What Is Poetry Essay Research Paper What

What Is Poetry? Essay, Research Paper

What is Poetry?

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What is poesy? What is a verse form? How can you state the difference between poesy

and prose?

I normally try to supply a defintion, cognizing that the definition is little more

than a simplified starting point for this elusive and resistless genre. I

developed this one collaboratively with my co-worker at TCC, Stan Barger, who

team-taught English 112 with me several summers:

Poetry is the concentrated, rhythmic, verbal look of observations,

perceptual experiences, and feelings.

Poetry looks different from prose on the page. In prose, the words go to the

border without respect to place in infinite. In poesy, ends of lines depend on

sound, significance, and visual aspect. Often, lines begin with capital letters even

when they are neither the beginnings of sentences nor proper nouns. These

conventions make poesy immediately recognizable.

Reading a assortment of verse forms will assist you understand both single verse form and

the construct of poesy.

Poetry Guidelines: Reading and Writing for Understanding

is intended to give you some schemes for understanding verse forms.

Dona Hickey at the University of Richmond and I developed Poetry Portals, a

resource list of verse forms, poesy scholarship, poesy categories, and poesy zines,

for our pupils and for other instructors at workshops we conduct on utilizing

computing machines for poesy direction. Other confederates recommended sites for us

to include. If you suggest sites that we use, we & # 8217 ; ll add your name to the


Don Maxwell at J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College in Richmond has been

learning a poesy composing category, for which he has posted some electures on

poesy that I recommend. Here you can read a local poet & # 8217 ; s account of What

Brands a Poem a Poem? and The Sound of Poetry, including a verse form by and image of

Emily Dickinson, one of the United States & # 8217 ; earliest and best poets.

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Glossary of Poetry Footings

Concentrated enunciation and sentence structure: extremely selective linguistic communication uses few words to

express many ideas and feelings, depends on suggestions every bit good as

conventional significances

Enunciation: pick of words

indication: basic dictionary definition

intension: attitudes and significances suggested through use or tradition

or context, for illustration, & # 8220 ; landlord & # 8221 ; has one intension to an upper center

category household, rather another to a slum household hardly able to grate

together the rent ; in & # 8220 ; Ulysses & # 8221 ; the talker uses & # 8220 ; mete and dole & # 8221 ; instead

than & # 8220 ; administer & # 8221 ;

Use degrees

Slang, colloguialisms, and other informal uses

Standard usages that are acceptable in formal address and authorship

Elegant & # 8220 ; poetic & # 8221 ; enunciation that may look pretentious to twentieth century


Imagination: words and phrases that appeal to the emotions, mind, or senses

concrete or abstract

concrete: entreaties to senses ( ocular, auditory/aural, olfactory,

gustatory, haptic + kinetic, synesthesia )

abstract: entreaties to imaginativeness and mind ( barbarous ground forcess )

actual or nonliteral

actual images mean what they seem to intend

nonliteral images are non actual ; they depend on comparings and


Rhythm: forms of emphasiss and silences in linguistic communication

Syntax: agreement of words in knowing instead than inadvertent forms

for sound effects ( to do peculiar rhythmic or riming forms )

for significance: to make units of look other than standard sentences

Prosody: the survey of the beat and other sound forms of poesy

Observations, perceptual experiences, and feelings: thoughts, attitudes, sentiments, feelings,

narratives, readings, accounts of facets of the human status

Nature of these perceptual experiences

Personal: based on single experience and contemplation on that experience

Cultural: experiences or feelings common to a group of people

Universal: experiences or feelings common to all human existences

Subjects: the actual and peculiar surface affair that can be summarized

or paraphrased

Speaker: the character adopted by the poet to sing the verse form ; a kind of

narrative voice that may be identifiable merely somewhat or really exactly

Situation: similar to secret plan and scene in narrations, the state of affairs

involves the full context of the verse form: physical, mental, emotional,

cultural, and religious elements

Tone: writer & # 8217 ; s attitude or talker & # 8217 ; s attitude or both

Primary genres

Narrative verse forms emphasize the relation of narratives: struggle, action,


Lyric verse forms emphasize profoundly felt emotions

Individual & # 8217 ; s perspective, normally first individual talker

Personal feelings, extremely subjective, even confidant ( frequently love or

decease, frequently wretchedness )


Musical beat ( from lyre )

Subjects: significances that can be expressed as a generalised statement about the

topic or topics of the poem.Themes may be new angle of perceptual experience or new

penetration or philosophical place. A statement about a verse form & # 8217 ; s subjects can and

should be stated as a complete sentence that generalizes beyond the

specifics of the single work, saying non that this talker is

fussing about his life being excessively short to bask red flowers but

generalising that for human existences life is short and should be enjoyed as

much as possible during the clip available as exemplified by life being excessively

short to bask cherry flowers.

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Tone is the look of the poet & # 8217 ; s attitude or the talker & # 8217 ; s attitude toward

topic, subject, or audience. Some illustrations are anger, joy, desperation, fear,

objectiveness, sarcasm, sarcasm, amusement, fondness.

Sarcasm: presentation of elements which involve a disagreement or contrast

between evident significance and existent significance

Situational sarcasm: outcome really different from normal outlooks or from

what text leads readers to expect

Verbal sarcasm: words suggest the antonym or something rather different from

what they seem say or literally intend

Dramatic ( tragic ) sarcasm: words of a talker in a play are understood rather

otherwise by the audience than by the talker as in Oedipus & # 8217 ; s mentions

to revenging Laios as if he were his ain male parent

Ambiguity: look of an thought in linguistic communication that suggests more than one

plausible significance & # 8211 ; but which enriches the possibilities of significance ( non the

same as obscure )

Sarcasm: unfavorable judgment of behaviour or establishments through amusement or laughter,

roasting the human status in order to demo the demand for reform

Horatian: gentle

Juvenalian: biting ( invective is malicious )

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An image is a word or phrase that entreaties to the senses or the mind or


1. Abstract images appeal to the imaginativeness or mind while concrete images

entreaty to the physical senses.

2. Imagination refers to the aggregation of images within a given work or part of

a work.

Senses: ocular, audile ( aural ) , gustatory, olfactory, tactile ( touch ) , thermic

( temperature ) , kinetic ( motion through sight and sound ) , haptic ( touch & # 8211 ; nervus

terminations ) plus synaesthesia ( appeal to more than one sense at the same clip or

description of one esthesis in footings of another, for illustration, & # 8220 ; blueblack cold & # 8221 ;

in & # 8220 ; Those Winter Sundays & # 8221 ; )

Actual imagination: an existent esthesis and centripetal response is evoked, for

illustration, & # 8220 ; the sky is bluish, & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; the Ag bells jangle, & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; the Moon is round

and full tonight & # 8221 ;

Figurative imagination or figures of address

These figurative sensory entreaties present one component in footings of another to

addition and bound apprehension & # 8211 ; functioning to enrich significance and heighten sense

perceptual experiences

fable: extended metaphor in which objects and characters in a narrative

represent specific abstract constructs or qualities. Typically, abstractions are

personified through characters, and the secret plan and puting dramatise the

relationship among the abstractions

allusion: brief, normally indirect mention to another work or to a existent or

historical event or individual, traditionally as a manner of pulling connexions

between those elements and enriching the significance of the current work through

associations with the other. Allusions imply a shared cultural experience and

shared cognition.

reduplication ( the last word of a sentence or clause repeated at the beginning of

the following sentence or clause ) : Time article & # 8220 ; Americans are eating out more than

of all time, and more than of all time they are eating fast nutrient & # 8221 ; ( 26 Aug. 1985: 60 ) .

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analogy: comparing typical of formal statement in which credence of one point

as true implies credence of the other ; in analogy the elements being compared

normally have some obvious points of actual similarity

antimetabole ( repeat of words in rearward order ) : & # 8220 ; Woe unto them that call

evil good, and good immorality & # 8221 ; ( Isiah 5:20 )

antithesis: close arrangement of strongly contrasting words, phrases, or thoughts in

balanced constructions ( & # 8221 ; Man proposes, God disposes & # 8221 ; )

apostrophe: direct reference to an absent, abstract, unseeable or nonexistent

component as if it were existent and capable of hearing and reacting: & # 8220 ; O decease,

where is thy triumph? & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; Hail to thee, Blithe Spirit & # 8221 ; )

amour propre: sometimes called metaphysical amour propre, is an drawn-out metaphor or

simile, normally of strikingly different elements & # 8220 ; yoked together & # 8221 ; ( S. Barger )

such as redemption to the devising of vesture in Jonathan Edwards & # 8217 ; & # 8220 ; Huswifery & # 8221 ; or

the breakage in of a auto to a first sexual experience in e. e. Edward Estlin Cummingss & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; she

being trade name & # 8221 ;

epiphora: repet

ition at the beginning or the terminal of consecutive sentences or

clauses: from a Newsweek ad for Bryant & # 8217 ; s National Gas Company & # 8220 ; Call us, purchase us.

Bill us. & # 8221 ;

name: an adjectival or adjectival phrase or adjective-noun phrase used together

so that they become closely associated and one suggests the other ( rosy-fingered

morning ; the cornet of the morning ; the wine-dark sea & # 8211 ; all Homeric )

exaggeration: hyperbole of features ( Lady Macbeth & # 8217 ; s & # 8220 ; my manus will instead

the countless seas incarnadine / Making the green one ruddy & # 8221 ; )

meiosiss: signifier of understatement in which something is affirmed through the

statement of the negative of its antonym ( & # 8221 ; If this be non true, and upon me

proved, / I ne’er writ nor no adult male of all time loved & # 8221 ; ; & # 8220 ; This is no little job & # 8221 ; )

miosis ( understatement ) : linguistic communication that suggests something is less of import

than it truly is

metaphor: averment of similarity as an indirect comparing between unlike

elements so that the features of the 2nd component become associated

with the first component ( & # 8221 ; the Moon is a pink balloon & # 8221 ; )

implied metaphor: does non advert the 2nd point in the comparing, for

illustration, & # 8220 ; Hope is the thing with plumes that perches in the psyche & # 8221 ; bu Emily

Dickinson does non advert a bird

metonymy: usage of a word or phrase to stand for or replace for a closely

related object or construct ( & # 8221 ; White House & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; Oval Office & # 8221 ; for President ;

& # 8220 ; sceptre and Crown & # 8221 ; for male monarch or queen )

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oxymoron: phrase which pairs contradictory or opposite footings in a phrase ( wise

sap ; cheerful pessimist ; reliable reproduction )

paradox: evident contradiction in which what appears to be untrue or absurd is

revealed as true and important ( for illustration, & # 8220 ; Stone walls do non a prison

brand, nor Fe bars a coop & # 8221 ; )

circumlocution: periphrasis

personification or prosopopeia: ascription of graphic traits to things which

are non alive or ascription of human traits to animate beings ( & # 8217 ; the pitiful trees

moaned & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; the fogcrept in on small cat pess & # 8221 ; )

prolepsis: boding a future event as is it were already act uponing the


prose verse form: concentrated usage of imagination and nonliteral linguistic communication without the

criterions of poetry, line, and meter typical of verse forms. One enchiridion says, & # 8220 ; In

give uping poetry beat, the prose verse form directs more attending to the poet & # 8217 ; s

vision and less to the linguistic communication itself. The consequence is an remarkably private and

aeriform signifier, more like an interior soliloquy than an knowing revelation. & # 8221 ;

wordplay or paranomasia: drama on words, sometimes on different senses of the same

word or similar senses or sounds of differing words

simile: direct comparing between unlike elements in which a comparative term

signals the similarity and in which features of the 2nd point apply to

the first point. Typical comparative footings are similar, as, seems, resembles, than,

and appears, for illustration, & # 8220 ; My cat & # 8217 ; s eyes glow like firey coals & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; like a

bolt of lightning he falls & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; the Moon is like a pink balloon. & # 8221 ; Literal comparings

are analogies, non similes: & # 8220 ; My cousin is every bit tall as your cousin & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; My house

is dirtier than yours & # 8221 ;

symbol: component that has a actual significance in its ain right plus particular normally

abstract significances and associations that evolve from the manner that component is

presented in the work or genre, for illustration, chiropterans in horror films, the carpet in

& # 8220 ; Barn Burning. & # 8221 ; Some symbols are traditional and cosmopolitan, for illustration, the egg

for birthrate, irritants on the rose for the jobs of love or the defects in all


synechdoche: a fluctuation of metonymy in which the whole represents the portion or

the portion represents the whole & # 8211 ; but affecting a important portion ( & # 8221 ; The canvas flows

into the seaport & # 8221 ; ; the strong arm of the jurisprudence )

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Prosody: Sound and Meaning

To supplement the first-class information on the sounds of poesy in your text edition

and in other resources on poesy and inflection, this subdivision suggests extra

resources and offers some notes and illustrations for understanding the sounds of

poesy. You should read verse forms aloud and listen to others read poesy aloud.

Tapes and Cadmiums and pictures about poets & # 8217 ; lives and plants frequently include readings.

And some on-line resources include readings. Here are a few. If necessary,

download RealAudio Player to listen to them ; it & # 8217 ; s free. Please allow me and your

schoolmates know if you find others to urge.

The Sound of Poetry: Don Maxwell & # 8217 ; s Notes on Prosody and Reading of & # 8220 ; I Like To

Hear It Lap the Miles & # 8221 ;

hypertext transfer protocol: //nthsrv1.jsr.cc.va.us/courses/eng217/lectures/pomsound/pomsound.htm

Contemporary Poets Read: Internet Poetry Archive at University of North

Carolina-Chapel Hill

hypertext transfer protocol: //sunsite.unc.edu:80/dykki/poetry///

Prosody is the system of rules of versification in poesy: facets of

rime, beat, stanza forms, and other sound devices.

Rhythm is the form of sound, emphasis and silence in linguistic communication, including

syllable length.

Meter ( prosodies ) describes and identifies the units of beat ; each unit is

called a pes. The metric pess are listed here with some illustrations. A & # 8212 ;

represents an unstressed syllable. a / represents a stressed syllable.

IAMB & # 8212 ; /

Begone you shade of dark

That clip of twelvemonth 1000 mayst in me lay eyes on

TROCHEE / & # 8212 ;

Happy yearss are here once more

ANAPEST & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; /

Like a shade from the grave / He floats through the room

DACTYL / & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ;

Bring me a rose and a lily excessively


and cognize non me

PYRRHUS & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; rare to hold two unstressed syllables

PAEON & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; rarer to hold three

AMPHIBRAC swaying pes & # 8212 ; / & # 8212 ;

AMPHIMACER / & # 8212 ; /


To scan is to place the rhythmic forms ( noun scansion ) and number the

metric pess per line.

monometer 1

dimeter 2

trimeter 3

tetrameter 4pentameter 5

hexameter 6

heptameter 7

octameter 8

Sound Devicess

rime: repeat of indistinguishable or similar sounds in stressed syllables in

matching places, normally at terminals of lines. Earliest poesy did non rime

but depended on initial rhyme, beat, syllabification, names ( e.g. Homer,

Beowulf )

terminal rime: terminals of lines

internal rime: within lines

masculine rime: concluding accented syllable ( dark, battle, visible radiation, tonight, polite )

feminine rime: 2 back-to-back syllables, 2nd being unstressed ( illuming,

combat: chap, holla )

ternary rime: correspondence in 3 back-to-back syllables ( glorious,

winning ) & # 8212 ; most normally used in humourous or satirical poetry

initial rhyme: repeat of harmonic sounds in propinquity ( normally successive or

closely associated words or syllables: , normally but non ever initial

consonant: & # 8220 ; The just zephyr blew, the white froth flew, /The furrow followed

free & # 8221 ; ; & # 8220 ; The groan of doves in immemorial elms, /And mutter of countless

bees. & # 8221 ;

vowel rhyme: repeat of same or similar vowel sounds between differing

consonants: lake, destiny, steak, oasis

consonant rhyme: repeat of stoping harmonic sounds preceded by differing vowel

sounds ( bolt, welt ; coat, common people ) , besides called half rime or slant rime

onomatopoeia: sound that echoes sense or significance: hushing, susurration, bombilation, & # 8220 ; The Wren

whistlings from the garden/And assemblage sups chirrup in the skies. & # 8221 ;

caesura: a silence instead than a sound but it affects the perceptual experience of sound

and beat ; normally a intermission or interruption in the metrical form of a poetry, frequently

signalled by punctuation or syntactical unit such as prepositional phrase,

subject-verb inversion ; noted by dual diagonal //

end-stopped line: syntactical intermission at terminal of line

enjambment/run-on line: syntactical sense carries over to following line

Enunciation and sentence structure affect sound every bit good as significance: monosyllabic words have

different sound and beat than polysyllabic words even when metre is same.

& # 8220 ; rolling & # 8221 ; is dactylic and wanders ( weaving meanders )

& # 8220 ; run for it & # 8221 ; is besides dactylic but includes intermissions that make it a less soft

and fluxing phrase than & # 8220 ; rolling & # 8221 ;

& # 8220 ; Take her up // tenderly & # 8221 ; ( Thomas Hood ) is dactylic dimeter ; first dactyl

seems to hold a different beat from the 2nd because of a combination of


Stanza Patterns

pair: two-lines, often a rhyming brace

epic pair: rhymed iambic pentameter unit of idea, syntactically complete

tercet/triplet: Abdominal aortic aneurysm

quatrain: 4 lines

ballad stanza: alternating iambic tetrameter and trimeter ABCB

heroic quatrain: iambic pentameter ABAB

clean poetry: unrimed iambic pentameter ( nineteenth century dramatic soliloquies,

Shakespeare & # 8217 ; s dramas )

free verse/vers libre: irregular beat and rime, frequently unpredictable or absent

forms, characterized alternatively by

repeat of sounds, words, phrases, images

parallel grammatical construction

important line length and agreement

other sound devices: initial rhyme, vowel rhyme, onomatopoeia, sprung beat ( see

Gerard Manley Hopkins, & # 8220 ; God & # 8217 ; s Grandeur & # 8221 ; )

nonmetrical meters

Free Verse ( unfastened signifier ) : Free poetry has predecessors in the nonmetrical beat

of Greek poesy, the meters of the King James Bible Psalms, Milton & # 8217 ; s poesy ;

nevertheless, the true pioneer for free poetry beat was America & # 8217 ; s Walt

Whitman in the 19th century

Some Familiar Fixed ( Closed ) signifiers



& # 8220 ; Venus and Adonis & # 8221 ; stanza: ABABCC ( see Puritan poesy )

Closed pairs

Terza rima: ABA BCB CDC ( & # 8221 ; Acquainted with the Night & # 8221 ; )

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