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The origins of public health in the UK from the 19th Century to the present day

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    Public wellness is the steps taken by the authorities to forestall sick wellness and disease. The authorities proctor wellness so that they can develop different programmes and statute law to better the wellness and good being of the people in the state. They do this by trying to work out inequalities. so that all people non count what are able to populate a healthy life. There are eight policies to better today’s public wellness. these are ; be aftering for wellness exigencies ( this is doing certain that wellness services are prepared for exigencies such as accidents. eruptions of disease and terrorist onslaughts ) . assisting more people to last malignant neoplastic disease ( by trying to cut down the malignant neoplastic disease decease rate by 5000 ) . cut downing smoke ( by cut downing smoking rates – 18. 5 % for grownups. 12 % for 15 twelvemonth olds. and 11 % for pregnant adult females ) . giving all kids a healthy start in life ( by bettering pregnancy attention and presenting the Healthy Child Programme. which is available to all households ) . cut downing fleshiness and bettering diet ( by presenting the Change for Life programme. and guaranting that nutrient packaging has clear nutritionary information ) . cut downing harmful imbibing ( once more by presenting the Change for Life programme. and by supplying ?448 million to better the lives of the 120. 000 most troubled households ) . cut downing drugs abuse and dependance ( by supplying support and information on drugs ( I. e. FRANK ) . and back uping kids in there first five old ages of their lives. to forestall drug usage further on in their lives ) . and Making a permanent bequest from the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games ( by advancing athleticss and healthy life ) . ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. gov. uk/government/policies? subjects % 5B % 5D=public-health. Gov. United Kingdom. Policies ) .

    ( 1 ) Napoleonic Wars ( 1790 – 1815 )During the Napoleonic Wars. about eight times the sum of British soldiers that were killed in action were killed by disease. This bulk of deceases due to disease were caused by the Bubonic Plague. and was due to the life conditions of the soldiers – as they lived in collapsible shelters and in Fieldss which were frequently overrun by rats. which carried the disease. It was besides found late that many soldiers suffered from lice borne versions of the disease typhus. and besides the infection trench febrility. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/health/4534540. short-term memory BBC News. Health. Lice ‘undermined Napoleon’s army’ ) An of import thing that these wars brought was the usage of field infirmaries. and nurses and ambulances on the battleground. These ambulance were carts pulled by Equus caballuss. Another thing that was brought by these wars was the Principle of Triage. This was devised by Dominique Jean Larrey. who was Napoleon’s main sawbones. and meant that the people with the most terrible would be treated first – no affair what rank they are. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. historyofwar. org/articles/wars_napoleonic. hypertext markup language. History of War. Napoleonic Wars. Dugdale-Pointon )

    ( 2 ) Poor Law Amendment ( 1834 )This act was created because the authorities had spent excessively much money in the 1830’s looking after the hapless. This piece of statute law stated that if the hapless wanted nutrient. apparels and shelter. they had to work at the workhouse. Peoples had to get by with bad life conditions and minimal repasts. Families were besides split up. Edwin Chadwick played a large portion in making this statute law. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. bbc. co. uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/shp/britishsociety/thepoorrev1. shtml. BBC BITESIZE. History )

    ( 3 ) The 1848 Public Health ActThis act was amended largely by Edwin Chadwick. as he stated that if the hapless were healthier. they would be able to acquire better occupations – hence intending that the authorities wont have to pay every bit much to workhouses and assisting the hapless. One of the things changed by this jurisprudence was the province of the cloacas. They improve them to guarantee at that place weren’t as much waste on the streets – hence preventing disease. They besides provided clean imbibing H2O and a medical officer for each town. This was the first Public Health Act. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. parliament. uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/towncountry/towns/tyne-and-wear-case-study/about-the-group/public-administration/the-1848-public-health-act/ . Parliament. co. United Kingdom. The 1848 Public Health Act

    ( 4 ) Crimean War ( 1850’s )During this war. around 21. 000 British soldiers died – nevertheless. merely 2. 755 were killed in action. and 2. 000 because of battleground hurts. Over 16. 000 British soldiers died due to diseases such as typhus. enteric fever. cholera. and dysentery. During this war a batch of infirmary patients had to lie on the floor – as there weren’t plenty beds. Besides. soldiers who had infected limbs had to hold them amputated with a proverb – and a batch of the clip these limbs were given to the military Canis familiariss as nutrient. Two important people to this war were Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole. Florence Nightingale became a nurse in 1853 – merely a twelvemonth before the Crimean war had begun. After a statement that there weren’t plenty medical installations for the war. the war curate of the clip – Sidney Herbert – asked Florence to assist better the medical work in the military infirmaries. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. bbc. co. uk/history/historic_figures/nightingale_florence. shtml BBC. History. Florence Nightingale )

    She was the first individual to concentrate on cleanliness and hygiene in infirmaries. and besides invented the pie chart. After the war. she was able to go on her work as a nurse due to her wealth. Mary Seacole. nevertheless. was unable to make this. This is why she wasn’t known approximately much. After Florence Nightingale rejected Mary as a nurse for the war four times because of her Jamaican decent. Mary sold her place in Jamaica so that she could afford to go to the finish of the war. and built her ain military infirmary out of her ain money so that she could assist the British soldiers. During this clip. she worked with the intervention of cholera and besides with tropical medical specialties. and really went onto the battleground to handle hurt soldiers. ( Atrocious Histories. Series 2. Episode 6. 8th June 2010. Lucy Clarke. Dave Cohen. Susie Donkin. Jon Holmes and Ben Ward )

    ( 5 ) John Snow ( 1854 )John Snow foremost discovered the links between the cholera eruption and soiled H2O when he plotted the chief instances on a map. and discovered that the people who lived closest to the H2O system that came from sewerage were more likely to endure from cholera. He besides had a immense input on medical patterns such as hygiene and anesthetics ( trichloromethane ) . ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sciencemuseum. org. uk/broughttolife/people /johnsnow. aspx. Brought to Life. John Snow ) ( 6 ) Zulu War ( 1879 )

    This war began due to the Britain wanting Zulu’s land. This caused competition between different states. and Sir Bartle Frere – British colonial decision maker – decided that he and some military personnels would protect the trade path – so that merchandises and nutrient could travel to and from Britain. Around 1. 400 British soldiers were killed in this war. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //forums. canadiancontent. net/history/84817-remains-british-soldier-who-died. hypertext markup language. Canadian Content. British soldier who died in Anglo-Zulu War identified after 130 old ages ) The chief diseases to hold affected soldiers in this ware were bowel diseases and malaria. Whereas in Britain. they had really small of these diseases. The soldiers were besides extremely affected by dysentery and diarrhea. However. really few soldiers suffered with these diseases. The soldiers were really nourished. and were fitter than we are today. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. anglozuluwar. com/content/html3/2009/04/16/2009041611283230000100. htm. Disease and Illness Prevalent During the Anglo Zulu War of 1879. Adrian Greaves and Dr. Alan Spicer )

    ( 7 ) Beor War ( 1898 – 1902 )This war was caused by the British wanting to spread out their land. and they wished to claim Boer ( a state within the Transvaal Republic ) as their ain district. In this war. around 22. 000 British soldiers died – over 14. 000 of these due to disease. and 86 due to buoy uping during a storm. These were diseases such as dysentery. enteric fever and febrility. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sahistory. org. za/south-africa-1806-1899/first-anglo-boer-war-1880-1881. South African History Online. First Anglo – Boer War )

    ( 8 ) World War 1 ( 1914 – 1918 )World War 1 foremost started when the Archduke of Austria – Franz Ferdinand – was murdered by Serbian bravos. After this. Austria provided with a pick for the Serbians – either conveying the bravos to justness. or they would get down a war. When Serbia disagreed with this. both states made confederations with other states. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. firstworldwar. com/origins/causes. htm. First World War. Origins. Causes ) 908. 371 British soldiers died during the first universe war. and merely 13 % of these people died by either disease or natural causes. Due to populating in trenches. the soldiers frequently got a disease called ‘trench foot’ . This is because of the wet conditions in the trenches. and if it was left untreated for a big sum of clip. it lead to necrose – which could come on onto necessitating amputation. Other diseases known to the soldiers of universe war 1 were grippes. enteric fever. trench febrility. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //diseasesww1. blogspot. co. uk/2009/03/diseases-in-ww1. hypertext markup language. Diseases in World War 1 ) ( 9 ) Bevridge Report ( 1942 )

    The authorities tackle societal inequalities by making societal policies. Our state is a public assistance province ; this means that the authorities take duty for and look after the citizens of our state by making policies to assist better our economic system. The public assistance province was foremost created in 1942 by Sir William Beveridge. This was founded as the authorities was unsure of why so many people were in poorness and enduring from unwellness. so they sent Beveridge to make a study. During this study. Beveridge discovered what he said were the ‘5 giants of evil’ . and stated these were the chief grounds of poorness. These are Want ( this is low income due to households that are unemployed. ill or widowed ) . Ignorance ( deficiency of instruction for deprived countries. which increases the sum of people that suffer from unemployment ) . Squalor ( this was due to hapless life conditions and non plenty lodging ) . Disease ( the state was over tally with unwellness due to poorness ) and Idleness ( this is unemployment. as soldiers returning to Britain were non materialised ) .

    The authorities attempted to undertake these state of affairss by making certain policies. For privation. the authorities introduced National Insurance. and used the money gained from this to supply benefit support for the more disadvantaged people. For ignorance. the authorities created a policy which states that you have to remain in full clip instruction until the age of 15. For sordidness. the authorities helped by making the New Towns act. which is when they built more lodging in the countryside. and they besides introduced council lodging. For disease the authorities created the NHS ( National Health Service ) to let free wellness attention so that the people in poorness can still acquire the intervention they need. For idling. the authorities took control of some companies. and created more occupations in these companies. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. slideshare. net/nola/the-welfare-state. Slideshare. The Welfare State )

    ( 10 ) World War 2 ( 1939 – 1945 )This war begun because even after Adolf Hitler agreed non to occupy any more states. However. shortly after Germany invaded some states – one of these states being Poland. Britain signed a pledge with Poland saying that they will assist to protect them if they’re of all time invaded – which hence resulted in Britain protecting Poland. During universe war 2. around 400. 000 British soldiers died. and around 90. 000 civilians died – caused by the bombs dropped onto Britain. The diseases that were really common during the 2nd universe war were diarrhoea. dandy fever ( this is infective. and similar to rubeolas ) . malaria ( this is carried my mosquitoes and still kills around 655. 000 people per twelvemonth ) . filariasis ( this is besides carried by mosquitoes and similar insects ) . sand fly fever ( this is besides known as black febrility. and is still kills around 500. 000 people a twelvemonth ) . itchs and typhus. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. world-war-2. info/statistics/ World War 2 statistics )

    ( 11 ) NHS ( 1948 )The NHS was founded by Aneurin Bevan. due to the authorities desiring to guarantee that anyone – even those of small wealth – was given medical intervention. At first. the NHS offered wholly free medical attention – including dental work. lens makers. GP’S. infirmaries and druggists – but after the authorities disbursement much more money on the intervention so what was expected. they began to bear down people for the usage of dental medicine. lens makers and some pharmaceutical medical specialties. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. New Hampshire. uk/ NHSEngland/thenhs/nhshistory/Pages/NHShistory1948. aspx. NHS. The History of NHS England )

    ( 12 ) Deoxyribonucleic acid Was Discovered ( 1953 )In 1953. two scientists – James Watson and Francis Crick – discovered the construction of DNA. They had been working together at Kings College. and used X-ray diffraction to detect the dual spiral. This caused tonss of progresss in biological science. and still helps us to detect new interventions. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. bbc. co. uk/history/historic_figures/crick_and_watson. shtml. BBC History. Crick and Watson ) ( 13 ) Smoke and Cancer links established ( 1954 )

    After researching whether coal fire exhausts were related to lung malignant neoplastic disease. Sir Richard Doll ( scientist ) discovers that tobacco users are more likely to endure from the disease than non tobacco users. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. New Hampshire. uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/nhshistory/Pages/NHShistory 1948. aspx. NHS. The History of NHS England ) ( 14 ) Daily Hospital Visits for Children

    Sir James Spence – a paediatrician – and Alan Moncriff explained that by kids being separated from their parents for so long. they could go traumatised. This lead to kids being able to see their parents in hospital day-to-day. and visa versa. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. New Hampshire. uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/nhshistory/Pages/NHShistory 1948. aspx. NHS. The History of NHS England ) ( 15 ) Poliomyelitis and Diphtheria Vaccinations

    The NHS made it so that anyone under the age of 15 were able to acquire both Polio and Diphtheria inoculations – forestalling epidemics of these diseases. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. New Hampshire. uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/nhshistory/Pages/NHShistory 1948. aspx. NHS. The History of NHS England ) ( 16 ) Acheson Report ( 1998 )

    In 1998. a study by Sir Donald Acheson was published. as he was making an enquiry on societal inequalities. The chief point of this study was that the authorities needed to increase the sum of benefits given – particularly to childbearing adult females and people with immature kids. This is because Acheson discovered that certain inequalities start from before birth – such as the weight of the female parent holding an consequence on the fetus. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/health/222649. short-term memory. BBC. Health. The Acheson study up near )

    ( 17 ) Our Healthier State ( 1999 )Our healthier state was created so that we could better the wellness of our state. It focus’ on the jobs of today that create sick wellness. These things are malignant neoplastic disease. ( which the NHS spend ?1 Billion a twelvemonth on ) accidents ( which takes more than 10. 000 lives a twelvemonth ) . coronary bosom disease/stroke ( which kills 5x more unskilled workers than professional ) and mental ailment wellness. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nhshistory. net/savinglives. hypertext markup language. NHS History. Geoffrey Rivett ) Compare historical and current characteristics of public wellness

    Due to finds and creative activities throughout history. there are some diseases that we no longer have to worry approximately every bit much as we used to. nevertheless some diseases have become more outstanding due to certain finds. In the 1900’s. John Snow discovered how Cholera spread which helped to forestall the disease. The last topographic point to hold caught cholera in the UK was in 1893. all other people in the UK that have suffered from cholera had caught it abroad. Something that has a immense impact on the public wellness of England has been pollution. Even though in the 1900’s they used coal. the usage wasnt every bit inordinate as it is now. Pollution can do wellness jobs such as asthma ( this is because some pollutents aggrivate your lungs ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. asthma. org. uk/knowledge-bank-pollutants. Asthma UK. Air Pollutants ) . emphysema ( by pollutents doing the air passages to swell ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: //copd. about. com/od /whatisemphysema/a/emphysema. htm. About. com. Emphysema ) . and even malignant neoplastic disease. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //scienceblog. cancerresearchuk. org/2013/10/18/the-link-between-air-pollution-and-cancer/ . Cancer Research. Science Blog )

    Besides. due to research in 1957. we found out that smoking coffin nails is a immense subscriber to malignant neoplastic disease. Because of this. the smoke per centums since 1974 to 2012 has dropped by 29 % in work forces and 22 % in adult females. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //ash. org. uk/files/documents/ASH_106. pdf. ASH Fact Sheet ) A comparing between England in the 1900’s and England now is that even though the UK is the 7th richest state in the universe. in 2012 it was measured that 1 in 6 ( 5. 6 million. 17 % ) grownups in the UK are populating in poorness. During the 1900’s. 25 % of the UK population was populating in poorness. Even though the per centum has decreased. there are still excessively many people populating in poorness. This could be because of the authorities passing money on things that aren’t necessary instead than the wellness of their ain people. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. localhistories. org/povhist. hypertext markup language. A Brief History Of Poverty in Britain ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. bbc. co. uk/news/education-22887005. BBC News. Education and Family )

    In this assignment I have described the beginnings of public wellness in the UK from the nineteenth century to the present twenty-four hours. I have besides compared historical and current characteristics of public wellness.

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