British Airways - Marketing Essay Example

External economic factors Consumer demand Consumer demand is basically an economic and social order, which means there is a very high demand from consumers to purchase businesses services and goods - British Airways introduction. A lot of people are interested in buying goods and services from that business in greater amounts. Which will make the business not only grow, but they will also use that to their advantage by making some changes.

For example, if there is a high consumer demand for British Airways Services, then they can increase the prices for the tickets in order for passengers to travel with them. High demand can equal high prices. This happens a lot, mainly because the product becomes a necessity for consumers, also if British Airways reaches the desires of the consumer, then the demands will be much higher than before. With more demands, British Airways can increase their capacity, also being committed to make some investments, such as bringing in new and more efficient aircraft. Rates of interest


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An interest rate is a rate which is paid or charged for the use of money and it also can rise depending on how the economy is doing and it also affects everyone, For example, if there is a high consumer demand for British Airways services then the interest rates will increase in order to push prices back down and also slow down the growth of the business. British Airlines can also suffer with the increase in dept and that could make the Airlines go out of business and if the interest rates continue to increase then British Airlines would have to payback an even higher amount depending on the interest rates.

It can also increase the costs of parts that are needed to make and aircraft, the fuel costs that is needed to run the Aircraft would increase, they would have to adjust the pricing in order to keep the fuel costs low. Competition This is a rivalry in which the seller is seeking what the other seller is seeking, for example, profit, sales and also providing the best practical combination of price service and quality, competition also balances the demand and supply.

For example, British Airways has competition, they may want to decrease the price in their services in order to get the advantage on their competitors and to attract more customers. If there is a lot of competition, the profit that the Airlines are making would go down. Competition can make the services that British Airlines provides better by working harder to meet customers needs. Recession A recession is a general economic decline which means can mean many things such as an increase in unemployment, drop in the stock market and it also includes a decline in the housing market.

Most of the blame mostly falls on the whole administration, the President, Federal Reserve and also on the Federal leadership. This can also affect business such as British Airlines, for example, the employees that work for British Airlines may demand a higher salary, consumers may intend to spend less on Air travel because it might be too expensive for them, interest rates would go down, and the number of passengers would also decline. 2. 1 Political and Legal factors

Government policies can affect British Airways in many different ways, for example, increase in tax for airline tickets which will increase consumer price and that will affect British Airways and also affect consumer demands and also employees may go on strike. In addition, other policies such as consumer protection legislation which basically means that British Airways would have to limit the landing time due to weather delays for the safety of the passenger, which will decrease revenue and the flight cancellation rate would be much higher.

Legalisation can be forbidden items carried on British Airways by passengers and crew that could include explosives and other forbidden weapons and these legalisations that are being made may affect the consumer and they would choose a different airline because of this or may not want to travel on airlines anymore. 3. 1 Social aspects of business Employment British Airways have been hard at work in creating a culture that respects and understands the differences of their employees.

Employing different people from diverse backgrounds which will then lead to brand new innovation and ideas. British Airways are also representing departments all across the airline and employees can meet each other and discuss topics about disability, religion, flexible working, ethnicity and sexual orientation. Cultural aspects British Airways intend to make a service which responds and reflects to a range of customers from different diversities and their needs.

For example, supplying halal food for Muslim passengers. British Airways operates globally and wants to attract talented people in order to reflect the diversity within the customer base. For example, if British Airways is going to a middle eastern country, the food would most likely be different and halal compared to when they go to a European country. Environmental aspects British Airlines acknowledge the impact and are aware of the negative effects that flying impacts local communities as well as the environment.

British Airways have been working to minimise the negative effects and is one of the main things on everything they do. British Airways have also been reporting there environmental performance since 1992 and was also the first ever airline to do that. They have been promoting carbon trading and also the only airline in the world that has been a part of the carbon trading through the United Kingdom’s voluntary scheme. Also developing a new aircraft which is a more efficient, cleaner and operating newer to reduce the negative effects from the aircrafts emissions. . 1 Technological progress and developments Now that technology is becoming more advanced, people can book airline tickets online from many different sites, also being able to book tickets on smart tablets. British Airlines also includes personal mini flat screen televisions that are attached behind every passenger’s seats and includes a verity of channels for the passenger’s enjoyment, it also has a GPU, it shows where the plane is and what is the distance between the plan and the destination it is trying to reach.

British Airways also has auto pilot which means the plane fly by its own by following a certain flight path and the pilot does not need to do anything. British Airways are also developing new technology for their aircraft engine and also a new aircraft which is a more efficient, cleaner and operating newer to reduce the negative effects from the aircrafts emissions. 5. 1 External Changes British Airways would have to comply with these regulations in order to continue operations.

There may be changes technologically, for example, online book services that they have to continually keep up to date with any technological advances that have been made and also enhance the website to make sure that all age groups can find it easy to use the website. More people are starting to use price comparisons websites that increase consumer awareness on what is the cheapest flights and bargaining power. This would mean if British Airways wants to stay competitive, they would have to keep a close eye on the competitor’s prices and make sure that British Airways is on number one on price comparison websites. . 1 Principles and purpose of marketing The principles and purpose of marketing is that all the activities that are going on are used to sell the product. Satisfying the customer’s needs would also be included in sales in order to make the customer not change their minds or having second thoughts. It is used to help the customer recognize the products and choosing between products. The business can also notify the customers if there are any new additions, promotions and products and this will help the organization or company sells its idea, service and products to the people. . 2 Describe the areas of marketing Market research is basically market researchers providing information about the products, customers and services using quantitative and qualitative research methods to make a conclusion and point business strategies in the right path. It helps to spot new opportunities, also identifying issues and also shows how current business campaigns are doing. Marketing communication basically means how to get the message across, for example, advertisements, posters, leaflets, advertising for TV, Radio and cinema.

It also includes getting good press coverage for the products and also arranging sponsorships Online marketing is used to get responses from the target audience by using the internet. This includes advertising banners and buttons on websites. Social media marketing is basically engaging the target audience using social media such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and many more. Branding basically includes production, distribution, market research, research and development, sales and advertising. Brand management involves the same things as well.

Marketing managers also monitor marketing trends and also the customer’s thoughts and feedback to make sure that the customer is happy. Advertising is meant to communicate a products value and it also promotes the benefits of that product or service being advertised 7. 1 Discuss the term ‘marketing mix Marketing has many processes that are used to find out what the customer wants and then give it to them. This is a planned mix of the four elements of a products marketing plan, the common term for this is 4Ps: product, price, place and promotion.

These elements can be adjusted in order to get the right combination to serve the specific needs of the products customer, in order to get the best income. It involves two types of marketing research, such as quantitative research which involves collecting a big quantity of information by using questionnaires and other types of surveys. Also qualitative research which is basically working with smaller samples of consumers and asking them questions on what they think about the services and products while they take some notes from them, it is basically an interview.

The marketing department can also combine the two types of market research if they want to as well. For example, British Airlines would use these marketing plans to find out the level of comfort that the customer desires and also any special treatment that they want. 7. 2 Discuss the four elements of the ‘marketing mix Products A product is basically something physical and is used to make the customer happy and satisfied, but it can be more than just a physical attribute, for example services, personalities, ideas, organization and places.

British Airways offers flights across many countries and has a range of different products to satisfy the customer. They can modify the product to match the customer’s needs, it ranges to economy class, business class and first class. Also first class passengers get a lounge with free food, drinks, and entertainment such as radio channels, magazines and more. Price This is how your service or product is priced in order to make the price remain competitive but still allows you to make a decent profit.

The Pricing strategy for British Airways that they have planned the prices in a manner that the customer can choose where they want to seat depending on their choices and also ensuring what they get if they pay a little extra. There are three different strategies that British Airways use in order to satisfy the customer’s needs, for example, the premium price strategy which is basically used for executive class and business class. The products that are offered are high priced and high quality.

The medium price strategy is aimed at the economy class, it offers an average price, and it’s not more than the Economy price strategy and not less than the premium price strategy, it is in between the two. The last one is the economy price strategy that was made for the basic product, but it also includes some extra benefits which makes it better. Place This is where the business sells its services or products, also how it gets the services or products to the customer.

British Airways can contact people by telephone and the internet which then decreases the costs of retailers and manufacturers around the world and can cause a lot of conflict between British Airlines and the retailers. Promotion This is a method that is used to communicate and promote the benefits and features of the product to the target customer. British Airways does this by selling holidays and hotels on their official website in order to attract customers.

Special offers for check in fees for any baggage and also online check in and can choose their seats of the executive club which is a service that the British Airways provide, it offers hotels, car rental, shopping partners and financials. There are other promotions that are being used, for example, win a holiday competition, free travel insurance when booking a holiday and more. in addition to this BritishAirways now sells holidays and hotels on their website it and attracts the loyalty of the customers implementing the device of executive club.

Special offers are provide year the roundlike exemption in check-in fees for baggage and online check-in so that passengers can directlytake the prefer and choose their seats of the executive club. This schedule is known as BA mileswhich is known to be a very loyal scheme as it also offers car rental, hotels and their financialand shopping partners. There are other sales promotions too which include: Providing extrafree accommodations for the price of two, competitions like win a holiday, free gift like freetravel insurance when a holiday is booked. The British Airways offer three different strategies in order to satisfy the needs and tastes of the customers they are as below;- The premium strategy:- Usually this strategy is meant for business class and executive class users the products are offered with high quality in conjunction with high prices. This particular strategy is a layout for targeting the business class in order to prove themselves better than their other rivalries like virgin, American airlines, Jet Airways etc. y The medium price strategy:- It is a regulating strategy which provides average pricingnot less than the premium and not more than low price strategy.

It generally targets theeconomy class market. y The Economy strategy:- It is a strategy which has been developed for the basic product including some extra benefits which adds to the value of the brand British airways toturn out best comparing it to the other low cost airlines like Easy Jet airways. Marketing involves a range of processes concerned with finding out what consumers want, and then providing it for them. This involves four key elements, which are referred to as the 4Ps. A useful starting point therefore is to carry out market research to find out about customer requirements in relation to the 4Ps.

There are two main types of market research – quantitative research involving collecting a lot of information by using techniques such as questionnaires and other forms of survey. Qualitative research involves working with smaller samples of consumers, often asking them to discuss products and services while researchers take notes about what they have to say. The marketing department will usually combine both forms of research. The marketing department will seek to make sure that the company has a marketing focus in everything that it does.

It will work very closely with production to make sure that new and existing product development is tied in closely with the needs and expectations of customers. Modern market focused organisations will seek to find out what their customers want. For example, financial service organisations, will want to find out about what sort of accounts customers want to open and the standard of service they expect to get. Retailers like Argos and Homebase will seek to find out about customer preferences for store layouts and the range of goods on offer.

Airlines will find out about the levels of comfort that customers desire and the special treatment that they prefer to receive. A useful definition of marketing is the anticipation and identification of customer needs and requirements so as to be able to meet them, make a profit or other key organisational objectives. Read more: http://businesscasestudies. co. uk/business-theory/marketing/the-principles-of-marketing. html#ixzz2SiimpYEV Follow us: @Thetimes100 on Twitter | thetimes100casestudies on Facebook There are two types of external factors which are micro and macro factors.

Demography, competition, economy, political, legal, technology and socio-cultural are the macro factors. Suppliers, Customers and Market intermediaries are the Micro factors. Read more: http://essaybank. degree-essays. com/management/british-airways. php#ixzz2SeGoJX1u Technological factors affecting BA may include online booking services, which means that they have to keep up to date with technological advances and enhance their website to ensure that all age groups can easily use the website, especially the elderly, who may not feel comfortable using such technology.

More people are using price comparison sites, which increases consumer awareness and bargaining power. This would mean if BA was to stay competitive it would have to keep an eye on its competitor’s prices and make sure it’s on top of the price comparison websites. For external analysis of BA I will do the PEST analysis followed by Porters Five Force Analysis. Political factors affecting British Airways include the Middle East Crisis, since September 11 2001, The government has controlled where airlines fly and part of their pricing policies and product planning.

Trade unions have had a significant impact on British Airways, because BA has suffered from strikes throughout its workforce, which lead to flights being cancelled and BA losing a lot of money. Heavy regulation also impacts on BA as well as any other airline in the world, British Airways has to comply with these regulations if it is to continue its operations. (BA Strategic Report 2009) Economical factors affecting British Airways include the price of oil which will add to the cost of fuel for BA to function.

The state of the global economy also impacts BA, for example the recession hit all countries hard, which means less travel in general but more importantly less business people travelling. (BA Strategic Report 2009) Social factors that influence BA could be the fact that they travel to different destinations, every country is different in terms of society and culture. These factors affect customer needs and the size of potential markets. (BA Strategic Report 2009)

Technological factors affecting BA may include online booking services, which means that they have to keep up to date with technological advances and enhance their website to ensure that all age groups can easily use the website, especially the elderly, who may not feel comfortable using such technology. More people are using price comparison sites, which increases consumer awareness and bargaining power. This would mean if BA was to stay competitive it would have to keep an eye on its competitors prices and make sure it’s on top of the price comparison website. BA Strategic Report 2009) I will use The Porters Five Force Analysis to analyse the position of BA and the strength of each five forces. First I will discuss BA’s competitive rivalry, the strength of competitive rivalry is high. BA offers both long haul and short haul flights, compared to competitors there is little difference with long haul flights in terms of price and services offered. But the short haul market is more fragmented with many small players. Power of suppliers is high because BA has two aircraft manufacturers, which means high bargaining power.

It is restricted to one supplier of fuel and its employees use collective bargaining through trade unions in order to increase their bargaining power. Power of buyers is not high or low, it is medium. This is because there is a low concentration of buyers to suppliers, which reflects that they have low bargaining power. BA is not affected by the threat of new entrants because there are barriers to entry, for example the competitive environment, high start up costs and very high regulations. There are also other deterrents for new entrants, such as barriers to exit and failures of some airlines, namely XL and Zoom.

The threat of substitutes has very little impact on BA, because there are few direct substitutes. Short haul flights has only one substitute, travelling by the Eurostar or any ferry. For long haul flights there are no substitutes. Read more: http://www. ukessays. com/essays/international-studies/british-airways. php#ixzz2SeDflDQ4 New technology equipment We are also fitting new technology equipment to our existing long-haul aircraft engines: * ‘DAC II’ combustors on our Boeing 777-236 GE90 engines * new ‘Phase 5’ combustors on 30 of the 57 Boeing 747-400 RB211-524G engines Both of these modifications will help reduce NOx emissions.

New aircraft Operating newer, cleaner, more efficient aircraft is an important part of reducing the impacts from our emissions. At the end of September 2007, we announced the purchase of new aircraft to replace some of our Boeing 767-300 and 747-400’s. The new Airbus 380 and Boeing 787 have significantly better environmental performances than the aircraft they replace – with regards air quality the A380 emits about 10% less NOx per aircraft than the Boeing 747-400, whilst the Boeing 787 NOx emissions are about 46% less per aircraft than the Boeing 767. he federal leadership, often either the President himself, the head of the Federal Reserve, or the entire administration. Read more: http://www. investorwords. com/4086/recession. html#ixzz2Sd6Aajh8 the federal leadership, often either the President himself, the head of the Federal Reserve, or the entire administration. Read more: http://www. investorwords. com/4086/recession. html#ixzz2Sd6Aajh8 Rivalry in which every seller tries to get what other sellers are seeking at the same time: sales, profit, and market share by offering the best racticable combination of price, quality, and service. Where the market information flows freely, competition plays a regulatory function in balancing demand and supply. Read more: http://www. businessdictionary. com/definition/competition. html#ixzz2SczTKFKm Airlines Industry Research Introduction: Airlines Industry Airlines industry is affected by several factors such as monetary & fiscal policy, wage inequality, price elasticity. These factors play a major role in the functioning of airlines industry. The condition and circumstances going in the world changes the demand and supply.

Airline industry had a severe effect due to the attack by the terrorists on World trade Center in the year 2001. People didn’t rely on the airlines after this attack as airplane was used for the attack. Aviation sector suffered huge losses as people stopped traveling by air. Debts of the airlines companies increased and some of the airlines went bankrupt. Fiscal and monetary policies were also impacted in a negative manner. As market condition is continuously changing, it is difficult to predict the future of airlines.

The industry has faced several problems due to rising inflation, fluctuations in oil & fuel prices, rising interest rates. The overall industry is in a weak position as there is decrease in the demand. The difficulty has also increased due to the intense competition in the industry. Companies are providing additional services at low cost and decreasing the fare to attract the customers. Various factors which create an impact on Airline Industry are as follows: Shifts and Price Elasticity of Demand and Supply

To know about the shifts and price elasticity of demand and supply, the concepts of demand, supply, shifts and price elasticity should be reviewed. Demand can be defined as willingness and ability to pay for a particular product. The demand for a product largely depends on its price (but it is not the only factor which determines it). The shifts in demand curve (extension & contraction) occur as a result of change in the price. If the demand for a product increases due to the fall in price then it is known as extension of demand.

A fall in the demand of a product as a result of the rise in the price is called as contraction in demand. A change in demand, due to the factors other than price is described as shift in demand. Price Elasticity of demand is defined as the percentage change in quantity demanded of a product due to the percentage change in its price, other things remaining constant (Air Travel Demand Elasticities: Concepts, Issues and Measurement, 2008). The supply of a product refers to the various quantities of the product, which a seller is willing and able to sell at distinguishing prices in a given period of time.

A shift in supply means an increase or decrease in the quantity supplied at the same price. Elasticity of supply refers to the percentage change in the quantity supplied of a product due to percent change in its price. When the change in the quantity supplied changes more than proportionate to the change in its price, the supply is elastic. On the other hand, if the change in the price leads to a less than proportionate change in quantity demanded, the supply is inelastic. After the attack of 9/11, there is a great fall in the demand of Aviation Sector.

This sector is highly unstable, as it is totally dependent on the market situation. There are various factors which influence the demand and supply curve. Increase or decrease, contraction or extension, terrorists attack etc creates an impact on the Airline Industry by shifting the demand and supply curve. Price elasticity of demand and supply is also influenced by competition. Another factor which affects demand and supply can be the alternatives available like travel by train or by car (Air Travel Demand Elasticities: Concepts, Issues and Measurement, 2008). Positive and Negative Externalities

As mentioned, Airline industry is highly influenced by situation of the market. Due to the nature of the business, Aviation sector is strongly struck by the economic system. Positive and Negative externalities affect the prices of airlines. So a great level of fluctuations in the price of airline tickets is seen because of positive and negative externalities. They play a major role in influencing the demand and supply curve of Airline Industry. Constructive and unconstructive externalities should be properly addressed as they are crucial for the success of the industry and also are mportant factors to have a competitive edge. Airline Industry experiences a positive impact from the positive externalities by boosting the travelers to avail the airline facilities. The negative externalities affect the airline industry across long distances also. There are various factors (negative externalities) like increase or decrease in the prices of fuel, pollution, noise etc. These externalities create a strong impact on the whole airline industry. Hence, there are various externalities which give rise to violent disturbances like the crash of airplanes, over-head costs etc. Wage Inequality

Inequality in wages is regarded as a major issue in the U. S. labour market. Wage inequality implies that a lacunae has come between high-paying workers and low-paying workers. A wide gap has come in between these groups of people which are creating dispersion in wages. There are also various other economic and social factors which gives rise to inequality in wages. This further results in many problems like low unemployment etc. Airline Industry has witnessed many cases of wage dispersion in its past. There were various measures adopted to curb this problem so that there is decrease in the issues of wage inequality.

Various policies or ordinances are made to direct the efforts towards controlling wage dispersion. To address the issue of inequality in wages, U. S. government made “living wage legislation” which states that a minimum $10 per hour should be paid to the employees. There is great wage dispersion (until the law being made, 6% of employees were paid less than $10 and approximate 96% were paid near about $14) (Peoples, 1997). This inequality in wages affects the other industries like tourism industry, hotels and other transportation sectors also. U. S. overnment has also made various welfare reform initiatives to meet the needs of supply of low-skilled job-seekers (Peoples, 1997). This is done to lessen down the wages of those at the bottom of the distribution, at least in the short run. If the wage corrosion continues for the individuals who are earning less, then inequality is surely to rise. And this will remain a significant policy issue in the U. S. Monetary and Fiscal Policies Before knowing how Aviation industry is influenced by monetary and fiscal policies, it is essential to know the concepts of monetary and fiscal policy.

Monetary policy is an important tool which is used to regulate the flow of money and rate of interest in order to have an impact on the domestic economy. The goal is to make the economic activities align with the political objectives. Monetary policy is usually administered by a Government appointed “Central Bank”, the Bank of Canada and the Federal Reserve Bank in the United States. Another important tool used by the government is fiscal policy. It is defined as policy made on the amount spent by the government to render goods and services and the way these expenditures are financed.

Moving ahead with the impact of monetary and fiscal policy on Airline industry, it can be said that the attack on World Trade Organization on 11 September, 2001 deeply affected various policies (including fiscal and monetary policy) of Aviation sector. With the attack of 9/11, great fall in the demand of airline sector is observed. Further, the employees of this sector are also struck by the huge layoffs on a national scale. The decrease in airline industry also led to fall in various other industries like transportation industry etc. The dramatic decline in the airline industry was alarming for U.

S. government as the fall could lead to insolvency. There were number of measures taken by the government like extra tax on the price of the airline ticket, security fee’s (‘September 11 Security fee’) etc. U. S. government took the decision that amount collected through these fiscal policies will be used for the safety of the travelers of airline industry. Various safety tools will also be used in order to protect the travelers. Affect of Economy on the Airlines Industry and Economic Influences There is an affect on the aviation sector due to the change in the economy.

Companies focus on the externalities & trends in the market as they are impacted by them. Both the economy and aviations sector are affected by each other. If there is change in the economy, it directly impacts the performance of the companies. Similarly a change in the industry influences the economy. For example, it there is a rise in inflation, it will decrease the overall profits of the companies. Another important consideration is of fuel prices. If there is an increase in the fuel prices, operating cost rises which in turn results in increased prices of the tickets.

In this case companies have to change their pricing strategies. Ticket prices have to be increased to cover the costs and make out reasonable profits. Aviation sector is highly unstable as it depends on the market trends. It becomes difficult for the companies to operate when there are negative conditions in the market and they fail. Sometimes, firms are not able to predict the future and are unable to take advantage of the condition. In the airlines industry elasticity of demand depends on the competition. Overall the industry is risky and susceptible.

It is very important to forecast the future and make plans accordingly. It is clear that the economic trends affect the airlines industry. So, the companies should design their strategy according to the existing market conditions. The companies should review their strategies time to time to make them according to the changes in the economy. There are many micro and macro economic factors which affects the airline industry. The major factors which can affect the industry in a negative manner are fuel prices, economic condition, rate of interest & disposable income. Fuel constitutes the major portion of the total cost.

If the price of fuel increases, it has a severe impact on the earnings of the company. A slight increase in the prices leads to decrease in a significant amount of profits. Another economic influence is the condition of the economy. If the economy is facing recession, people also do not have much savings which leads to fall in demand. They try to opt for cheap mode of transportation. Rising interest rates also significantly impact the industry in a negative manner. If the rates of interest rise, there is burden on the company. Companies have to pay additional cost for it in the form of interest, thus decreasing the income.

Read more: http://www. ukessays. com/essays/management/airlines-industry-policy. php#ixzz2Scl3hhTc In order to communicate a products value, the company focuses son the public relations area and public image. The messages communicated through the company values, activities and achievements affect and enhance the aesthetic of the brand. Advertising is the promotion of a service or product or company. It features a strong call to action and promotes the benefits of that being advertised. Marketing involves many areas of work since it is a broad field. As you progress further in your career you are likely to pecialise in one of the following areas. Further, at much higher levels you will progress into more strategic roles in these areas. Market research Market researchers provide information about customers, products and services to help marketers make informed decisions about product development and communicating with customers. Researchers use both qualitative methods and quantitative methods to draw conclusions and point business strategies in the right direction. Market research helps to spot new opportunities, identify issues and measure performance of current marketing campaigns. Marketing communications

Marketing communications is all about getting the right message across with the appropriate promotional channel. You may assist in writing, designing advertisements, leaflets and posters, and in producing broadcast advertising for cinema, radio and TV. The work also includes PR, getting positive press coverage for products and arranging sponsorships. Social media: Social media marketing is all about engaging with the target audience using social media channels like Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and many others. Brand management This involves includes market research, research and development, production, distribution, advertising and sales.

Brand, or product, management is devoted to conceptualizing products and getting them to market. Branding management includes market research, research and development, production, distribution, advertising and sales. A brand is an idea or an image of a product or a service provided by the organisation. Branding is the marketing of this idea or image so that more and more people recognise it and become aware of the brand. Brand managers are involved in planning the marketing strategy for specific brands or products and putting it into practise.

They work closely with production, sales and finance to ensure the product or service performs to target. They will also monitor marketing trends and customer feedback to ensure the brand meets with customer expectations. As a trainee brand manager, you may help write briefs for the advertising or PR agencies that will produce your promotional campaigns. Direct marketing Direct marketing involves marketing products or services directly to individuals or companies. At the heart of direct marketing is targeting, personalisation of messages and measurability, a lot of which is driven by insights gained from databases of information.

E-mail marketing within direct marketing is becoming an important tool. You may be involved in copywriting letters and brochures, data analysis, customer profiling and segmentation. Advertising In advertising, most graduate vacancies advertised are for account handlers, who are the main link between the advertising agency and its clients. They help clients identify advertising campaign targets and take the client briefs to other agency departments so that everyone works towards the same goal. Public relations (PR)

Graduate opportunities in PR include in-house PR officer/assistant jobs and account handling in PR agencies. In both cases the role is to maintain, protect and enhance a company’s reputation by managing media coverage about a company, its products or its services and developing communication strategies for the different groups the organisation is in contact with. This may involve writing press releases, arranging corporate entertainment or sponsoring sports or charitable activities in the local community.

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