            No one in the tiny Nickel Mines community would have expected Charles Carl Roberts IV the commit the terrible crimes that he did. The children did not realize that the man standing about four hundred yards away watching them at recess had any intention of coming to their school and shooting ten young girls.[7] Earlier that morning, Roberts left behind suicide notes for his wife and children and then loaded his truck with guns, ammunition, binocular and lubricating jelly. He intended to molest and murder children at the West Nickel Mines School.[8] If the children would have been able to see Roberts up close they may have recognized him as the man who picked up milk from their farms. At the same time, the children would not have been able to see the destructive plans that Roberts had devised within himself.[9] After forcing the young teacher, other adults and male students to leave the school, Roberts informed the girls that he was planning to get even with God because he was angry with him. Roberts went on to tell the girls that he was getting even for the death of his own infant daughter.[10]

The Happening[11]

            The first 911 calls began to come in around 10:30 in the morning but no one had any inkling of what was actually transpiring inside of the one room school house. Charles Carl Roberts IV stormed into the school house and demanded that the adults and boys leave the building. He then blocked all of the exits with pieces of wood. The girls remaining in the school were lined up along the chalkboard with their feet bound with wire and plastic ties. After about ten hours all ten of the girls were shot execution style at point blank range.[12] The ages of the victims ranged from six to thirteen. The death toll reached five while five others were transported to local hospitals with serious injuries.[13]  The shooter then killed himself. The actions of Charles Carl Roberts the IV emphasizes the fact that no one is immune from violence while also strengthening the resolve of the Amish community in protecting their children[14] and finding the strength necessary to forgive the man who took so much away from them.

Police Reports

            Police reports from the scene lend additional details to the events that transpired the morning on October 2, 2006. The police report that two and half agonizing minutes passed before they were able to break down the barriers and gain entrance into the school. Sergeant Douglas Burig, who was in command at the West Nickel Mines School was struck by the amount of time it took to break down the door compared with the eight seconds it took to shoot all ten of the young girls for a total of thirteen shots fired. He reported that even if they had the necessary equipment to break into the school faster it most likely would not have changed the outcome.[15] Burig went on to say that the doors were heavily barricaded with 2 x 4s, flex ties and furniture so breaking down this barrier took an extraordinary long amount of time. Burig emphasized the need for police officers to have advanced tools to help them break down barriers much quicker. Even though it would not have had an impact on this case, Burig hopes that the lessons he learned that day will save lives in the future. The potential to save lives relies on the necessary equipment rather than shields and batons as the police at the West Nickel Mines School were forced to rely on in order to get into the school.[16]

            Police Commissioner, Jeffery Miller, made additional information about the victims as well as the shooter available in the days that followed. The day after the shooting, the police released the names of the victims: Naomi Rose Ebersole, 7; Anna Mae Stolzfus, 12; Marian Fisher, 13; Mary Liz Miller, 8; and her sister Lena Miller, 7.[17] The Police Commissioner went on to release information about Charles Carl Roberts IV. Roberts had no criminal history although information left in his suicide notes had led police to investigate possible incidences of sexual abuse. Roberts had no history of mental illness and did not have either a drug or alcohol problem. The police also released information indicating that Roberts called his wife, Marie to tell her of the sexual assaults just prior to taking the female students hostage. The police also confirmed the information that Roberts gave to the students pertaining to his anger over the death of his infant daughter nine years before. His daughter, Elise, was born prematurely and only lived for twenty minutes after birth. Police informed the media that Roberts was still mourning this loss and held a great deal of anger about it up until he killed himself.[18]

            Police reports also indicate the demeanor and strange actions of Charles Carl Roberts IV the morning of the shooting. The police indicated that Roberts’s relatives and neighbors did not see any indication that Roberts was planning such a brutal attack. However, police report that one neighbor, Paula Derby, thought it was strange that he dropped his children off at the bus stop saying, “Hey kids, come back here, Dad wants to give you a hug.” As Roberts was hugging and kissing his children, he is reported to have said, “Remember, Daddy loves you.”[19] Police reports go on to indicate that instead of attending a routine job related drug test, Roberts instead went to the hardware store where he made one purchase at 9:14 am and another purchase at 9:16 am. Commissioner Miller goes to describe how Roberts was able to gain entry into the school. He arrived at the school carrying a 9-millimeter handgun and asked the teacher, “Have you seen anything like this? Can you help me find it?”[20] Once in the classroom, Roberts was able to force the adults and male students out so he could carry out the rest of his plan.

How A School Shooting Changes a Community

Just as other communities suffering from the aftermath of school shootings, the Nickel Mines community was grieving loss and human suffering. School shootings are particularly devastating because innocent children are the intended victims of such crimes. They are further horrific because they occur within schools which are viewed to safe be havens for children.[21] At the same time, the recent rash of school shootings makes the events in Nickel Mines seem less horrific than if this event would have been one of the first school shootings in this country. There were a number of tragic school shootings from 1997 until 1999[22] and there were two others during the same week of the Nickel Mines school shooting. On October 1, 1997, sixteen year old Luke Woodham killed his mother than went to his Pearl Mississippi school where he killed three people and seriously wounded seven others. On December 1, 1997, fourteen year old Micheal Carneal killed three high school students attending a prayer meeting in West Paducah, Kentucky. On March 24, 1998, thirteen year old Mitchell Johnson and eleven year old Andrew Golden shot and killed four students and one teacher at a Jonesboro, Arkansas school. On April 24, 1998, fourteen year old Andrew Wurst killed one teacher at a high school dance in Edinboro, Pennsylvania. On May 21, 1998, fifteen year old Kip Kinkel killed both of his parents, then walked into his Springfield, Oregon high school and shot twenty-four students, killing two of them. On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold opened fire in their Littleton, Colorado high school, killing twelve students and one teacher before turning the guns on themselves. Finally, on May 20, 1999, fifteen year old Thomas Solomon Jr. wounded six classmates in Conyers, Georgia.[23] The commonality between these school shootings (and others that have occurred since) is that they leave behind a community that struggles to come to terms with the death and injury associated with such tragedies. Family members and other community members are left to mourn their loved ones while also mourning the loss of innocence in schools. A school shooting has powerful effects on the community with regards to behavioral, cognitive and psychological well being.[24] Further, these effects cannot be dealt with by using familiar coping strategies.[25]

            Rarely does a community come together after such a tragedy the way that the small Amish community of Nickel Mines did. Another example of a community willing to forgive the shooter occurred in Paducah, Kentucky where fourteen year old Michael Carneal killed three students who were attending a prayer meeting at Heath High School. Rather than lash out in hatred and revenge, this community instead chose to tape a banner outside the school that said, “We forgive you Mike.” The community felt that this incident was the result of a troubled young man rather than a growing crime problem in their small community.[26] This act of forgiveness may be easier than the forgiveness extended towards Charles Carl Roberts IV and his family because it involved a troubled child rather than a revenge seeking adult. No matter what the underlying reasons are for forgiveness the forgiveness offered to the West Nickel Mines School shooter was an act that has not been seen since.

            A striking similarity between the Columbine school shooting in Littleton, Colorado and the Nickel Mines School shooting is associated with media coverage. The media saturated the public with images of the Columbine school shootings[27] just as they did when Charles Carl Roberts IV killed and wounded ten young Amish school girls. This compares with other school shootings in various parts of the country because these two school shootings received an enormous amount of media coverage that differed in quality and content to other school shootings.[28] For example, the school shooting that occurred on the Red Lake Indian Reservation in 2005 did not receive an equal amount of media coverage with regards to similar quality and content. A theory has been presented that suggests that Columbine and the Nickel Mines School received so much media attention because these events happened in neighborhoods or towns where violence was not common which made the shootings even more significant. Further, schools in inner city or “rough” neighborhoods that experience school shootings may not come with the shock value associated with the shootings of the suburban white students at Columbine and the innocent Amish girls at Nickel Mines.[29]

            Similarly, the shootings in suburban areas with little or no violent crime may have a greater impact on how the community comes to terms with the death and injuries. The severity and duration of the long term effects are dependent on several factors. First, an individual’s internal resources such as problem solving and cognitive function permit them to form bonds with other individuals going through the same experience so they can rely on a support system while dealing with the tragedy. Second, the amount of resilience a person has determines how well they are able to talk with others, write down their feelings or continue to celebrate life. Third, past experiences with death and violence can impact how quickly and positively a person is able to heal. Fourth, the ability to rely on spiritual beliefs has an enormous impact on how well a person is able to heal. Fifth, the overall psychological well being of a person with regards to mental illness or depression has an effect on overall speed and ability to heal. Finally, physical factors such as drug or alcohol abuse or illness can impact healing as well.[30] Columbine received so much media coverage that spanned for a long period of time simply because the community had such a hard time dealing with the aftermath of such violence. This community had not been exposed to this type of tragedy before and therefore did not know how to deal with it. In fact, there are many people associated with the Columbine tragedy who have yet to completely heal from that day. In contrast, the Amish community of Nickel Mines was able to move towards healing because of their ability to forgive the shooter.

            One important difference between the Nickel Mines school shooting and any other high profile school shooting case in the United States is that the gunmen in the Nickel Mines case was not a student at the school. Further, the Nickel Mines school shooting was not about upset students responding to present day issues. Charles Carl Roberts IV defied the stereotype of a school shooter as being a student who gets bullied constantly.[31] Instead of reacting to current problems in his life, Roberts was acting out of rage for an event that happened over twenty years ago. The police commissioner, Jeffery Miller, stated that it appeared that he was targeting young female girls and that the attack was a premeditated event. Even more startling is the fact that Roberts chose the West Nickel Mines School because there was no security, which, Commissioner Miller indicates is further evidence that the attack was premeditated.[32] Finally, the Nickel Mines school shooting may have a far greater impact given that it was a random, although planned, attack and was not based on teenage social issues and was not aimed at any specific student but rather female students in general.

Forgiveness

            In most cases, communities who go through a tragedy such as a school shooting respond with anger and revenge. The community in Nickel Mines responded just the opposite. There was never any threat or thought of revenge. The first example of forgiveness came in the school before Roberts had even shot any of the girls. Roberts told the girls that if any one of them would agree to do what he wanted he would let the other girls go. Marian, a thirteen year old girl, told Roberts to shoot her first hoping that he would then let the younger girls go.[33] After the girls were shot, the Amish community still did not respond with anger. Instead, they reached out to the shooter and his family by offering assistance to the family. More than half of the people who attended Roberts’s funeral were Amish and the families of the victims welcomed Roberts’s wife at the funerals of their children.[34] This Amish community defied all the opinions that the general population has with regards to revenge and justice.[35] This does not mean that the Amish people felt the tragedy any less than anyone else would. The parents of the little girls who died that day felt just as much pain as any other parent who had lost a child. One father lost two of his daughters that day and admitted to having to work very hard to get himself into the fields each day to do his work. However, the difference between parents like this one and parents of other students who have been shot at school is that the parents of the Nickel Mines students forgave the shooter in order to work through the healing process.[36]

            When a parent loses a child and a community loses a young member, it is extremely difficult to put aside thoughts of anger and revenge. The incredible feelings of loss that are associated with losing a child in a school shooting are often so devastating that forgiveness never comes. Through the tears and grief, parents and community members want the shooters, their parents, their parents and their conspiratorial friends to be held accountable for the severity of their crimes.[37] In other words, those closely affected by a school shooting want justice for the loss of their children. They want to know exactly what led to their child’s death as well as what motivated the act in the first place.[38] The parents and community of Nickel Mines most likely had the same feelings. However, instead of focusing on what they could not control, they chose to forgive the shooter and allow God’s grace to help them find peace with the terrible tragedy. Teachings surrounding the religious beliefs of the Amish people motivated them to forgive rather than live with the hatred that usually accompanies such a devastating loss of young children.

            The Amish community of Nickel Mines differed greatly from the other communities suffering from the aftermath of a school shooting based on this great ability to forgive rather than hate. As a result, many people were shocked by their ability to forgive so quickly. An editorial in the Wall Street Journal stated, “I am appalled and frightened by this feel good doctrine of automatic forgiveness.”[39] The editorial went on to emphasize that in order to be truly forgiven the shooters must be willing to admit their crimes and repent of their sins. The fact that Charles Carl Roberts IV killed himself before this was possible makes it very difficult for people to understand how the Amish community of Nickel Mines was able to forgive so quickly.[40] This does not mean that forgiveness was easy for the people of Nickel Mines. It only means that they believe that God provided them with the grace necessary to extend their forgiveness in order to find peace. However, many people not directly affected by the Nickel Mines school shooting could not understand this quick offering of forgiveness and also could not fathom how such tragedy could result in such an extension of love and acceptance.[41]

            The Amish community of Nickel Mines is a model of forgiveness. However, the parents and community are human just as the rest of the people affected by the aftermath of school shootings. The forgiveness that the Amish community extended to Charles Carl Roberts IV and his family is part of the grieving process they had to endure in order to find peace.[42] However, the Amish community maintains that their ability to forgive did not just happen immediately following the shooting. As this community continues to heal, forgiveness must continue to happen over and over in order to ensure that these people continue to find peace in the face of such a horrible tragedy.[43] Additionally, the community left behind faces enormous challenges in everyday life that challenges their ability to continue to forgive. For example, a cousin of one of the girls who died that day has an intense fear of approaching the chalkboard because she does not want to turn her back to the school door.[44]

            Perhaps even more striking is the sorrow that the Nickel Mines Amish community feels for the shooter himself. The brother of one of the victims has said, “For me, I sorrow most of all for Mr. Robert’s soul. I think of the terrible place where he is now.”[45] This is another example of the tremendous capacity this Amish community has for forgiveness. In other cases of school shootings the family and community members left behind have not given one thought to the souls of the shooters, nor are they able to find peace knowing that their loved ones are in a better place. Instead, the typical human reaction is to seek vengeance for the wrongs committed and this takes up so much energy that forgiveness quickly becomes impossible. Further, existing research indicates that as many as sixty-five to eighty-six percent of students and teachers who survive a school shooting experience post traumatic stress.[46] Despite the fact that the teachers and students from West Nickel Mines School were likely suffering from symptoms of post traumatic stress they were able to make the first steps toward healing by offering forgiveness even as they continued to suffer themselves.

            The Amish community of Nickel Mines was changed as a result of the school shooting in more ways than one. Obviously, the community faced enormous loss and had to learn how to heal and find the peace necessary to move on. However, this Amish community was able to take a tragedy and change the way they lived as a result. This community is a typical Amish community in that they reject technology, dress in plain clothes and focus much of their attention on how to live lives worthy of their faith. One non Amish reporter suggested that perhaps God was allowing the school shooting to give the Amish community a chance to spread the message of Jesus Christ throughout the world through the intense media focus on their town.[47] Rather than using the media coverage to vow revenge, the Nickel Mines community chose to view it as an opportunity to spread their message of forgiveness to other people who may also need to find the power to forgive. In addition, the Amish community allowed the media coverage to impact their own lives. The intense scrutiny of the media following the events of the school shooting gave the rest of the world a picture of a peace loving people who should be admired for their tremendous ability to offer forgiveness in the place of rage and anger. The Amish people of Nickel Mines chose to use this coverage to become the type of the people everyone thought they were.[48] In response to the media attention, this community chose to look at themselves and live the kind of life that the world thought they lived. One member of the community stated, “I hope we can be half as good as the world thinks right now. We need to let our light shine as much as possible since this is our opportunity to let the world know about God’s love.”[49]

            At the same time, there are negative implications of forgiveness in communities impacted by a school shooting. Communities that are quick to offer forgiveness often put enormous pressure on the family members of victims to also forgive right away.[50] Even though the family members of the girls slain in the Nickel Mines school shooting did offer forgiveness right away, it is unknown whether they did so because they felt it necessary or because they felt that they must because of pressure by everyone else. Often, human beings must go through a period of reflection before they are able to offer forgiveness. Similarly, many family members of victims of school shootings report that the shooter must accept personal responsibility for their crime before they are able to forgive.[51] Again, it is unknown whether the family members of the victims of West Nickel Mines School still struggle with the fact that the shooter will never be able to accept responsibility for his actions. However, the support of the community is often responsible for enabling family members to move past their grief so they are able to forgive. The support of family and friends is essential in regaining a sense of normalcy following such a tragic event. Coupled with intense media attention, the aftermath of such events often makes it difficult for family and community members to begin the healing process.[52] The Nickel Mines community came together in response to the deadly attack and offered comfort and support to the family members of the victims. This enabled those family members to utilize immediate forgiveness to help them begin the healing process.

How the Community of Nickel Mines has Changed

            When considering the healing process after a traumatic school shooting, it is important to remember that the event will have prolonged effects on victims even after the danger and threats have been eliminated. The immediate impact of injury and death and destruction of buildings and property are only the first component of a tragedy. The lingering after effects often cause a great deal of challenges over the course of the healing process.[53]  It is difficult to know exactly how children will respond and react to a catastrophic school shooting because children are more vulnerable to the psychological effects of such an event. Additionally, adults, particularly parents of victims, must deal with their own grief while also addressing the needs of their other children also negatively impacted by the crime.[54] The community of Nickel Mines used their capacity for forgiveness to take the first, and most difficult, step towards healing. The peace that came from forgiveness allowed them to begin healing but the tragedy left its mark on the Amish community.

            The Amish community of Nickel Mines adhered to their customs when it came time to bury the young female victims. During the funeral procession, each buggy hung a number from the side; the lower the number the closer to the deceased. The mothers of the victims will wear black clothing for one year. However, the traditions and customs of Amish life will also continue to take place even as the community mourns the loss of five young girls. The shootings came at the same time that harvest generally starts so there were fields to cut and crops to collect. The people in the community returned to their daily work more quickly than can be imagined.[55] The Amish process of grieving is highly dependent on forgiveness. For example, one father of a victim met with the shooter’s family less than a week after the shooting to offer his forgiveness. Additionally, their faith restricts the acceptance of gifts from the public so this community has set up one fund to benefit the victims and their families and another fund to benefit the family of the shooter.[56] This is an extraordinary act of forgiveness that enabled the Amish community to begin the healing process without delay.

            Another Amish custom is to burn down the school and rebuild a new one. This act enables the community to eliminate the building that caused so much pain and destruction so they do not have to face the memories of October 2, 2006 each time they see the school.[57] As a result, the West Nickel Mines School was torn down on October 12, 2006 and a The New Hope Amish School was built within eyesight of the old school. The new school boasts more sophisticated locks and is only accessible by a private driveway. The public donated over four million dollars to the Amish community of Nickel Mines and a portion of that money was used to build a new school and bring closure to a mourning community.[58] The new school allowed the community to remove memories of what happened on the morning of October, 2 2006. More importantly, the new school gave some of the hope back to a community impacted by so much pain and loss. The New Hope Amish School signifies that the community reacted to the school shooting by offering the kind of forgiveness that enables them to move on and continue to celebrate the life that remains.

            The community of Nickel Mines was a peace loving community before Charles Carl Roberts IV shot ten young girls, killing five of them. However, instead of becoming a resentful community bent on anger and revenge, the Amish community chose to forgive the shooter and remain a peaceful community. At the same time, the hearts and minds of the people left behind were changed forever. Gone was the innocence of children and the safety of school. The people of Nickel Mines were forced to realize that their way of life did not shelter them from the dangers of the rest of the world. This realization, coupled with the grief over the death and injury of ten little girls, impacted and continues to impact the way this community lives. The people still struggle to understand why the school shooting occurred but they have also been able to find coping strategies in order to find happiness in their new way of life. One of the victims once stated, “It was then that I found out how healing tears can be. Yes, I had cried before, especially at night.  I had cried tears that had bound me all up inside.  This time it was different.  Something opened up within me that day that I had not realized I had been holding back.  When, minutes later, my sobbing had almost stopped, I think the first thing I realized was that the weight inside me was gone.  I heaved a sigh of relief–a great, huge, shaky sigh.”[59] The world had cried before as well in response to the overwhelming number to school shootings around the globe. However, the small Amish community of Nickel Mines was able to take their tragedy and show the world the power of forgiveness. This is the greatest gift that came from such a terrible tragedy. The world has seen how forgiveness can impact the success of the healing process.

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[2] Kraybill, Donald B.; Nolt, Steven M. &Weaver, Zercher, David. 2007. Amish Grace: How Forgiveness

                Transcended Tragedy. New York: John Wiley & Sons, xi.
[3] Kraybill, Donald B.; Nolt, Steven M. &Weaver, Zercher, David. 2007. Amish Grace: How Forgiveness

                Transcended Tragedy. New York: John Wiley & Sons, xi.
[4] Kraybill, Donald B.; Nolt, Steven M. &Weaver, Zercher, David. 2007. Amish Grace: How Forgiveness

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[5] Kraybill, Donald B.; Nolt, Steven M. &Weaver, Zercher, David. 2007. Amish Grace: How Forgiveness

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[6] Kraybill, Donald B.; Nolt, Steven M. &Weaver, Zercher, David. 2007. Amish Grace: How Forgiveness

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[7] Brauns, Chris. 2008. Unpacking Forgiveness: Biblical answers to complex questions about deep wounds.

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[8]

Brauns, Chris. 2008. Unpacking Forgiveness: Biblical answers to complex questions about deep wounds.

                Wheaton, IL: Good News Publishers, 137.
[9] Brauns, Chris. 2008. Unpacking Forgiveness: Biblical answers to complex questions about deep wounds.

                Wheaton, IL: Good News Publishers, 137.
[10] Brauns, Chris. 2008. Unpacking Forgiveness: Biblical answers to complex questions about deep wounds.

                Wheaton, IL: Good News Publishers, 138.
[11] Yoder, Harvey. 2007. The Happening. Berlin, Ohio: Christian Aid Ministries.
[12] Heath, Melissa Allen; Ryan, Katherine; Dean, Brenda; & Bingham, Rebecka. 2007. History of school safety and

                psychological first aid for children. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 7 (3): 214.
[13] Heath, Melissa Allen; Ryan, Katherine; Dean, Brenda; & Bingham, Rebecka. 2007. History of school safety and

                psychological first aid for children. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 7 (3): 214.
[14] Heath, Melissa Allen; Ryan, Katherine; Dean, Brenda; & Bingham, Rebecka. 2007. History of school safety and

                psychological first aid for children. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 7 (3): 214.
[15] Scolforo, Mark. 2007. Police share lessons from Amish shooting. USAToday August 23.
[16] Scolforo, Mark. 2007. Police share lessons from Amish shooting. USAToday August 23.
[17] Kocieniewski, David & Dewan, Shelia. 2006. Elaborate plan seen by police in school siege. The New York Times,

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[18] Kocieniewski, David & Dewan, Shelia. 2006. Elaborate plan seen by police in school siege. The New York Times,

                October 4.
[19] Kocieniewski, David & Dewan, Shelia. 2006. Elaborate plan seen by police in school siege. The New York Times,

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[20] Kocieniewski, David & Dewan, Shelia. 2006. Elaborate plan seen by police in school siege. The New York Times,

                October 4.
[21] Heath, Melissa Allen; Ryan, Katherine; Dean, Brenda; & Bingham, Rebecka. 2007. History of school safety and

                psychological first aid for children. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 7 (3): 214.
[22] Jordan, Karin. 2003. A trauma and recovery for victims and their families after a catastrophic school shooting.

                Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 3 (4): 397.
[23] Jordan, Karin. 2003. A trauma and recovery for victims and their families after a catastrophic school shooting.

                Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 3 (4): 397.
[24] Jordan, Karin. 2003. A trauma and recovery for victims and their families after a catastrophic school shooting.

                Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention 3 (4): 398.
[25] Jordan, Karin. 2003. A trauma and recovery for victims and their families after a catastrophic school shooting.

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[26] Moore, Mark Harrison. 2002. Deadly lessons: understanding lethal school violence. Washington D.C.:National

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[27] Leavy, Particia & Moloney, Kathryn P. 2009. American reporting of school violence and ‘people like us.’ Critical

                Sociology 35 (2): 273.
[28] Leavy, Particia & Moloney, Kathryn P. 2009. American reporting of school violence and ‘people like us.’ Critical

                Sociology 35 (2): 273.
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The Nickel Mines school shootings An examination of the community before and after. (2017, Mar 01). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/the-nickel-mines-school-shootings-an-examination-of-the-community-before-and-after/