Internal Assessment Example

Table of Content

To guarantee the successful conclusion of this inquiry, it is essential to show appreciation to different individuals for their noteworthy input. Above all, utmost praise is attributed to The Lord, my Mighty Saviour, since without His power, nothing would have been attainable.

I want to thank Mr. G. Leacock for his weekly Caribbean Studies classes, where he taught me the necessary procedures and materials for this research project. Additionally, I am grateful to Gian Thomas for their continuous encouragement and participation in discussions that helped shape my ideas. They also kindly agreed to be involved in various aspects of my research as guinea pigs. My mother deserves special thanks for constantly reminding me to work hard and give my best, as she firmly believed that success would only come from these efforts.

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This study revolves around the subject of “Self Injury.” My interest in this topic sparked after witnessing a personal incident two years ago when my best friend’s sister called to inform me about my best friend collapsing on the bathroom floor. She had used a razor to create cuts on both her wrists, extending up to her elbows. Additionally, an overturned bottle of painkillers was found next to her. This discovery was extremely distressing, and I have never been able to fully understand why she turned to such extreme measures.

Furthermore, during my time as a high school student for five years, I encountered four close friends who engaged in self-harm behavior. This concept greatly puzzled me. Therefore, when given the opportunity to research a topic, I chose non-suicidal self-injury as my main focus.

The aim of this study is to raise awareness about self-injury since it is an increasingly prevalent problem that often goes unnoticed by many individuals. Its social significance lies in the fact that people are learning harmful ways to cope with their issues through media influence and peer relationships. These coping mechanisms will undoubtedly shape their mindset and determine their approach towards problems.

Furthermore, self-harm can lead to exclusion, isolation, and unsociable behavior, hindering a child’s development. This would benefit society by raising awareness and comprehension of adolescents’ psychological well-being. Thus, measures can be taken to tackle this issue and potentially reduce its prevalence. The focus here is on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a growing problem where individuals employ damaging coping mechanisms that impede their social life, personal growth, and educational advancement.

The study examines the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury among students at the St. Vincent and the Grenadines Community College (SVGCC), specifically in the Division of Arts, Sciences and General Studies. Located approximately 3.75 kilometers (2.5 miles) from Kingstown, which serves as the capital city, SVGCC has approximately 830 students between the ages of 16-21 currently enrolled in this division.

The main objective of this study is to gather data on the occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among college students, such as the reasons behind it, how often it happens, and the methods used. It also aims to investigate potential factors that may increase the risk of NSSI, specifically focusing on parental attachment. By addressing questions about why individuals engage in self-injury, how frequently it occurs at this institution, which methods are most commonly employed, and whether parental attachment levels contribute to this behavior, the study aims to gain a comprehensive understanding of NSSI.

Having a thorough understanding of NSSI and its causes, prevalence, and characteristics is highly valuable for educational purposes. This knowledge can benefit various individuals including parents, school officials, medical practitioners, and other professionals who work with young people by enabling better identification of the behavior and providing appropriate support.

This research is particularly relevant to mental health departments within the Ministry of Health. It can help these departments comprehend how NSSI aligns with current mental health trends among young people. Additionally, educating about environmental factors that promote self-injury can assist in developing strategies aimed at modifying these environments.

Mental Health counselors and School counselors will be informed about this behavior, which can provide crucial information for determining support and treatment plans specific to college students and their environment. It would also contribute to the field of psychology by expanding the current knowledge regarding this harmful behavior.
Definition of Technical Terms
Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI): The intentional, self-inflicted harm to one’s body tissue that causes immediate damage, without intending to commit suicide and for reasons not socially accepted.

Feeling Generation is the practice of engaging in activities to attain a desired emotion or feeling. Interpersonal Influence pertains to attempting to convey a particular message through behavior to elicit a specific response. Test Retest-Reliability gauges the consistency of results produced by a testing instrument over time. Social Desirability refers to people’s inclination to respond in a manner that will be positively perceived by others.

The SVGCC- Division of Arts, Sciences and General Studies conducted a study on 830 students to investigate emotional regulation. Emotional regulation refers to an individual’s ability to understand and accept their emotional experience and utilize healthy strategies to manage uncomfortable emotions.

As part of the study, researchers also examined two groups: Non-Suicidal Self-Injurers (NSSI) and Non-NSSI/N-NSSIs (NON Non-Suicidal Self-Injury). Mental health professionals have become increasingly concerned about the rising occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury. Chapter 2 of the literature review section provides further information on this topic.

The significance of comprehending NSSI as an evolving behavior in college students has been investigated, and the growing body of literature on this subject confirms its importance. In their paper “Suicide-related ideations, communications, and behaviors: Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior,” Silverman et al. (2007) stressed the necessity for adequate education regarding the terms ‘self-harm’ and ‘NSSI’. It is vital for perceptive readers to understand that NSSI should not be confused with other forms of self-harming conduct.

According to Silverman et al., it is crucial to comprehend the purpose behind an act, irrespective of whether it is suicidal or not. The authors assert that acts with different intentions cannot be deemed equal. Even though Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) may share similarities with other suicidal behaviors, it remains distinct from suicide attempts (which involve an intention to end one’s life) and self-harm (any intentional or unintentional act causing harm to the body). However, Silverman et al. do not provide specific criteria for classifying an act as NSSI.

Many individuals who engage in NSSI do so to alleviate pain or to experience some form of sensation. DiLazzero’s (2003) study titled “Addressing Self-Injury in a college setting” found that self-injurers often express intense sadness or emotional numbness, using self-harm as a way to feel some emotion. The current study seeks to examine the reasons provided by those who participate in self-harm.

Heath et al (2008) conducted a study titled “An examination of non-suicidal self-injury among college students” which found that cutting is the most prevalent method used by individuals engaging in NSSI. Among the 728 participants, 85 indicated purposeful self-harm, resulting in a prevalence rate of 11.68%. The participants reported various forms of self-injury, with cutting being the most common at 65.2%, followed by severe scratching (56.6%), punching oneself (26.1%), burning (21.5%), and banging the head (8.7%). The frequency of these behaviors varied: 23.6% reported once, 40.3% reported 2 to 4 times, 8.3% reported 5 to 10 times, 16.7% reported 11-50 times, 2.8% reported51-100 times, and4.2%reported over100times.Intheongoingstudy,aquestionnaireisbeingusedtoexaminethefrequencyandmostcommonlyusedmethodsofself-injuryamong50individuals.AlexThio’sbook”DeviantBehaviour”referstoastudybyCrabb(2005)thatimpliesthatmassmediacaninfluenceanindividual’sdecisiontoself-harmandthemethodchosen.

Favazza and Conterio (1989) state that most individuals who self-injure come across it through personal or unintentional experimentation. In their study titled “Why Patients Mutilate Themselves,” they discovered that 91% of the participants who engaged in self-harm had no prior information or exposure to it. This prompts the question of whether individuals consciously decide to engage in self-harming behavior or if media plays a role in influencing their methods. Limited research indicates that specific clinical studies shed light on the factors that contribute to self-injury.

CHAPTER 2: Literature Review 7

The study titled “Risk factors for deliberate self harm among college students” by Gratz et al (2002) analyzed risk factors for NSSI. They categorized the risk factors into two groups: environmental risk factors, such as childhood maltreatment, and individual risk factors, such as difficulties with emotional expression. One noteworthy aspect of the study was Gratz and colleagues’ examination of the parent-child relationship’s role as a risk factor for NSSI.

Research indicates that a connection exists between self-harm behavior (NSSI) and emotional neglect caused by an insufficient parent-child bond. The quality of parent-child relationships is crucial to consider when studying risk factors for NSSI, a topic currently under investigation at the SVGCC-Division of Arts, Sciences, and General Studies. Furthermore, Ross and Heath’s (2002) study titled “A Study of the Frequency of Self-Mutilation in a Community Sample of Adolescents” discovered evidence indicating that females have a slightly higher likelihood than males to partake in self-injury.

According to the study, 64% of adolescent females engage in self-injury. However, other studies conducted by Gratz (2001) and Martin et al. (1995) found similar rates for both genders. This conflicting evidence raises the question of whether one gender is more prone to self-injury than the other.

CHAPTER 3: Data Collection Sources

Data Collection Sources Research Design The research will be in the form of ‘Applied Research’.

The purpose of this study is to investigate non-suicidal Self Injury (NSSI) among students at the SVGCC- Division of Arts, Sciences and General Studies. The approach chosen for this research is a quantitative design within applied research, as it is most suitable for deepening understanding and improving processes related to NSSI. This design allows for gathering information on a large scale from the target population – students at SVGCC- Division of Arts, Sciences and General Studies – on an underappreciated issue with no existing data. The method of data collection will be quantitative in nature.

The method used to collect data in this study involves the use of conventional printed questionnaires. These questionnaires consist of a predetermined set of questions that are given to the individuals who make up the population of the study, which in this case is the ‘SVGCC- Division of Arts, Sciences and General Studies’. The use of printed questionnaires is particularly effective when the respondents are located in a central area. This method facilitates easy distribution of the questionnaires and allows for quantitative results that can be easily analyzed. Additionally, the data collected through this method can be statistically compared with data from other divisions and potentially other colleges in the Caribbean.

The questionnaire was divided into four sections. ‘Section A’ contained thirteen closed-ended questions. ‘Section B-Part 1’ included one open-ended question and nineteen closed-ended questions. ‘Section B-Part 2’ consisted of three open-ended questions and six closed-ended questions. ‘Part C’ comprised two open-ended questions and two closed-ended questions.

Systematic sampling was used to select the sample, allowing the researcher to choose every nth person for the sample, where ‘n’ is a number determined by the researcher.

830 students were eligible for the sample. During the lunch period (12:15-1:00pm), every 8th individual was approached and given a brief description of the study. They were then asked to complete a questionnaire and participate. The sampling method resulted in the random distribution of 50 questionnaires, which allows for confidence in generalizing to the target population and systematic subject selection by the researcher.

Finally, the sample is evenly spread over the population to reduce bias and increase the study’s objectivity. CHAPTER 3: Data Collection Sources 9 Collection Of Data This study was conducted in February 2011. Four weeks in the month of February, from the 2nd to the 28th, were used for the study. The questionnaires were distributed to the students of the SVGCC- Division of Arts, Sciences and General Studies on Tuesday 15th, 2011. The students were given four days to answer and return the questionnaires by Friday 18th February. Analysis and Presentation of Data

The study utilizes quantitative methods of data analysis to organize and present the information. The findings are displayed in Table 1, which shows the reasons for NSSI indicated by NSSI’s. The table includes percentages and lists the various reasons selected by individuals based on their relevance.The majority of individuals, specifically 87%, found the concept of reducing overwhelming emotions to be relevant, while only 13% deemed it irrelevant. Similarly, when it came to reacting to feeling unhappy or disgusted with oneself, 67% considered it relevant, whereas 33% regarded it as irrelevant. On the other hand, trying to be like someone admired and seeking to fit in with others were the least relevant reasons, with a rate of 93% considering it relevant and only 7% deeming it irrelevant.

The text provides several reasons and the corresponding percentages of individuals to whom it was relevant and irrelevant. These reasons include:
‘Causing pain so I will stop feeling numb’; Relevant (R)=40%, Irrelevant (IR)=60%
‘Letting others know the extent of my emotional pain’; R=17%, IR=83%
‘Bonding with peers’; R=50%, IR=50%
‘Testing pain threshold’; R=40%, IR=60%
‘Trying to get a reaction from someone’; R=30%, IR=70%
‘Seeking help or care from others’; R=23%, IR=77%
‘Expressing anger towards myself for being stupid’; R=57%, IR=43%
‘Trying to feel something, even if it is physical pain’; R=53%, IR=47%
‘Demonstrating I am tough’; R=27%

IR=73, ‘Trying to get parents to notice me’;R=47 (%)
Relevant IR=53, ‘Proving that I can handle physical pain’,’ Trying to get control of the situation’ and ‘Simply experimenting’;R=43 IR=57 and finally ‘Trying to stop bad emotional feelings’;R=60 IR=40.

The text above discusses the reasons for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and presents findings in a bar chart and table. In the bar chart (Figure 1), different self-harm methods are depicted. The highest percentage (70%) of individuals engage in ‘cutting’ while ‘burning’ is the least common method (13%). Other methods include ‘overdosing’ (20%), ‘hitting’ (40%), ‘banging head’ (13%), ‘severe scratching’ (33%), ‘carving’ (17%), ‘pulling out hair’ (27%), ‘sticking skin with needles’ (20%), ‘rubbing skin against rough surface’, and ‘punching self’ (23%). Additionally, 7% of individuals indicated punching walls as an alternative method.

In Table 2, the current living situation of respondents is displayed.Non-LIVING SITUATION

Both Biological Parents Single Parent Biological and Step Parent Non-Biological Guardians Sibling Household Other NSSI’s (%) NSSI’s (%) 77% 23% 20% 3% 3% 4%

53% 33% -7% -7%

Table 2 outlines the current living situation of individuals who engage in NSSI and those who do not. Among self-injurers, 77% live with both biological parents, while among non-self-injurers, this percentage is 53%. A total of 20% of the sample indicated living in a household with both biological and stepparents, all of whom are self-injurers. Additionally, 3% of self-injurers live in nonbiological households, as do 7% of non-self-injurers. Furthermore, 3% of the entire sample lives in a sibling household, consisting solely of self-injurers. Lastly, 4% of self-injurers and 7% of non-self-injurers live in households other than the provided options, specifically indicating biological guardian households (such as grandparents or uncles).

CHAPTER 4: Presentation of Findings

Figure 2: A Pie Chart showing the sex distribution for individuals who engage in NSSI.

33% Males Females 67%

The Pie chart illustrates the percentages of males and females who engage in non-suicidal self-injury. Females account for 67% of participants, while males account for 33%.

Table 3: Table showing respondents’ emotions when with or thinking about parents.

When I am with my parents or think about them I feel… Sad/Disappointed/Ignored Happy/Loved/Cared for (%) Never

Table 3 provides an overview of the emotions experienced by NSSI’s and N-NSSI’s when they are with or think about their parents. According to the data, 10% of NSSI’s reported never feeling sad, disappointed, or ignored, while 33% stated they felt these emotions only occasionally. On the other hand, 47% mentioned feeling sad, disappointed, or ignored often, and 10% reported feeling this way very often. The rates for non-NSSI’s were also recorded, with 27% indicating they never felt this way, 53% stating it is rare for them to feel like that, 13% reporting often experiencing these emotions, and 7% mentioning that it happens very often.

Respondents were also asked about feeling happy, loved, and cared for. The findings showed that 4% of NSSI’s never experienced these emotions, while 53% indicated feeling them only occasionally. In contrast, 30% mentioned often feeling happy, loved, and cared for, and 13% reported feeling this way very often. Non-NSSI’s had different responses to this question, with 6% stating they never feel this way, 27% indicating occasional feelings of happiness, love, and care, 40% reporting often experiencing these emotions, and 27% stating that they feel this way very often.

In Chapter 5: Interpretation of Findings, it is noted that out of a usable sample size of 45 individuals, 30 reported being involved in NSSI. Among them, 67% identified as females and 33% as males.

The reported rates of occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in this community sample indicate gender differences. Certain trends were found between gender and types of NSSI methods. Males indicated using the method “punching self”, while females selected “overdosing”, “burning”, and “sticking with needles”. The method of “carving of body” was more prevalent among females (20%) compared to males (10%). These trends suggest that females engage in more severe forms of NSSI, such as carving and burning of skin, while males engage in minor forms, like punching themselves. This suggests that females may require different coping mechanisms. The researcher also examined the link between gender and the most selected reasons for NSSI. The sample was divided by gender and analyzed. The reason “reducing overwhelming emotions” was the most selected by both males and females. The second most selected reason among males was “expressing anger toward myself for being stupid”, while for females it was “reacting to feeling unhappy/disgusted with myself”.

The majority of individuals, regardless of gender, chose the same primary reason for engaging in NSSI. Additionally, both genders had similar secondary reasons, indicating that there are no gender differences in the motivations for NSSI. This finding underscores the fact that individuals lack effective coping mechanisms for managing intense emotions and implies a need for educational programs focused on emotion regulation. Rating scales were utilized to evaluate the reasons behind NSSI, and these scales were constructed with statements that assessed the same functions in order to ensure consistent results over time.

The judgment of individuals was based on their ratings (i.e. 0,1,2) and whether they showed significant differences between statements. For instance, on the rating scale given to respondents, items 1-‘punishing myself’, 8-‘Expressing anger towards myself for being stupid’ and 13-‘Reacting to feeling unhappy/ disgusted with myself’ measured the function ‘Self Punishment’. A total of 33% of NSSI’s exhibited conflicting ratings, such as rating ‘2’ for item 1 and ‘0’ for items 8 and 14. Individuals who had consistent ratings, either similar or a combination of 1’s and 2’s, were not deemed contradictory.

There were inconsistencies found in various functions that were measured by different items. Both items 2 and 9 measured ‘feeling generation’, and 40% of individuals had conflicting ratings. Items 4, 6, 7, and 12 measured ‘Interpersonal influence’, and 37% of individuals contradicted themselves. Appendix 1 on page 2 of the Questionnaire distributed to respondents contains the rating scale for items {1&9}, {4, 6, 7, 13}, {5, 11& 5}, and {3&10}. Items 5, 11, and 15 which measured ‘toughness’ and items 3 and 10 which measured ‘peer bonding’ saw contrasting ratings selected by 10% and 13% of individuals respectively.

These findings indicate that individuals may have chosen a rating for an item without adequately considering its meaning and relevance to them, which raises doubts about the reliability of the information. CHAPTER 5: Interpretation of Findings 15 The researcher also discovered another significant result concerning the reported frequency of NSSI behavior. Among the 30 students in the sample who engaged in NSSI (making up 66.7% of the total sample), the majority had done so less than ten times, with 20% stating that they had only self-injured once.

Thus, the present sample suggests that the group of individuals studied mostly consisted of nonrepetitive self-injurers. The average age of onset in this study is 14.23 years. At this age, individuals are more prone to explosive behavior, facing growing peer pressure, loneliness, and conflicts with their parents and authority figures, which increases their likelihood of engaging in self-injurious behavior. These findings indicate that a significant number of individuals who engage in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) will do so during their high school years.

The results indicate a significant potential for high school and community services to develop prevention and treatment programs. When questioned about their emotions when with or thinking about their parents, the majority (47%) of individuals engaging in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported feeling sad, disappointed, or ignored (S/D/I) frequently, while 53% of them seldom felt happy, loved, or cared for (H/L/C). These findings suggest that those with less secure parent-child relationships may be more vulnerable to this kind of behavior. To support this conclusion, individuals who do not engage in self-injury said they seldom felt S/D/I (53%) and often felt H/L/C (40%).

These individuals who have a secure parental relationship have lower involvement in NSSI. However, there are still NSSI victims who claim to never feel S/D/I and express feeling extremely H/L/C. Thus, while individuals lacking a positive parental relationship may be more prone to NSSI, the dissolution of this relationship is NOT the primary factor that drives NSSI. Consequently, it highlights the importance for parents to nurture their relationship with their children and prioritize establishing a wholesome and favorable parent-child bond.

Gender differences exist in the types of methods used for self-injury, with females being more likely to engage in moderate to severe forms. However, the reasons behind the act show no gender differences, indicating that both males and females struggle with coping and dealing with overwhelming emotions. The researcher also found inconsistency among rating scales, suggesting that some individuals’ responses in this specific section may not be reliable. The majority of individuals in the sample were non-repetitive self-injurers, with an average age of onset at 14.3 years. This age is significant as it is a time of development when individuals experience intense emotions and changes. Additionally, the study found that having a less secure parental relationship increased the likelihood of self-injury. CHAPTER 6: Discussion of Findings 16 Discussion of Findings The study aimed to examine the characteristics of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among college students, including prevalence, frequency, method, and reasons.

The second objective is to evaluate parental attachment as a recognized risk factor among students who participate in NSSI. The most frequent motivations for NSSI include “Reducing overwhelming emotions” and “reacting to feeling unhappy/disgusted with myself.” These results contradict DiLazzero’s (2003) report that many self-injurers engage in self-harm to experience a certain sense of feeling. When considering a college sample, the level of adolescent functioning becomes deeper. As a result, the teens in this sample may experience varying degrees of social isolation, depression, or hopelessness compared to DiLazzero’s sample. Therefore, it is plausible that there may be different reasons for engaging in NSSI.

The text suggests that there are multiple meanings of NSSI and the significance of these meanings can change as more NSSI occurs. Therefore, it is important to identify and address the reasons behind these acts before the problem worsens. In contrast to Heath et al (2008) who reported a prevalence rate of 11.69%, the current investigation found a rate of 66.67%. One possible explanation for this difference is the variation in sample size. Heath et al (2008) recruited 728 participants, with 85 indicating NSSI, while the present study had only 45 participants, with 30 reporting NSSI. Another explanation could be the sensitivity of the method used to assess NSSI. The present study used a questionnaire with a comprehensive checklist of NSSI behaviors, while Heath et al’s study simply asked participants if they had ever intentionally hurt themselves, potentially leading to some individuals not recalling behaviors that were included in the checklist.

In summary, there are three possible explanations for the higher rate of NSSI captured in the present questionnaire. Firstly, the questionnaire may have captured a wider range of NSSI behaviors compared to previous studies. Secondly, NSSI may be more prevalent in this population than expected based on prior research. Lastly, the most common method of NSSI was found to be ‘cutting’ (70%), followed by ‘banging head’ (43%), ‘hitting’ (40%), ‘severe scratching’ (33%), ‘punching self’ and ‘running skin against rough surface’ (23%). These methods differed from the order reported by Heath et al. Additionally, the frequency of NSSI behavior aligned with patterns reported in Heath et al’s study.

The majority of people engage in this behavior less than ten times. 20% do it once, 23% do it 2-5 times, 23% do it 6-10 times, 4% do it 11-20 times, 17% do it 21-50 times, and 13% do it 50+ times. Although these individuals are not repetitive self-injurers, it is important to acknowledge that there is a significant number of young adults who engage in mild to moderate NSSI. Recognizing the occurrence of this behavior is crucial in efforts to eliminate it. When asked if the act of self-injuring was influenced by the media, 83% of self-injuring respondents said ‘no,’ and 67% indicated that the media did not influence the method used.

The present study’s findings contradict Crabb’s (2005) information and align more closely with Favazza and Conterio’s (1989) assertion that most individuals discover self-injurious behavior through private or accidental experimentation rather than prior knowledge. However, one should consider the plausibility of Favazza and Conterio’s findings, as individuals must have some awareness of the act in order to attempt it. It is likely that the media ‘planted’ the idea rather than ‘prompted’ the act. Examining risk factors, there was a notable difference in ratings of parent-child bond between NSSI victims and non-victims, supporting the results found by Gratz et al. Specifically, 47% of NSSI victims often experienced feelings of sadness, disappointment, or being ignored compared to only 53% of non-victims who seldom felt this way. Additionally, 40% of non-self-injurers often felt happiness, love, or care, while only 53% of victims seldom felt this way. These findings suggest that secure parental attachments play a significant role in the occurrence of NSSI.

Parents need to be cautious and make sure that the relationship between them and their child is strong and positive. As indicated by Ross and Heath’s (2002) research, females were discovered to be more prone to engaging in self-harm, accounting for 67% of the victims. This percentage is similar to the 64% found in Ross and Heath’s study. However, in this current study, 71% of the participants were female, so the predominance of females within this sample may greatly influence whether females are perceived as more likely to self-harm than males.

Maybe if there was a more equal balance of genders, the results might align more closely with those reported by Gratz (2001) and Martin et al (1995), which indicated similar rates for males and females. The findings regarding the features of NSSI in this particular group were informative when compared to prior literature, as they showed both similarities and differences with previous research. Nevertheless, these findings can contribute to the development of new knowledge or serve as a basis for more extensive, thorough, and large-scale investigations.

CHAPTER 7: Conclusions/Limitations/Recommendations 18 CONCLUSION In brief, the present study discovered that NSSI was highly prevalent among the selected group of college students, as opposed to the sample studied by Heath et al (2008). Through anonymous screening, a gender difference was observed.

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