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Globalization and Terrorism

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    Research Paper Topic: International Terrorism Is a Product of Globalization Course: Academic Reading & Writing II Instructor: George Rueckert Written by: Vakhobov Rustamjon; ID: 20111496 [pic] Almaty 2012 International Terrorism Is a Product of Globalization Outline Thesis Statement: Globalization has been mostly a positive phenomenon in past decades, but since 9/11 it has been the major factor in the expansion of international terrorism. I. Globalization is a complex process of global integrations in different aspects of life. A. Globalization is a new phase in global history B.

    • The burden of globalization has increased to the world
    • The first phase of globalization is transition of civilizations from nomadic to agrarian and commercial.
    • The second phase of globalization covers the Western colonization
    • The third phase is the phase of technology and internet.
    1. “Globalization is Americanization and its human face is Michael Jordan. ”
    2. The United States is a unipolar superpower.
    3. Globalization has caused instability in the United States
    4. The separation of power will help overcome the problem of terrorism.

    However, the theory of globalization is a complex issue to understand; it can be analyzed if we observe it closely. The interview conducted with Nargiz Kassenova the political science professor at Kimep University located at Almaty, Kazakhstan. She defines globalization as “Globalization is a complex process. I can give a whole list of positive, negative effects. About positive ones, well, there are more connections among people; they can connect more, information exchange. The most serious negative one is Terrorism. Yeah, crime became globalized, so basically everything is globalizing”.

    The term globalization may be fairly new in the pages of history books, but globalization has always existed and was known by different names. Majid Tehranian, a professor from the Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research located in Tokyo, Japan, has an interesting article about globalization and its relations to religious resurgence. He divides globalization into three phases and then explains each phase in detail. The commercial revolution in Afro-Eurasia may be considered as the first phase in globalization. The second phase started in 1492 when Columbus sailed from Spain to the New World.

    The discovery of the New World and its fabulous resources gave Europe a head start over Asia and Africa. That in turn led to the subjugation of the pre-modern peoples of Africa, Asia, and Latin America to the modern peoples of Europe and North America. (389) Majid Tehranian starts his argument with the burden of globalization. “What has globalization done to peace and harmony among human societies and religion? ” (389). There is no single definition for globalization, but there are many different effects of globalization. The first phase of globalization started when civilization was developing commerce and trading skills a long time ago.

    The famous figures of history books like Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan helped globalization even further when expanding their empire lines. Not only did they widen the territory of their empire, but they also developed their cultural and religious boundaries. They also invented a new hierarchical system that dominated the whole world. This was the first effect of early globalization that led to the transition from a nomadic type of life to agrarian and commercial types. Globalization appeared in the form of conquest in this phase. The second phase of globalization began with western colonialism.

    This phase made Britain, France, Belgium, Russia, Japan and America industrial leaders. This phase dominated the Asian, African, and South American peoples. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the national liberation movements saved colonial countries. “Today, the United Nations organization represents 191 independent countries. However, there are still unrepresented nations such as the Kurds, Tibetans, and Uighors” (Tehranian 390). The third phase of globalization started with the invention of micro-processors in the 1970s. This invention gave the boom to the technological innovations.

    The digitalization of governmental, commercial, financial and educational systems created a new social revolution in the world that still exists (Tehranian 390). In the late 1970’s, the boom of new technology changed everything. People welcomed new technologies in their houses. They use microwaves to cook and computers to type letters. Every day clever engineers made something that was never seen before. The creation of computers and, more importantly, the creation of Windows software by Bill Gates was the greatest innovation of the 20th century. Technology made our life easier.

    Today it is easier to send an email than to write a letter; it is easier to call somebody who is far away. Overall technology has benefited us for more than 30 decades, until the 11th of September 2001, when two planes crashed into two buildings of the World Trade Center in New York City. Thousands of innocent people died on that day. When I saw the live news from New York City, sitting in my apartment seven thousands miles away, I thought it was another joke from Spike TV. Although it was live coverage from CNN and my whole family was watching it, I still couldn’t believe it.

    The world was shocked by this tragedy. Zarina Nazarbaeva is assistant of political science professor said about 9/11 attack said that: “I feel sad for the people who were there at that time. I can say that it was committed by Al-Qaeda; but I can also say that it was done by U. S government. I am not sure. However, it does not matter by whom it was done; the big matter is that people died. ” The investigation of these attacks revealed that several Arab-terrorists from Al-Qaeda planned this attack. They hijacked the airplanes and flew themselves into the buildings.

    The question is how they managed to operate one of the most sophisticated planes in the world. The pilots of those planes were killed before they even crashed the planes. Today’s terrorists take advantage of advanced technology and use it against civilians. Again, if we look at this problem from a macro perspective, the only thing to blame is globalization. But Nargiz Kassenova doesn’t agree with above mentioned, she states that “You can’t blame Globalization for that. Well, my opinion is the wrong policy of the United States in Middle East, in South Asia. That is the result of 9/11 attack. It is not the Globalization”.

    I agree with her opinion, but without globalization it would not be happened. International terrorist organizations all around the world, not only Islamist-organizations but also organizations such as the Irish Republican Army (IRA), National Liberation Army of Colombia (ELN), Kach and Kahane Chai (Foreign Terrorist Organization of Israel), and Aum (terrorist organization of Japan), are sponsored by many sympathizers around the world, and some are sponsored by countries. Al-Qaeda, which operates massive operations and attacks like 9/11, is sponsored by government states or by oil-rich individuals from the Middle East.

    Again technology plays a vital role in today’s terrorists’ progress; they learn how to operate planes; they learn how to make bombs, and now Iran wants to enrich Uranium, a vital element in making atomic bombs. Iran’s involvement in the international arena of terrorism is a whole other issue, but their action is another product of globalization. Maybe the reason they want to enrich uranium is not to make bombs but to gain political power in the world arena. Why blame globalization in this? How did they learn to enrich uranium without scientists and knowledge?

    The former USSR, today’s Russia, was the number one nuclear power of the world two decades ago. Russia and Iran are working together to enrich uranium, and they want to stabilize their power with the United States and other western countries. The interaction between Iran and Russia is globalization. Globalization has many effects; one of the effects is culture. It doesn’t matter which culture it is; people like to learn different traditions and customs. The examples of fast food and sports are really interesting because almost every nation in the world enjoys them right now. It started in the United States.

    The United States plays a huge role in today` s globalizing world. The example of McDonald’s restaurants is well known to everybody. The chain of fast food restaurants became so popular that it spread within years across the world. McDonald’s is one of the fastest growing companies in the United States and became a multinational company. “McDonald’s has induced (imposed is too strong a term) small changes in foreign cultures. In Japan, for example, few people ate food with their hands before McDonald’s came along” (Veseth 133). So, we can think of Al-Qaeda as a McDonald’s; also a multinational organization.

    However, instead of franchising fast food, they are spreading their ideology across the world. Just a few years ago it was only a few fanatics in Afghanistan; now they have their training and brainwashing bases all over the Middle East. Zarina Nazarbaeva also said about culture loss as negative effect of globalization “We are living in a world, in which we don’t pay much attention to our culture and traditional things, but most people pay a lot of attention to their cultures, customs and traditional things. And they don’t agree with spreading cultures, for example all people are likely to be like an American.

    This is one negative aspect of Globalization. The same with religious countries, for example in Islamic countries women wear hidjab. If they follow the fashion, they should stop wearing hidjab, even though in Islamic country women must wear hidjab. ” Another figure that became very popular is Michael Jordan, a former NBA champion. The image of Jordan was so popular that virtually everybody in the world knew about him. Michael Veseth notes in Globaloney that everybody in the world knows about Michael Jordan even though they don’t know anything about the NBA.

    Today, everybody knows Osama Bin Laden, and people are aware of the fact that he they will say that he is responsible for the 9/11 attacks. Interestingly, both Osama Bin Laden and Michael Jordan became popular through media and television. Michael Veseth in “Unraveling the myths of Globalization” quotes LaFeber saying that “Globalization is Americanization and its human face is Michael Jordan. ”, but today the face of globalization is Osama Bin Laden ( 63). Zarina Nazarbaeva also mentioned about mass media and how it affects to terrorists “For example, in one country a terroristic attack happens and today we will watch it on TV.

    It is itself spreading the idea and ideology of terrorists. Maybe some other terrorist groups didn’t know how to attack, after watching it on TV they learn, or they learn their vulnerabilities. Let’s take wrong information, if some news reporters report wrong info, it will be spread very quickly around the globe. By the way, I can say it can be blamed on globalization. Let’s take my favorite advertisement. There ordinary happy family with one little boy holding yogurt. People want just happiness which is rarely possible in poor countries. And with the help of advertisement, people want that more.

    People who make terroristic plans promise to accomplish their dream, which people see their happy future in, so they just decide to join. ” The effects of globalization have touched the United States the most, both positively and negatively. There are many positive effects, but when we scale the negative effects, the scale is in the favor of the negative side. The United States has become a superpower with the help of globalization. The economic and financial power of the United States is not comparable to other nations. Through international trade, like NAFTA, the U. S is enjoying free economic boundaries and becoming richer.

    Through globalization, the Unites States has become the favorite country for immigrants. People who are seeking better living conditions around the world think about the United States as heaven on earth. All these positive assumptions of globalization were destroyed on September 11, of 2001. The fact that globalization made the U. S rich and powerful also made it vulnerable to terrorist attacks at the same time. Nargiz Kassenova said about other negative effects of globalization “For example, I start realizing that I am not the American guy and I don’t want to live with their culture.

    I want to live in my own culture and tradition. For example, I’m French and want to make Monmartre popular, I don’t love Walt Disney. The big example is here: About 60 years ago, Japanese people were only eating with sticks. Eating with hands meant showing disrespect to their culture. But nowadays almost everywhere there is plenty of fast food cafes like McDonalds, in which people use their hands to eat. This is an example of culture loss. Ok, let’s not go far away, let’s examine our Kazakhstan. The majority of people in Kazakhstan prefer speaking in Russian rather than in Kazakh language.

    As a result we can observe how globalization impacts on how language is being gradually lost. ” So here are some other negative effect, some of these I mentioned. Since 9/11 the United States has started two wars and has gone through major political chaos. The war in Afghanistan and Iraq has cost billions of dollars, and all this started after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. The main question is; does globalization cause terrorist attacks? Or does globalization enhance and help terrorist organizations to accomplish their goals?

    Although, globalization has been mostly a positive phenomenon in past decades since 9/11 it has been the major factor in the expansion of international terrorism. Free economic zones, free trade, immigration, media, internet, etc. are the aspects of globalization that made the targets of terrorists so simple. The next question is, why America? “Unipolarity” means that United States is the only superpower in the world and it is taking all the burden of the globalization. “The world is paying a heavy price for the instability created by globalization and unipolarity, and the United States is bearing most of the burden” (Weber 51).

    Is there any way of out this? The author of the article “How globalization went bad” says that “If there were great powers with different cultural and ideological leanings, globalization’s darkest problem of all-terrorism-would look different” ( 52). The progress of international terrorism is the result of globalization. For instance, Weber states that “Al- Qaeda uses the internet to transmit messages, it uses credit cards and modern banking to move money, and it uses cell phones and laptops to plot attacks” (53).

    One of the biggest and most popular TV stations of the Middle East, Al-Jazeera, which is physically located in Arabic Qatar, launches 24 hour news from the hottest points of war. It also shows the videos that Osama Bin Laden makes as a message to all people. Al-Jazeera is the only TV station that has access to terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda. A terrorist organization needs a strong story to attract resources and recruits, for this reason the call for global jihad against Westernization and Modernization is impossible without media (53).

    The United States is mainly held responsible for all of the troubles in the Middle East according to the terrorists. But if it is a war or jihad against the West, why not include Europe and Russia in the west? What if China and Russia were as equally powerful as the United States? It would take much of the burden of globalization from the United States. The United States is the only country which is going after terrorists on the ground, and that makes its economy and stability vulnerable to new threats. The separation of power between several nations will help to resolve this problem.

    Every single nation has to be equally involved to fight international terrorism; otherwise, the world will face the third world war soon. Majid Tehranian argues the same issue and largely blames globalization for the expansion of international terrorism. “Thanks largely to the digital revolution of the 1970s, the introduction of the internet, electronic fund transfers, and other global networks of news, data, and images, we now find ourselves in a truly global village” (Tehranian 391). Another great example to compare the progress of technology, especially the internet, with terrorism is provided by Lionel F.

    Stapley. He compares the development of Al-Qaeda with the progress of the World Wide Web (see Table 1). Terrorism can be seen throughout history. The term terrorism was widely used for anti-governmental groups formed in Northern Ireland and Italy. They used violence against civilians and showed their brutality to people. In Northern Ireland, they were the IRA and the ETA in Spain. Later in the eighties, terrorists were recognized in Israeli-Palestine conflicts (Wieviorka 321). International terrorism became mostly Islamist terrorism. Terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah and Al-Qaeda made their actions global.

    The most spectacular and brutal example of their actions was the attack on September 11, 2001. Before September 11 of 2001, not many people knew about Al-Qaeda. Especially the western world was unaware of the Islamic fundamentalists. Robert K. Schaeffer, the author of Understanding Globalization wrote that today’s terrorism has roots in the 1947-1948 and 1979-1980 wars. Several events happened between 1947 and 1948, the war of India and Pakistan over the province of Kashmir, the revolution of 1979 in Iran by Khomeini and religious leaders to overthrow the westernized dynasty of Pahlavi (221).

    Right after overthrowing President Reza Pahlavi, who was the close ally with the United States, the Islamic party of Iran took over the country. A few days later they occupied the American embassy in Tehran and took numbers of American citizens hostage. The leader of the revolution was Ayatollah Khomeini who later established the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iran even today is a restricted part of the world for Americans. It has no diplomatic relationship with United States, whatsoever.

    Source: Development of the World Wide Web (www) and the growth of Al-Qaeda: a comparison (Stapley 23). Recent conflicts about the nuclear proliferation between Iran and the United States is again all about the balance of political power in the world. The United States is trying to stop Iranian uranium enrichment which is a radioactive element and can be used to make nuclear weapons. What is the effect of Iran’s nuclear program to globalization of terrorism? Besides the disagreement on nuclear program, the United States suspects Iran in supporting terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah and Hamas in the Middle East.

    Globalization has done its job to ease the way for Iran to help terrorists in the Middle East. Other neighbors such as India and Pakistan are fighting over the land of Kashmir. This is another hot spot for terrorists. The war between Pakistan and India gave an opportunity for Islamic fundamentalists to develop in Pakistan. There is no doubt that today’s Al-Qaeda was formed during that time. At the same time the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan was the turning point in the formation of the Taliban. Osama Bin Laden declared Holy war against Soviets and formed Al-Qaeda. He is from an oil-rich Saudi family, who became a hero for the Taliban and many other Islamic fundamentalists.

    Interestingly Bin Laden was trained by the CIA in the camps of Pakistan to fight against the Soviets, and then he turned his guns on the United States. Before 9/11 none of these wars and events had a serious impact in the world. The terrorist attacks on World Trade Center turned the attention of the world to the terrorists. According to Schaeffer, “September 11 was also associated with wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, triggering the U. S invasions of both countries. But it is obvious from our previous discussion that war in both countries and the U. S involvement in these conflicts, preceded 9/11. Indeed, it turns out that the George W. Bush administration began preparing for war with Iraq the summer before 9/11, though officials later used 9/11 as one of the rationales for war with Iraq.

    The point is that, it is hard to disentangle consequences specific to 9/11 from previously existing developments and ongoing problems” (282). The attack on the World Trade Center had multiple political and economic consequences. The events of 9/11 became a turning point for the conflicts in the Middle East. The U. S launched attacks on Taliban regime of Afghanistan; two years later the U. S invaded Iraq. Since these wars U. S suffered not only from human casualties but economy suffered too. Schaeffer goes on to state that “overall, 9/11 contributed to the “globalization” of conflict and economic instability in the Middle East and the United States” (282).

    Another controversial author, Jamal Nassar, addressed the relationship of globalization and terrorism. In his famous book, Globalization and Terrorism. The Migration of Dreams and Nightmares, he took a different approach to state this relationship. His explanations were based on cultural differences and structural inequalities of people around the globe. Nassar states that “today’s terrorism is a by-product of the structural inequalities caused by globalization” (Nassar 110). He argues that the distribution of ideas and images of a wealthy west through media to the poorest corners of the world, gives the people around the globe new hopes and dreams about an easy, comfortable and luxurious life.

    A lot of people run after their dreams to migrate to a richer country and live in peace. However, few of those people can fulfill their dreams. Many of those who could not reach their dreams of a happy life, use violence and terror to show their discontent. Often these dreams cost innocent lives and create nightmares around the world. The root causes of present-day terrorism are poverty, global inequality and lack of literacy. Nargiz Kassenova also mentioned about the goal of terrorists “The main goal of Terrorism is to scare people and to make people lose their trust in government. We all think that terrorists are a group of Arabian people and their religion is Islam. Actually this is not true because terrorists can be anyone.

    We know that all terroristic conflicts are connected with religion, called “Holy War”, but it is not true, it’s all about money and internal politics. For example I produce weapons, in peace time I don’t get enough profit, that’s why I hire a terroristic group, they attack some country. The country will be in chaos and start buying weapons. At this time I offer my weapons. Finally I get more money. ” The terrorist attacks on public transport in Madrid and London, or the bombing of a nightclub in Bali are only the beginning of the chaos. Nassar shows that “terrorism is rooted in highly polarized and escalated political conflicts on issues like territory, national ssovereignty, and religious identity politics rather than in economic inequality” (Nassar 23).

    Although Nassar warns us not to simply translate globalization as “westernization” and criticizes the United States government for dictating its policies elsewhere in the world, he ultimately sees the global world order as one led by the U. S (6). As the superpower leader, the United States cannot defeat terrorism by itself. “None of the four counterterrorism goals identified by the U. S government– defeating terrorist organizations with global reach; denying sponsorship, support, and sanctuary to terrorists; diminishing the underlying conditions that terrorist seek to exploit; and defending U. S citizens and interests– can be achieved through unilateral action alone” (De Jonge 163). The UN’s response to terrorism was always the center-point of attention, but they underestimated the seriousness of the problem until the attacks of 9/11.

    Before 9/11 the Security Council of the UN imposed several sanctions against terrorism. The first sanctions were in the March of 1992, after the Cold War against Libya, Sudan and Afghanistan. Libya was accused of involvement in the 1988 and 1989 bombings of UTA flight 772 and Pam Am flight 103 and was an imposed mandatory economic sanction. The sanctions against Sudan and Afghanistan were against terrorism and the Taliban regime. The nature of terrorism is changing everyday. The threat of terrorism is becoming a major issue for different nations, and to win this war on terrorism, nations need to unite. There are five points that concern the U. S. the Security Council of the UN, and the rest of the world described by Chantal De Jonge Oudraat in his article “Combating Terrorism”:

    • The terrorist attacks in the U. S have increased from 20 percent in 1993-95 to 50 percent in 2000.
    • The average number of causalities per terrorist attack has increased four times since 1990’s.
    • There are more terrorist organizations worldwide aimed against the U. S. than ever before. Al-Qaeda; one of the strongest terrorist organization was revealed after the bombings of the U. S. embassy in East Africa in 1998.
    • Al-Qaeda has 4,000-5,000 estimated of well- trained fighters all around the world.
    • Compared to the other terrorist organizations like the IRA and ETA, which have a maximum of 1000 fighters, Al-Qaeda is very big.
    • The threat of nuclear, chemical and biological attack by terrorists is increasing. After the sarin nerve gas attack of Tokyo subway by Aum Shinrikyo in 1995, these kind of attacks seem achievable for terrorists
    • The United States is concerned about certain nations supporting terrorist organizations.

    The fear that someday those nations will provide terrorist organizations with Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) is increasing (De Jonge 165). I asked Nargiz Kassenova that is there any solution to reduce this negative effect of globalization “Unless something really bad happens, I don’t think that it can be slowed down.

    For example after 9/11 attack, the security measurement got a lot more serious. But I think it is difficult and impossible to make the world completely safe. And maybe it is not a good thing to have everything safe. Risk is a part of life. Due to trade between security and freedom, if you want more security you must give up some freedom. But you want to enjoy life and you don’t want to be checked in every step. I think others do terrorism for injustice in the world, for example in Russia north Caucasus, people feel that there isn’t much justice and decide to do something. ” Despite all these concerns, the Security Council had only one thing to impose, an economic sanction.

    Sanctions were fairly effective against Libya. Libya was forced to surrender those who were responsible for the Pan Am explosion to the international court. However, the U. S. insisted on turning those terrorists over to either a U. S or British court. Overall, economic sanctions imposed against Libya weakened its support of terrorism. In 1996 the State Department announced that Libya’s support of terrorism had been sharply reduced. (Patterns of Global Terrorism qtd. in De Jonge166) A few hours after the 9/11 tragedy, a draft resolution was created by the Security Council president Jean-David Levitte. It imposed military actions against terrorist groups in Afghanistan.

    On September 12, 2001, Resolution 1368 was adopted unanimously. Two weeks later, the council adopted Resolution 1373, obligating all 191 UN member states to take far-reaching domestic legislative and executive actions designed to prevent and suppress future terrorist activities” (167). These two UN resolutions started to legitimize the military actions against states which provided space, money, weapons or any kind of support to terrorism. On October, 2001 the U. S. forces invaded Afghanistan.

    They formed an alliance with Afghan fighters in the northern part of Afghanistan. They called this joint operation “Northern Alliance”, which was leaded by Tajik commander Ahmadshah Masoud. Within days U. S. roops with the mujahedeen fighters of the Northern Alliance took over Kabul and Kandahar. After overthrowing the Taliban, the United States helped to establish a temporary government under the leadership of Hamid Karzai, who was elected president by referendum. The U. S. settled down in Afghanistan, and two years after headed to Iraq. The invasion of Iraq took place in April, 2003 to overthrow Saddam Hussein’s Baathist regime, accusing him of supporting Al-Qaeda and using WMD against his own population. The war started by the U. S. in Iraq is one of the least famous wars conducted by the U. S. First the U. S. took advantage of the resolution 1373, and despite the disagreement of the UN Security Council launched the attack.

    No weapons of mass destruction and no connection between Saddam Hussein and Al-Qaeda were found (Schaeffer 282-283). The question now is how is the presence of the United States in the Middle East helping to end international terrorism? Some may think that United States’ interest in Middle East is not only terrorists but oil. No matter what the purpose of the U. S. is in the Middle East, the U. S. has to unite with other nations to defeat international terrorism. Minimizing the burden of globalization by balancing its power with other countries might be another approach. As mentioned before, globalization has a mostly positive effect that many people enjoy today.

    However, what are the consequences of combating international terrorism by reducing globalization in our lives? Already, globalization has been minimized; traveling across the countries became so stressful that people around the world are traveling less than ever before, students who want to study in the U. S universities have to go under a new sophisticated visa programs, and there are more economic sanctions which will eventually affect the prosperity of the world. To fight and to end international terrorism, however, there will need to be some changes in globalization; either people will adapt to new regulations, where globalization and adaptation can coexist, or globalization will be lost in the war.

    Whatever cure we find to end international terrorism, it should not shut down globalization. We need to find ways to end terrorism and still be part of globalization.

    Reference list

    1. Boulden, Jane and Thomas G. Weiss. , 2004 eds. Terrorism and the UN: Before and after September 11. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, De Jonge Oudraat, Chantal. September, 2003 “Combating Terrorism”.
    2. Academic Search Priemer. Retrieved 12. 02. 2012 from http://web. ebscohost. com/ehost/search/basic? sid=e6800829-9f98-45a6-91fd-26226c3d8843%40sessionmgr15&vid=2&hid=110 Nassar, Jamal R. 2005 “Globalization and Terrorism: The Migration of Dreams and Nightmares. ”.
    3. Academic Search Premier. Ebscohost. 18. 02. 2012 Schaeffer, Robert K. 005Understanding Globalization: The Social Consequences of Political, Economic, and Environmental Change. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield,. Stapley, Lionel F. 2006
    4. Globalization and Terrorism: Death of a Way of Life. London: Karnac,. Tehranian, Majid. July, 2007
    5. “Globalization and Religious Resurgence: An Historical Perspective. ”. Academic Search Premier. Ebscohost 15. 02. 12 Veseth, Michael. 2005
    6. Globaloney: unraveling the myths of globalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, Weber, Steven, Nazaneen Barma, Matthew Kroenig, and Ely Ratner. June, 2007
    7. “How Globalization Went Bad? ”. Academic Search Premier. Ebscohost 19. 02. 12 Wieviorika, Michael. “Evil Too is Global”. June, 2007. Academic Search Premier. Ebscohost. 12. 02. 2012

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