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Essay – Indus Plains

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    River Indus is the largest river of our country. This river after originating from northern slopes of Kailash Range in Tibet (China) passing through the Himalaya and enters in Pakistan’s territory near Gilgit. In the upper region a number of streams join in it, but at the later stage, some of its western and eastern join in it, but to at the later stage, some of its western and eastern tributaries make it more huge and vast in volume and speed. Its eastern tributaries are Sutlaj, Bias, Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum, while its western tributaries include rivers Swat, Kunar, Panjkora, Kabul, Kurram, Tochi, Gomal, Bolan, etc All the plain areas of our country have existed by the Sediment brought by River Indus and its tributaries. The whole of the Indus Plain can be sub-divided into three parts for detailed study:

    * The Upper Indus Plain
    * The Lower Indus Plain
    * The Indus Delta

    From the point of junction eastern tributaries of river Indus is known as the upper Indus Plain . It includes most of the areas of Punjab Province. The upper Indus Plain has a height from 600 feet to 1000 feet. The northeastern part is comparatively higher. Although most of the plain area has existed by the alluvial soil brought by the rivers, but near Sargodha, Chiniot and Sangal, some old dry hisses appear above the plain. These are known a s [Kinara hills]. The five big rivers of Punjab drain this plain. The land that lies between the two rivers is known as [DOAB]. Thus the area of Punjab plain can be divided into following Doabs: i. Bari Doab

    ii. The Rachna Doab
    iii. The Chaj Doab
    iv. The Sindh Sagar Doab

    Mithankot is known as junction of Indus River and its eastern tributaries. Beyond Mithankot River Indus flows alone and carries not only its own water, but also that of its eastern and western tributaries, while flowing from the Province of Sindh, if becomes several miles wide especially during the flood season. The river Indus flows very slowly and the silt carried by if is largely deposited on its bed, thereby raising it above the level of the sandy plain. The land on either side is, therefore, protected by the construction of embankments of bunds a number of difficulties has to be faced during floods season.

    The Indus delta begins near Thatta (Sindh) and the river Indus by distributing itself into a number of branches joins with the water of Arabian Sea. The tidal Deltaic land covers an area. It is submerged during high tides, it has mangrove swamps. The old Deltaic land in the south are being reclaimed by the canals of the Ghulam Muhammad barrage, still most of the areas of lower plain are barren waste lands. The above map shows the plain areas that are with the river Indus. The Indus plains of our country are very fertile and all the cultivation is done here due to the ample amount of water.

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