Quantity surveyor is the person/ house who manage the cost relating to the building undertakings, such as new buildings, care work and redevelopments. Quantity surveyor proctors the cost of every facets of a building undertaking as a cost expert, every bit good as seeks to minimise the costs of the undertaking and to do more cost nest eggs while guaranting the entire cost of undertaking does non transcend the estimated cost.
Historical background of measure surveying
Beginning of Quantity Surveying
Harmonizing to the AIQS Publication, by article of A Brief History of Quantity Surveying ; “ It is believed that the antediluvian Egyptians used a system of measure appraising but it was non until the seventeenth century Restoration of London after the Great fire that Quantity Surveyors developed as an business. ”
“ In these early yearss the measure surveyor acted for the maestro shopkeepers, mensurating the work after completion. ” ( Blackburn, 1998, p3 )
Although Quantity Surveyors were likely active in Australia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Singapore, USA, Some Europe state, and all Asian county since lone ago.
By and large, Historical background of measure surveying is based on ;
Functions of measure of measures,
Procedures used in measure surveying work,
Other measuring attacks,
Agreed regulations of measuring,
National criterion edifice elements, etc.
In the 17th century the designers were responsible for the hard-on of edifices, every bit good as their design, and they employed a figure of chief craftsmen who performed the work in each trade. ( Seeley and Winfield ‘s Building Quantities Explained )
Up to the center of the 19th century it was the pattern to step and value the edifice work after it had been completed and measures of measures were non prepared. ( Seeley and Winfield ‘s Building Quantities Explained )
Key Roles and Responsibilities in Traditional systems
In old yearss measure surveyors responsibilities were limited to mensurating measures for find out the value of proposed work or value of completed work. This traditional function specially affect for little and average size undertaking based on step and value system. Besides the prepared Bill of Quantities for tendering, interim rating and concluding payment procedure intents.
By and large, when survey important function and duty of traditional Quantity Surveyor can be described as follows ( Pre Contract phase and station contract phase ) ;
Elemental Cost Estimate.
Bill of Quantity Preparation.
Tender Document Preparation.
Estimating and Tendering.
Tender Clarification Meetings.
Kick of Meeting.
Advancement on Site.
Variation Order Calculations.
Variation Order dialogue.
Hence, The Contractor or Consultant/ Client ‘s Quantity Surveyors were involved with these functions and responsible for expression after fiscal involvements as they expected in his investing.
In older yearss besides quantity surveyors had cognition refering specific procurance methods affecting with measure appraising function, it can depict merely as follows ;
Form of Contracts ; JCT signifier ( Joint Contract Tribunal ) , FIDIC signifier, NEC signifier, ICTAD signifier of contract in Sri Lanka.
Types of Contract are ; Traditional Methods such as Cost Reimbursement ( Cost plus contract, Cost plus fixed monetary value contract, Cost plus mark contract, etc. ) , Lum-sum Contract, Measure and pay contract,
Measurement and Preparation of BOQ ; they were used criterions method of measurings for readying of Bill of Quantities and required quantification procedure ( SMM7, CESSM3, POMI, etc. )
Preparation of Tender/ Contract Documents ; harmonizing to the criterions of signifier of stamp ( Bid ) , Form of understanding, direction to stamps, status of contract, general conditions, specification, drawings, BOQ, Specimen criterion signifiers ( Bonds and Guarantees ) , Contract paperss,
Tendering & A ; Estimating ; involved with naming stamps, opening stamps, stamp evaluate based on preset estimation, fixing concluding study for stamp award.
Cost Control ; during the building period, Quantity surveyor prepared cost study for advice the client by foretelling expected concluding history.
Interim Valuation/ Final statements ; prepared by Contractor Quantity surveyor in order to all work done under original range and applied scientist / client Quantity surveyor were certified.
Colony of Contract claims and dispute declaration ; Giving notice, modern-day records, break claims, EOT boodle
Contemporary Background of Quantity appraising
The measure appraising profession mostly developed through the twentieth century and up to this century,
Harmonizing to the PP presentation ‘moss building cost direction Iraqi National Congress ‘ as Contemporary Role ;
Client advocator and representative
Construction design and economic sciences
Construction planning & A ; procurance
Construction disposal and direction
Pre-Contract Cost Planning and Cost Control procedure are besides really of import procedure affecting usage in this degree. It is a pre-costing method of a undertaking.
Equally good as Quantity surveyor proctors the cost of every stages of a building undertaking as a cost director to minimise the costs of the undertaking and do more cost nest eggs for the undertaking success.
What is background of modern Quantity Surveyor pattern?
The Modern measure surveyors provide services that cover all facets of procurance, contractual and undertaking cost direction. They can either work as advisers or they can be employed by a contractor or sub-contractor. Equally good as freshly developing countries of undertaking direction and value direction ( Definition of Quantity Surveyors – Surveyors.com ) .
“ Measure Surveyors will go antique unless they find a new function. ” ( Egan, 1999, p1 )
The function of the Quantity Surveyor has changed therefore well in recent old ages, so so in several project employ themselves as ‘cost advisers ‘ and ‘project directors, largely due to the recession. Equally good as engage to advice on the cost deductions of building.
However, QS ‘s are traveling off from their traditional function and are now offering services such as Value Engineering, Business Risk Management, Management Consultancy, Facilities Management and Project Management.
What are the important key functions which have been changed as modern pattern?
There are some specific functions that identified has being changed into modern measure surveyor function since in resent period.
Those are as follows ;
Investing assessment is an indispensable portion of capital budgeting, therefore within modern Quantity surveyor pattern would worry concluding returns of the investing.
Advice on cost bounds and budgets
When come ining to building investing demand good defined budget, it is imperative that you know your building budget bounds. Hence clear advice on cost bounds and budget demand to be changed.
Whole life bing
Whole-life assessment or life-cycle costing, besides known as “ cost-in-use ” , describes the mold technique aimed at get bying with the mixture of capital and running costs of edifices and the consequence on ownership of a edifice. ( Ferry and Brandon, 1991: 43-44 ) .
Value Management is a systematic attack and procedure before referred to as value technology, to guarantee bringing of a map or merchandise at the lowest cost without hurt to quality, public presentation or dependability ( Ashworth, 2004: 409- 421 ; Green, 1992 ) .
Hence under modern pattern of QS Value management/ technology is critical procedure severally happen out unneeded cost on each activity.
Designation of possible hazards in progress is an of import and major duty. The Quantity Surveyor is able to take necessary actions to avoid or minimise the hazards by placing them early. Safety of work, Economic affairs, Weather conditions, political affairs, etc ; besides includes in hazard direction under modern pattern.
The measure surveyor is cost adept, therefore in modern pattern, he should back up to execute the insolvency services, such as, bankruptcies and settlements.
Cost technology Servicess
The measure surveyor should guarantee that uninterrupted, accurate cost information, analysis, Cost coverage, and Cost planning, Cost control, Cost Checking and cost influences are reported to the client & A ; design squad. The measure surveyor should include all costs in the cost program or estimation of concluding cost. The cost contriver should hold a clear apprehension of cost and budget marks to enable him to rede the developer about possible future over-runs and pro-actively to supply alternate solutions ( Ferry and Brandon, 1991: 9 ) .
Sub contract disposal
Quantity Surveyor should hold ability to choose, control and mange them reexamine the advancement of subcontracts and keeps senior direction up to day of the month.
Apply all techniques for cheque the concluding measure with contract measures, examine the records available, discuses facets with relevant staff, and analyze the process used.
Soon measure surveyor significantly affect with project direction service since cost factor is critical of import facts for quality, Time and Cost manage.
This is the new field for measure surveyor, involves for all edifice direction services.
Advice on contractual differences
Quantity surveyor should give advice ever to the client to minimise contract difference harmonizing his particular cognition of contract conditions.
Employers ‘ agent
Quantity surveyor should move as client agent harmonizing to the RICS professional ordinance and consumer protection usher 2000.
Contract Procurement methods and procedure
Since ground yearss building industry usage pull offing contract, Design physique contract, Construction direction and Build operate and transportation contract procurement methods for the contract procedure. Hence as modern pattern of Quantity surveyors function has to alter their traditional function with thorough cognition of this methods and procedure.
What are the of import influence factors that changed function?
The hereafter development of measure surveying services is likely to be influenced by the undermentioned of import factors: ( Beginning: Powell 1998 )
Client focal point ;
Construction cost is really of import constituent for client to construct his undertaking within allocated budget, including whole life costs, therefore Quantity surveyor function would be changed based on undertaking cost to file away the client aspire.
Information and communicating engineerings ;
The Quantity Surveyor should continuously touch in field of IT developing and using them twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours plants. Upgrading cognition such as ; cad application, spreadsheet application, direction application, rating, drawings, fiscal application, etc. every bit good, Information engineering applies non merely to utilizing computing machines for their work but besides in footings of pass oning with the outside universe through the cyberspace and the electronic exchange of information amongst the squad and the different professions involved.
Somerville and Craig ( 2003 ) have clearly shown that cost nest eggs are achieved when traveling from a paper-based system to an electronic papers direction system. However under communicating, Quantity surveyor should better communicating accomplishment based on the personal qualities included, as illustration: Independence, Adaptability, Initiative pickings, A willingness to larn An ability to reflect on what has and what has non been achieved.
Research and its distribution ;
A research on past work in the field will assist to set up or corroborate facts, repeat the consequences of old work, work out new or bing jobs, support premiss, or develop new theories.
Graduate capableness ;
Harmonizing to the RICS publication, it examined the demands of measure surveyors instruction, preparation and go oning professional development are an of import constituent on all undergraduate and graduate student classs. It is indispensable facts to go on to develop if it wished to keep its function within the building industry.
Particular they identified demand of to be developed countries such as ; Construction engineering, Measurement regulations and conventions, Construction economic sciences, Financial direction, Business disposal, Management, Documentation, Analysis, Appraisal, Quantification, Communication. ( ‘The Future Role of the Quantity Surveyor, RICS 1971 ‘ )
Practice size ;
Measure surveyors have work experience in multi-disciplinary pattern for many old ages. Davies, composing in RICS Business ( 2006 ) , refers to measure surveyors now being the key advisors on building and development schemes, but that they must go on to reinvent themselves to stay in this place. The QS patterns that survived so looked overseas, particularly to the roar in the Middle East and at the same clip began widening their services.
Complete apprehension of the procurance procedure ;
The Quantity Surveyor should hold really clear understood refering selected procurement methods to avoid difference during the implementing phase arise from stakeholders due to disagreements in procurement systems.
wide-ranging on mechanical and electrical installings ;
By and large in the universe, day-to-day run into new engineering into MEP field of building industry, hence it straight influences to alter the traditional function of measure appraising pattern.
Effective alteration direction ;
Change direction involves incorporating and transforming behaviours, attitudes and actions to back up organisational sustainability. The most effectual alteration direction techniques involve proactive communicating with all stakeholders.
Why required to alter as Modern Quantity Surveyor
The measure surveyor should understand the challenges and chances presented by the demands of clients in relation to be, contracts, communicating and claims and possibly concentrate their development on the of import links between these maps. Equally good as, the future way of measure surveying will be influenced by industrialisation, structural transmutation of economic systems, information engineering discoveries and increased globalisation of building markets.
Requirement of a deliver a new scope of added value services to clients, based upon increased client focal point and a greater apprehension of the map of reinforced assets including, why new edifices are commissioned. Besides many clients who operate in extremely competitory planetary markets, base their procurance schemes on the grade of added value that can be demonstrated by a peculiar scheme.
In order to run into these standards measure surveyors must ‘get inside the caput ‘ of their clients, to the full appreciate their concern aims and happen new ways to present value and thereby conversely take waste from the procurance and building procedure.
The measure surveyor should be able to use all the methods, tools and techniques to outdo consequence and to the advantage of the undertaking as a whole.
Measure surveyors should be able to analyse the client ‘s demands every bit good as the interior decorator ‘s attack and the environmental influence when proposing alternate procurance methods. Quality contract certification remains a non-negotiable portion of future services. Although many new methods may be used in the hereafter, the measure surveyor should continuously guarantee that contractual expertness remains portion of the service provided.
This is an country where the measure surveyor may necessitate development, but effectual communicating with all function participants will be a major portion of future day-to- twenty-four hours activities. One has to observe the importance of communicating aimed at accomplishing consequences as one negotiates for client – and besides contractor-satisfaction in an industry which is known for its claims, differences and struggle.
Claims and differences:
The measure surveyor must cognize, understand and be able to rede, usage and use claims-adjudication and dispute-resolution methods. This is an country of growing because an effectual dispute-resolution procedure will enable the parties
and all function participants to pass more clip, money and energy on the undertaking.
Ethic & A ; Value of a Quantity Surveyor
RICS has introduce important moralss for all measure surveyors and professionals Such as ; Act with unity, Always be honest, Be unfastened and transparent, Be accountable, Act within your restrictions, Be objective at all times, Always treat others with regard, Have the bravery to do a base.