A paragraph developed by cause and effect shows the relationship between two statements; that is, one element results from the other. In the sample paragraph below, by listing many physical conditions and concomitant behaviors, the writer shows how climate affects the culture of a country. That is, The topic sentence Climate affects the culture of a country is developed by Supporting Sentences illustrating effects. In this style of development, the writer can list several effects resulting from one cause, as in the sample paragraph below, or he can list several causes to support one effect.
Sample Climate affects the culture of a country- Men must learn to live within the limitations of their environment, and climate is an important part of the physical environment Life in a tropical country is less strenuous and more usual than it is in a temperate one. Men work shorter hours and less vigorously in a hot climate. They cannot play hard either. They tire easily They can relax by reading, by sipping cool drinks, or by listening to soothing music.
They must try to conserve their energy. The wisest ones learn to respect the demands of Nature. (Friend 1971143) 3. Comparison and Contrast.
A paragraph developed by comparison and contrast identifies the similarity or difference between two items by pointing out several elements of both. In the following paragraph, the author writes about two kinds of elephants. They look alike; however, the author tries to convince his readers of the distinction between them by pointing out a list of differences, such as the color of the body, the size Of the ears, and other characteristics. Sample paragraph There are two kinds of elephants-the African and the Indian. The African elephant is larger and darker; it also has larger ears and a more sloping forehead.
Both can be lamed, but the Indian elephant is more easily trained to do work. When an African elephant sleeps, it usually stands u, but its Indian cousin usually sleeps lying down. (Yorker 1 982: 124) 4. Definition. When a writer uses a word that might cause confusion or misunderstanding, he must clarify the meaning for the reader. In the sample paragraph the writer defines the meaning of compassion. He gives many synonyms, several examples, and an explanation of the meaning. Sample Paragraph Compassion is the ability to understand another person’s misfortunes- It is kindness, tenderness, mercy, pity. ND sympathy. A nurse may have compassion for an irritable patient by understanding that the illness may be the cause of that patient’s behavior and by treating that patient with kindness ND sympathy. An airline stewardess displays compassion for her passenger”, by considering the fact that they may be nervous about flying and by answering their questions in a patient, sympathetic manner. In the same way, a judge may have compassion for a Juvenile offender by taking his age into consideration and setting the punishment accordingly. Compassion is not merely a verbal expression of sorrow.
It is not begrudgingly contributing money to charitable causes out of a sense of duty. Compassion is putting yourself in another person’s situation and treating that person the way you loud want to be treated. (Donald et al. 1978:200) 5. Analogy. Instead of explaining the idea directly, as in paragraphs of example or comparison and contrast, the writer may use an analogy-a simple situation that has some similarities to the main idea of the paragraph. In the sample paragraph, the writer explains the distinction between Newton ‘s and Einstein Ideas about gravitation.
Instead of using technical terms, he tells the story of a little boy with some marbles, The significant feature of this sort of paragraph is that the reader can easily grasp the main idea because of the military of the simple symbolic story, or analogy. Sample Paragraph The distinction between Newton ‘s and Einstein ideas about gravitation has sometimes been illustrated by picturing a little boy playing marbles in a city lot. The ground is very uneven ridged with bumps and hollows. An observer in an office ten stories above the street would not be able to see these irregularities in the ground.
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