The term assumes slightly different meanings in different contexts but in literature discourse means speech or writing normally longer than sentences which deals with a certain subject formally in the form of writing or speech. In other words, discourse is the presentation of language in its entirety while performing an intellectual inquiry in a particular area or field i. E. Theological discourse or cultural discourse. Example: -In literature discourse means discourse about literature writing in which sentence are kept longer than usual.
There are several categories of literary discourse. Some of important are given below. . Exposition ii. Narration iii. Description iv. Argumentation Exposition:- The main focus of this type of discourse is to make the audience aware about the topic of discussion, definition and comparative analysis of different ideas and believes are examples of exposition discourse. Example : Orientation lectures or introductory lectures. Narration Narration discourse is a type of discourse that relies on stories, folklore or a drama as a mean of communication.
Example stage plays, folklore stories are examples of narrative discourse. Descriptive Discourse It involves describing something in relation to situation , it enables the audience to develop the mental picture of what is being discussed. Example Descriptive parts of essays and novels are descriptive discourse examples. Argumentative discourse It is based on logics valid and thorough correct reasoning tries to motivates the audience. Example Lectures, essays,prose,talk in assembly. Vision:- The ability think about or plan the future with imagination or wisdom.
Or An idea or mental image of something. According to “Michel Focal” Discourse is a system of thought composed of efferent beliefs, practices, ideas,and attitudes which construct a subject in a systematic way, It has been derived from a Latin word that means “run out”. The term Discourse has several shades of meaning and it changes, its based on context. Example: -In literature discourse means discourse about literature writing in which sentence are kept longer than usual Stylistics: Stylistics is the study and interpretation of text in regard and tonal style.
As a discipline, It links literary criticism to linguistics, It does not found in as a alterations domain on its own, but it can be applied to an understanding of iterate and journalism as well as linguistics. It is a science which explores how readers interact with the language of the text, in order to explain how we understand or affected by text when we read them, It cultivates the sense of refinement, appropriateness of literary works. A branch of applied linguistics concerned with the study of style in text, especially (but not exclusively) in literary works.
Stylistic features:- There are several stylistic features but here we genie some major of them as below, i. Simile: The easiest stylistic device to find is a simile. Cause you only have to look for the words as or like , A simile is a comparison used to attract the readers attention and describe something in descriptive terms. E. G:- She put her hand to the boy’s head which was stating like a hot train ii. Metaphor:- A metaphor is similar to a simile, but does not use the words like or as as in a simile metaphor can also span over multiple sentences e. G That boy is as fast as a fox. (is simile) That boy is a fox. (is metaphor) iii.
Alliteration:- Alliteration is repetition of consonant sound at the beginning of words. Example: many a man is making friend with death iv. Allegory. – An allegory is a story that has a second meaning usually by endowing character, object, or events with symbolic significance. The entire story functions symbolically often a pattern relates each literalism to a core subcontracting ideas or principle. V. Imagery:- This is when the author invokes sensory details, Often, this is simply to draw reader more deeply into a story helping the reader visualize what is being described, However, imagery may also symbolize important ideas in story. i. Personification:- Giving human ironical characteristics to inanimate objects. E. G ” The wind whistled through the trees,(wind can not whistle, human whistle) vii. Onomatopoeia:- The use of words that sound like what they mean or imitation of sounds. Example The bees were buzzing. Rustling of leaves Meow Meow of cats. Viii. Allusion It is used to explain or clarify a complex problem. If the audience is familiar will also knew with the background and context thus just a few words or enough to create a structural certain pictures in readers mind. It is a reference to something from history and literature
Example: The Paradise Lost is one of the examples of allusion. Ix. Metonymy It uses figurative expressions that are closely associated with the subject in the terms of place, time or background. The figurative expression is not the physical part of the subject. Example The White house declared This land belongs to Mussels… X. Parallelism:- Repetition of syntactic units successive clauses or sentences are similarly structured, this similarity makes it easier to read or listen, to concentrate on idea. Example: Tell me I forget, Teach me and may remember,
Involve me and will learn. Pragmatics:- Origin: This term coined in asses by the philosopher “C. W. Morris ” and it is developed as the subfield of linguistics in asses. Definition 1 . The branch of linguistics concerned with meaning in context, or the meanings of sentences in terms of the speaker’s intentions in using them. 2. The branch of semiotics dealing with the relationships of signs and symbols to their users. 3. The study of the practical aspects of human action and thought. 4. The study of the use of linguistic signs, (words and sentences), in actual situations.
Pragmatics outlines the study of meaning in the international context It looks beyond the literal meaning of an utterance and considers how meaning is constructed as well as focusing on implied meanings. It considers language as an instrument of interaction, what people mean when they use language and how we communicate and understand each other. Jenny Thomas says that pragmatics considers: the negotiation of meaning between speaker and listener. The context of the utterance. The meaning potential of an utterance. This may be best presented in an example: Speaker: ‘Are you putting the kettle on? ‘
Listener knows the speaker is hinting that they would like a hot drink. OR Speaker: ‘What time do you call this? ‘ Listener interprets it as ‘Why are you so late? ‘ and knows it is not appropriate to reply with the literal time. Pragmatics is studied to understand and explore conversational implicative and how meaning is constructed in interaction. This occurs when a sentence is ambiguous, for example: ‘Flying planes can be dangerous’ Meaning One: Planes, that are flying, can be dangerous. Meaning Two: Flying planes, as a pilot, can be dangerous. This sentence is concluded to be lexically ambiguous.
Linguists assert that that it is the ‘context that we must invoke to determine what an ambiguous sentence means. ‘[l] This simplified means that in the above example, if the person speaking was a pilot it would be assumed that ‘flying planes can be dangerous’ is from a captains perspective (meaning two); this reduces the ambiguity and therefore the implicative so the comment is understood. It is controversial to say that understanding context solves all complications in this area as………. Context by definition changes all the time yet the way in which it is described by linguistics suggests a stationary anapest of a situation.
Therefore a theory has been developed. The Theory of Cooperation Paul Grace developed the theory of cooperation that helps determine what information speakers should provide to give a sufficient response to the previous speaker’s utterance. Conversational Implicative is a notion devised by Paul Grace in 1975. It looks at the relation between what people say and what they actually mean in a conversation. Grace developed four “maxims” of conversation, which describe what listeners assume speech will be like. The Maxim of Quantity The Maxim of Quality
The Maxim of Relation The Maxim of Manner Giving only the necessary amount of information – not too much or too little. Only speaking the truth – not knowingly giving false information. Being relevant to the current topic of conversation. Avoiding ambiguity or obscurity in your speech.  Much pragmatic research goes into instances when theses maxims are broken which can be done in one of two ways: Flouting – overtly (obviously) breaking a Max. Violating – covertly (secretly) breaking a maxim. Both of these are done to achieve something in the course of the conversation.
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