The researcher would like to express their heartfelt gratitude to the following people whom she is indebted for guidance, support, and inspiration to make this research possible: To her Family, especially her mother for helping her compose this research. To her Friends, for their kind moral support. To her Teacher, Ms. Maricel T. Balbacal for the inspiration. Above all, to the Lord Almighty, for endowing the wisdom, guidance, strength, inspiration and for lighting the path she took. All of these were wholly heartedly offered to HIM. ABSTRACT
TITLE: MAGNETIC LEVITATION ON PENCIL AUTHOR: Jaz Christine Milliscent M. Olequino SUMMARY This study aimed to show a simple magnetic levitation on pencil. Magnetic levitation technology has shown a great deal of promise for micromanipulation tasks. Through the use of library and web research, the research determined the different poles of a magnet, Identify and classify objects and materials that a magnet will attract and objects and materials that a magnet will not attract and the reaction of magnets when placed next to the same/opposite poles.
The descriptive method of research through survey was used in this study. The data gathered in the research was carefully documented and analyzed to attain valid conclusions. The result of the study was trusted to be significant to the students, teachers, parents, text book writers and publishers since the findings of this study will lead her to pay needed attention in the magnetic levitation on pencil. After the analysis and interpretation of gathered data, the researcher determined that all magnets have North-seeking(N) and South-seeking(S) poles.
When magnets are placed near each other, opposite poles attract and similar poles repel each other. Lastly, the researcher recommended continued reading about magnetic levitation in order her to learn how magnets interact with each other when the same and opposite poles are placed in close proximity. CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION You must have seen a magician float or levitate an object in air. Well, you too can do something similar using magnets! A great project with an amazing feature is featured by this levitation using simple a pencil and some ring magnets.
Magnets always have two poles, come in various shape, and attract or repel other magnets. An interesting characteristics of magnets is that when you cut a magnet into parts, each part will have both N and S poles. Magnetic levitation is a system by which an object is suspended in air without any support except that of magnetic fields. It is also known as Maglev. The force of gravity is encountered by magnetic pressure. When two magnets are placed one on top of the other such that similar poles are adjoining, these poles repel each other and the magnet on top floats or levitates.
Magnetic Levitation is used in high speed Maglev trains. Magnetic levitation, maglev, or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic field. Magnetic pressure is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational and any other accelerations. Earnshaw’s theorem proves that using only ferromagnetic or paramagnetic materials it is impossible to stably levitate against gravity, but servomechanisms, the use of diamagnetic materials, super conduction ,or systems involving eddy currents permit this to occur.
In some cases the lifting force is provided by magnetic levitation, but there is a mechanical support bearing little load that provides stability. This is termed Pseudo-levitation. Statement of the Problem 1. How is physics related in this kind of project? 2. What are the functions of magnetic levitation? 3. What is the significance of magnetic levitation to people’s lives? 4. How do magnets react when placed next to the same/opposite poles? Objectives of the Study 1. Identify the function of the parts of a simple magnetic levitation on pencil. 2.
Learn about magnetic suspension. 3. Determined the different poles of a magnet. 4. Identify and classify objects and materials that a magnet will attract and objects and materials that a magnet will not attract. Scopes and Delimitation This Investigatory Project focuses mainly on how magnets react when placed next to the same/opposite poles. Significance of the Study The researcher believes that this study is important. The study is significant not only among the students who are studying Science but also to others who want to know about magnetic levitation.
This kind of project aims to provide knowledge on simple magnetic levitation and analyzing its potentials in helping not only the students but also other people. To the teachers, this will give them additional information regarding this project and help them deliver a good discussion on magnetic levitation. In addition to that, the various information, as well as the researcher, accurate data relevant for the improvement of the project. Definition of Terms * Magnets- is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
A piece of iron, steel or magnetite that will attract iron or steel. * Levitation – is the process by which an object is suspended by a physical force against gravity, in a stable position without solid physical contact. The raising of an object into air without supporting the object physically. * Magnetic field- the space surrounding a magnet, in which magnetic force is exerted. -A region in space around a magnet where the magnetic force can be felt. * Magnetic pole- one of two ends of a magnet, in which magnetic lines of force are concentrated and are the strongest. Maglev- (derived from magnetic levitation) is a system of transportation created By Justus Thompson that uses magnetic levitation to suspend, guide and propel vehicles with magnets rather than using mechanical methods, such as wheels, axles and bearings. Magnetically levitated vehicle. * Pseudo levitation- in some cases the lifting force is provided by magnetic levitation, but there is a mechanical support bearing little load that provides stability. * Magnetism- the property of matter that allows an object to attract iron, steel or magnetite. Diamagnetism- is the property of an object or material which causes it to create a magnetic field in opposition to an externally applied magnetic field. * Electromagnetism- is the branch of science concerned with the forces that occur between electrically charged particles. * Friction- is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. * Force- is any influence that causes an object to undergo a certain change, either concerning its movement, direction, or geometrical construction. Attractive force- a force that attract or pulls other objects towards another object. * Repulsive force- a force that pushes two or more objects away from each other. * North Magnetic pole- the end of a magnet that points to the north. * South Magnetic pole- the end of a magnet that points to the south. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERETURE This chapter presents the concepts, principles, and theories reviewed by the researcher that have significant relations to present the study. As cited in Ron Kurtus( revised 23 March 2012), a magnet is an object or material that attracts certain metals, such as iron, nickel and cobalt.
It can also attract or repel another magnet. All magnets have North-seeking(N) and South-seeking(S) poles. When magnets are placed near each other, opposite poles attract and like poles repel each other. various electrical devices make use of magnets. According to Braunbeck’s (1939), if two magnets are mechanically constrained along a single vertical axis, for example, and arranged to repel each other strongly, this will act to levitate one of the magnets above each other. According to Geim (1997), diamagnetism is the property of an object or material which causes it to create a magnetic field in opposition to an xternally applied magnetic field, thus causing a repulsive effect. A substance that is diamagnetic repels a magnetic field. All materials have diamagnetic properties, but the effect is very weak, and is usually overcome by the objects paramagnetic or ferromagnetic properties, which act in the opposite manner. Any material in which the diamagnetic component is the strongest will be repelled by a magnet. Electromagnetic levitation (EML), patented by Muck in (1923), is one of the oldest levitation techniques used for containerless experiments.
The technique enables the levitation of an object using electromagnets. A typical EML coil has reversed winding of upper and lower sections energized by a radio frequency power supply. According to Moore, V. S and Kaszas W. J (Feb, 1995), a magnetic levitation train uses electromagnetism to levitate or float above a track known as a guideway. The train is also propelled along the track by a moving electromagnetic field. Because it is traveling almost friction-free, train can travel at high rates of speed, use less energy, and create less noise and pollution than traditional rail transportation.
As cited in Earnshaw’s theorem (1839), proved conclusively that it is not possible to levitate stably using only static, macroscopic, paramagnetic fields. The forces acting on any paramagnetic object in any combinations of gravitational, electrostatic, and magneto static fields will make the objects position, at best, unstable along at least one axis, and it can be unstable equilibrium along all axes. However, several possibilities exist to make levitation viable. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONS
Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions were made: * In the absence of a perfect lift and weight force profile, the conveyance would either be pulled up toward the magnets or would fall. This simple illustration of magnetic levitation shows that the force of gravity can be counter balanced by magnetic force. * The stronger the magnet field, the stronger the force repulsion. * If we hold two permanent magnets close together, we see that one them will jump strongly toward (or away) from the other. If you put two magnets together in a certain way there will be a strong magnetic attraction and the two magnets will clamp together. This is called “attraction”. If one of those magnets is flipped over then there will be a strong magnetic repulsion and the magnets will push each other apart. This is called “repulsion”. * Energy created by magnetic fields can be easily replenished. Maglev will contribute more to our society and our planet than it takes away. Considering everything Maglev has to offer, the transportation of our future and our children’s future is on every capable tracks.
RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the conclusions, the following recommendations were made: * I recommend this kind of project to the students in order them to learn how magnets interact with each other when the same and opposite poles are placed in close proximity. * Continued reading about magnetic levitation, in order to feed a great knowledge about it. * You can also use other materials in making this kind of experiment such as coin instead of CD, small amount of clay that will hold the magnet instead of slippers or vice versa. In terms of maglev, find new ways in order to make it more efficient and sustainable for our future transportation. * In terms of maglev also, research about its relationship with EMF to increased rates of brain cancer and leukemia, especially among electrical workers. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOK * Braunbeck, W. (1939). Free suspension of bodies in electric and magnetic fields, Zeitschrift fur Physik, 112, 11, pp 753-763. * Earnshaw, S. (1842). “On the nature of molecular forces which regulate the constitution of luminiferous ether”, Trans Cambridge Phil.
Soc. , vol. 7, pp. 97-112 * Jayawant, B. V. (1988). “Electromagnetic suspension and levitation techniques,” Proc. Royal Soc. Lond A, Math. Phys. Sci. , vol. 416, pp. 245-320. * Nelson, J. (1939). Am. Journ. Phys. 7, 10. Web Bibliography * http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Maglev * http://amasci. com/maglev/magroll. html * http://www. newton. mec. edu/Brown/TE/Maglev/mag-lev_lessons. html * http://seminarprojects. com/Thread-magnetic-levitation-full-report#ixzz25ll2BJ41 * http://www. ikenscientifica. com/2011/06/09/magneti-levitation/