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José P. Laurel Biography: President of the Philippines

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Si Jose Paciano Laurel y Garcia (Marso 9, 1891 – Nobyembre 6, 1959) ay ang ikatlong Pangulo ng Republika ng Pilipinas(Oktubre 14, 1943-Agosto 17, 1945) sa ilalim ng mga Hapon mula 1943 hanggang 1945. Isinilang si Laurel sa Tanauan, Batangas noong Marso 9, 1891 anak nina Sotero Laurel at Jacoba Garcia. Nagtapos siya ngabogasya sa U. P. noong 1915. Pagkatapos ay, Hinirang na Kalihim Panloob ni Gob. Hen. Wood noong 1923 at naging Associate Justice noong 1935. Nanungkulan siya bilang Pangulo ng Kataas-taasang Hukuman nang sumiklab ang Ikalawang Digmaang Pandaigdig at itinalaga siyang Kalihim ng Katarungan ni Quezon bago lumisan.

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Pinili si Laurel ng mga Hapon upang magsilbing pangulo ng Ikalawang Republika ng Pilipinas. Pinangalagaan niya ang kapakanan ng bansa sa gitna ng mga kalupitan ng mga Hapon. Ibinilanggo siya bilang “collaborator” pagkaraan ng digmaan ngunit pinalaya ni Pangulong Roxas noong 1948. Noong Nobyembre 6, 1959, namatay si Laurel sa grabeng atake sa puso at istrok. Jose P. Laurel 3rd President of the Philippines President of the Second Republic In office October 14, 1943 – August 17, 1945 Prime Minister Jorge B. Vargas (Ministries involved) Preceded by Manuel L.

Quezon (as President,de jure) Jorge B.

Vargas (as Presiding Officer of the Philippine Executive Commission and head of government, de facto) Succeeded by Sergio Osmena Commissioner of the Interior In office December 4, 1942 – October 14, 1943 Presiding Officer, PEC Jorge B. Vargas Preceded by Benigno Aquino, Sr. Succeeded by Quintin Paredes Commissioner of Justice In office December 24, 1941 – December 4, 1942 Presiding Officer, PEC Jorge B. Vargas Preceded by Teofilo L. Sison Succeeded by Teofilo L. Sison Senator of the Philippines In office December 30, 1951 – December 30, 1957 Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court In office February 29, 1936 – February 5, 1942

Preceded by George Malcolm Succeeded by Court reorganised Majority leader of the Senate of the Philippines In office 1928–1931 Senate President Manuel L. Quezon Preceded by Francisco Enage Succeeded by Benigno S. Aquino Senator of the Philippines from the 5th Senatorial District In office 1925 – 1931 Served with: Manuel L. Quezon (1925–1931) Preceded by Antero Soriano Succeeded by Claro M. Recto Secretary of the Interior of the Philippines In office 1922–1923 Personal details Born March 9, 1891 Tanauan City, Spanish East Indies (Philippines) Died November 6, 1959 (aged 68) Manila, Philippines Resting place Tanauan City, Batangas, Philippines

Political party Nacionalista Party (Before 1942; 1945–1959) Other political affiliations KALIBAPI (1942–1945) Spouse(s) Pacencia Hidalgo Children Jose B. Laurel, Jr. Sotero Laurel Natividad Laurel-Guinto Potenciana Laurel Yupangco Mariano Laurel Salvador Laurel Arsenio Laurel Rosenda Laurel Avancena Alma mater University of the Philippines College of Law University of Santo Tomas Yale Law School Profession Lawyer Religion Roman Catholicism Signature Jose Paciano Laurel y Garcia (March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945.

Since the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), Laurel has been recognized as a legitimate president of the Philippines. Jose Paciano Laurel was born on March 9, 1891 in the town of Tanauan, Batangas. His parents were Sotero Laurel, Sr. and Jacoba Garcia. His father had been an official in the revolutionary government of Emilio Aguinaldo and a signatory to the 1898 Malolos Constitution. While a teen, Laurel was indicted for attempted murder when he almost killed a rival suitor of his girlfriend with a Batangas fan knife.

While studying and finishing law school, he argued for and received an acquittal. [1] Laurel received his law degree from the University of the Philippines College of Law in 1915, where he studied under Dean George A. Malcolm, whom he would later succeed on theSupreme Court. He then obtained a Master of Laws degree from University of Santo Tomasin 1919. Laurel then attended Yale Law School, where he obtained a Doctorate of Law. Laurel began his life in public service while a student, as a messenger in the Bureau of Forestry then as a clerk in the Code Committee tasked with the codification of Philippine laws.

During his work for the Code Committee, he was introduced to its head, Thomas A. Street, a future Supreme Court Justice who would be a mentor to the young Laurel. [2] Upon his return from Yale, Laurel was appointed first as Undersecretary of the Interior Department, then promoted as Secretary of the Interior in 1922. In that post, he would frequently clash with the American Governor-General Leonard Wood, and eventually, in 1923, resign from his position together with other Cabinet members in protest of Wood’s administration. His clashes with Wood solidified Laurel’s nationalist credentials.

Personal life He married Paciencia Hidalgo in 1911. The couple had nine children: Jose Laurel, Jr. , (August 27, 1912-March 18, 1998) Member of the Philippine National Assembly from Batangas from 1943 to 1944, Congressman from Batangas’ Third District from 1941 to 1957 and from 1961 to 1972, Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines from 1954 to 1957 and from 1967 to 1971, Assemblyman of Regular Batasang Pambansa from 1984 to 1986, Member of the Philippine Constitutional Commission of 1986 from June 2 to October 15, 1986 and a running-mate of Carlos P.

Garcia of the Nacionalista Party in Philippine presidential election of 1957, placed second in the vice-presidential race againstDiosdado Macapagal of Liberal Party (Philippines) Jose Laurel III, (August 27, 1914) Ambassador to Japan Natividad Laurel (December 25, 1916) Sotero Laurel II (September 27, 1918-September 16, 2009) Senator of the Philippines from 1987 to 1992 became Senate President pro tempore from 1990 to 1992 Mariano Antonio Laurel (January 17, 1922) Rosenda Pacencia Laurel (January 9, 1925)

Potenciana Laurel Yupangco (May 19, 1926) Salvador Laurel (November 18, 1928-January 27, 2004) Senator of the Philippines from 1967 to 1972, Prime Minister of the Philippines from February 25 to March 25, 1986, Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines from March 25, 1986 to February 2, 1987, Vice President of the Philippines from February 25, 1986 to June 30, 1992 and a presidential candidate of the Nacionalista Party in Philippine presidential election of 1992 placed seventh in the presidential race against Fidel V.

Ramos Arsenio Laurel (December 14, 1931-November 19, 1967) He was the first two-time winner of the Macau Grand Prix, winning it consecutively in 1962 and 1963 [edit]Descendants Franco Laurel, great-grandson, singer/stage actor Rajo Laurel, great-grandson, fashion designer Cocoy Laurel, grandson, actor/stage actor Iwi Laurel-Asensio, granddaughter, singer/entrepreneurship Cholo Laurel, grandson, movie director Patty Laurel, granddaughter, TV host/former MTV VJ Mark Anthony Laurel, great-grandson, earned fame in wholly different field as a game master Peter Laurel, grandson, President of Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas Jose Laurel IV, grandson, representative of the 3rd District of Batangas, son of Jose B. Laurel Jr. Roberto Laurel, grandson, President of Lyceum of the Philippines University Manila, son of Sotero Laurel(2nd son of Jose P. Laurel) Denise Laurel, great-granddaughter, Filipino actress and singer and a member of ABS-CBN’s circle of homegrown talents. [edit]Senator of the Philippines In 1925 Laurel was elected to the Philippine Senate.

He would serve for one term before losing his re-election bid in 1931 to Claro M. Recto. [3] He retired to private practice, but by 1934, he was again elected to public office, this time as a delegate to the 1935 Constitutional Convention. Hailed as one of the “Seven Wise Men of the Convention”, he would sponsor the provisions on the Bill of Rights. [3] Following the ratification of the 1935 Constitution and the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Laurel was appointed Associate Justice of the Supreme Court on February 29, 1936. [edit]Associate Justice of the Supreme Court

Laurel’s Supreme Court tenure may have been overshadowed by his presidency, yet he remains one of the most important Supreme Court justices in Philippine history. He authored several leading cases still analyzed to this day that defined the parameters of the branches of government as well as their powers. Angara v. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139 (1936), which is considered as the Philippine equivalent of Marbury v. Madison, 5 U. S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803), is Laurel’s most important contribution to jurisprudence and even the rule of law in the Philippines.

In affirming that the Court had jurisdiction to review the rulings of the Electoral Commission organized under the National Assembly, the Court, through Justice Laurel’s opinion, firmly entrenched the power of Philippine courts to engage in judicial review of the acts of the other branches of government, and to interpret the Constitution. Held the Court, through Laurel: “The Constitution is a definition of the powers of government. Who is to determine the nature, scope and extent of such powers?

The Constitution itself has provided for the instrumentality of the judiciary as the rational way. And when the judiciary mediates to allocate constitutional boundaries, it does not assert any superiority over the other departments; it does not in reality nullify or invalidate an act of the legislature, but only asserts the solemn and sacred obligation assigned to it by the Constitution to determine conflicting claims of authority under the Constitution and to establish for the parties in an actual controversy the rights which that instrument secures and guarantees to them.

“[this quote needs a citation] Another highly influential decision penned by Laurel was Ang Tibay v. CIR, 69 Phil. 635 (1940). The Court acknowledged in that case that the substantive and procedural requirements before proceedings in administrative agencies, such as labor relations courts, were more flexible than those in judicial proceedings. At the same time, the Court still asserted that the right to due process of law must be observed, and enumerated the “cardinal primary rights” that must be respected in administrative proceedings.

Since then, these “cardinal primary rights” have stood as the standard in testing due process claims in administrative cases. Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil. 726 (1940) was a seemingly innocuous case involving a challenge raised by a private citizen to a traffic regulation banning kalesas from Manila streets during certain afternoon hours. The Court, through Laurel, upheld the regulation as within the police power of the government.

But in rejecting the claim that the regulation was violative of social justice, Laurel would respond with what would become his most famous aphorism, which is to this day widely quoted by judges and memorized by Filipino law students: “Social justice is neither communism, nor despotism, nor atomism, nor anarchy,” but the humanization of laws and the equalization of social and economic forces by the State so that justice in its rational and objectively secular conception may at least be approximated.

Social justice means the promotion of the welfare of all the people, the adoption by the Government of measures calculated to insure economic stability of all the competent elements of society, through the maintenance of a proper economic and social equilibrium in the interrelations of the members of the community, constitutionally, through the adoption of measures legally justifiable, or extra-constitutionally, through the exercise of powers underlying the existence of all governments on the time-honored principle of salus populi est suprema lex.

Social justice, therefore, must be founded on the recognition of the necessity of interdependence among divers and diverse units of a society and of the protection that should be equally and evenly extended to all groups as a combined force in our social and economic life, consistent with the fundamental and paramount objective of the state of promoting the health, comfort, and quiet of all persons, and of bringing about “the greatest good to the greatest number. “[this quote needs a citation] [edit]Presidency

Main articles: Japanese occupation of the Philippines and Second Philippine Republic Postage stamps issued by the Japanese-controlled Second Philippine Republic in commemoration of its first anniversary. Depicted on the stamps is President Laurel The presidency of Laurel understandably remains one of the most controversial in Philippine history. After the war, he would be denounced in some quarters[who? ] as a war collaborator or even a traitor, although his indictment for treason was superseded by President Roxas’ Amnesty Proclamation.

His subsequent electoral success demonstrates public support for him. Before his death, Laurel came to be considered[who? ] as doing his best in interceding, protecting and looking after the best interests of the Filipinos against the harsh wartime Japanese military rule and policies. However, the fact remains that he violated his Oath of Office and headed an illegal government of the Philippines. [edit]Accession When Japan invaded, President Manuel L. Quezon first fled to Bataan and then to the United States to establish a government-in-exile.

Laurel’s prewar, close relationship with Japanese officials (a son had been sent to study at the Imperial Military Academy in Tokyo, and Laurel had received an honorary doctorate from Tokyo University), placed him in a good position to interact with the Japanese occupation forces. Laurel was among the Commonwealth officials instructed by the Japanese Imperial Army to form a provisional government when they invaded and occupied the country. He cooperated with the Japanese, in contrast to the decision of Filipino Chief Justice Abad Santos.

Because he was well-known to the Japanese as a critic of US rule, as well as having demonstrated a willingness to serve under the Japanese Military Administration, he held a series of high posts in 1942–1943. In 1943, he was shot by Philippine guerillas while playing golf at Wack Wack Golf and Country Club, but he quickly recovered. Later that year, he was selected, by the National Assembly, under vigorous Japanese influence, to serve as President. [edit]Cabinet OFFICE NAME TERM President Jose P. Laurel October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945 Ministries involved

Jorge B. Vargas October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945 Minister of Agriculture and Commerce Rafael Alunan October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945 Minister of Health, Labor and Public Instructions Emiliano Tria Tirona October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945 Minister of Finance Antonio de las Alas October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945 Minister of Foreign Affairs Claro M. Recto October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945 Minister of Justice Quintin Paredes October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945 Minister of Education Camilo Osias October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945 Minister of Home Affairs Teofilo Sison

October 14, 1943-August 17, 1945 Chief Cabinet Secretary Emilio Abello August 31, 1944-August 17, 1945 [edit]Domestic policies [edit]Economy During Laurel’s tenure as President, hunger was the main worry. Prices of essential commodities rose to unprecedented heights. The government exerted every effort to increase production and bring consumers’ goods under control. However, Japanese rapacity had the better of it all. On the other hand, guerrilla activities and Japanese retaliatory measures brought the peace and order situation to a difficult point.

Resorting to district-zoning and domiciliary searches, coupled with arbitrary asserts, the Japanese made the mission of Laurel’s administration incalculably exasperating and perilous. [4] [edit]Food shortage During his presidency, the Philippines faced a crippling food shortage which demanded much of Laurel’s attention. [5] Rice and bread were still of availability but the sugar supply was gone. [6] Laurel also resisted in vain Japanese demands that the Philippines issue a formal declaration of war against the United States.

There were also reports during his presidency of the Japanese military carrying out rape and massacre towards the Filipino population. [edit]KALIBAPI Telling of Laurel’s ambivalent and precarious position is the following anecdote. In 1944, Laurel issued an executive order organizing the Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (KALIBAPI) as the sole political organization to back the government. An attempt was made to organize a women’s section of the KALIBAPI, and Laurel hosted several women leaders in Malacanan Palace to plead his case.

After he spoke, a university president, speaking in behalf of the group, responded, “Mr. President, sa kabila po kami”. (“Mr. President, we are on the other side. “) Laurel joined the others assembled in hearty laughter and the KALIBAPI women’s section was never formed. [5] [edit]Foreign policies [edit]Philippine-Japanese Treaty of Alliance On October 20, 1943 the Philippine-Japanese Treaty of Alliance was signed by Claro M. Recto, who was appointed by Laurel as his Foreign Minister, and Japanese Ambassador to Philippines Sozyo Murata.

One redeeming feature was that no conscription was envisioned. [4] [edit]Greater East Asia Conference Greater East Asia Conference Shortly after the inauguration of the Second Philippine Republic, President Laurel, together with cabinet Ministers Recto and Paredes flew to Tokyo to attend the Greater East Asia Conference which was an international summit held in Tokyo, Japan from November 5 – 6, 1943, in which Japan hosted the heads of state of various component members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The conference was also referred to as the Tokyo Conference.

The Conference addressed few issues of any substance, but was intended from the start as a propaganda show piece, to illustrate the Empire of Japan’s commitments to the Pan-Asianism ideal and to emphasize its role as the “liberator” of Asia from Western colonialism. [7] The Joint Declaration of the Greater East Asia Conference was published as follows: It is the basic principle for the establishment of world peace that the nations of the world have each its proper place, and enjoy prosperity in common through mutual aid and assistance.

The United States of America and the British Empire have in seeking their own prosperity oppressed other nations and peoples. Especially in East Asia, they indulged in insatiable aggression and exploitation, and sought to satisfy their inordinate ambition of enslaving the entire region, and finally they came to menace seriously the stability of East Asia. Herein lies the cause of the recent war.

The countries of Greater East Asia, with a view to contributing to the cause of world peace, undertake to cooperate toward prosecuting the War of Greater East Asia to a successful conclusion, liberating their region from the yoke of British-American domination, and ensuring their self-existence and self-defense, and in constructing a Greater East Asia in accordance with the following principles: The countries of Greater East Asia through mutual cooperation will ensure the stability of their region and construct an order of common prosperity and well-being based upon justice.

The countries of Greater East Asia will ensure the fraternity of nations in their region, by respecting one another’s sovereignty and independence and practicing mutual assistance and amity. The countries of Greater East Asia by respecting one another’s traditions and developing the creative faculties of each race, will enhance the culture and civilization of Greater East Asia. The countries of Greater East Asia will endeavor to accelerate their economic development through close cooperation upon a basis of reciprocity and to promote thereby the general prosperity of their region.

The countries of Greater East Asia will cultivate friendly relations with all the countries of the world, and work for the abolition of racial discrimination, the promotion of cultural intercourse and the opening of resources throughout the world, and contribute thereby to the progress of mankind. [8] [edit]Martial law Laurel declared the country under martial law in 1944 through Proclamation No. 29, dated September 21. Martial law came into effect on September 22, 1944 at 9 am. Proclamation No. 30 was issued the next day, declaring the existence of a state of war between the Philippines and the United States and the United Kingdom.

This took effect on September 23, 1944 at 10:00 am. A bust of Jose P. Laurel located in Plaza Laurel, Brgy. Kumintang Ibaba, Batangas City, Philippines. [edit]Resistance Due to the nature of the Second Republic, and its connection to the Empire of Japan, a sizable portion of the population actively resisted his presidency,[9] supporting the exiled Commonwealth government;[10] that is not to say that his government didn’t have forces against said resistance. [10] [edit]Assassination attempt On June 5, 1943, Laurel was playing golf at the Wack Wack Golf Course in Mandaluyong when he was shot around 4 times with a 45 caliber pistol.

[11] The bullets barely missed his heart and liver. [11] He was rushed by his golfing companions, among them FEU president Nicanor Reyes, Sr. , to the Philippine General Hospital where he was operated by the Chief Military Surgeon of the Japanese Military Administration and Filipino surgeons. [11] Laurel enjoyed a speedy recovery. Two suspects to the shooting were reportedly captured and swiftly executed by the Kempetai. [12] Another suspect, a former boxer named Feliciano Lizardo, was presented for identification by the Japanese to Laurel at the latter’s hospital bed, but Laurel then professed unclear memory.

[12] However, in his 1953 memoirs, Laurel would admit that Lizardo, by then one of the former President’s bodyguards, was indeed the would-be-assassin. [12] Still, the historian Teodoro Agoncillo in his book on the Japanese occupation, identified a captain with a guerilla unit as the shooter. [12] Laurel is the only Filipino president to have been shot outside of combat. [edit]Dissolution of the Second Republic Laurel (left) being taken into U. S. custody at Osaka Airport in 1945, along with Benigno Aquino, Sr. (center) and Jose Laurel III.

On July 26, 1945 the Potsdam Declaration served upon Japan an ultimatum to surrender or face utter annihilation. The Japanese government refused the offer. On August 6, 1945, Hiroshima, with some 300,000 inhabitants, was almost totally destroyed by an atomic bomb dropped from an American plane. Two days later, the Soviet Union declared war against Japan. [13] The next day, August 9, 1945, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. The Allied Forces’ message now had a telling effect: Japan unconditionally surrendered to the Allied Powers on August 15, 1945.

[4] Since April 1945, President Laurel, together with his family and Cabinet member Camilo Osias, Speaker Benigno Aquino, Sr. , Gen. Tomas Capinpin, and Ambassador Jorge Vargas, had been in Japan. Evacuated from Baguioshortly after the city fell, they traveled to Aparri and thence, on board Japanese planes, had been taken to Japan. On August 17, 1945, from his refuge in Nara, President Laurel issued an Executive Proclamation which declared the dissolution of the Second Republic of the Philippines. [4] [edit]Post-presidency [edit]1949 presidential election

On August 15, 1945, the Japanese forces surrendered to the United States. Gen. Douglas MacArthur ordered Laurel arrested for collaborating with the Japanese. In 1946 he was charged with 132 counts of treason, but was never brought to trial due to the general amnesty granted by President Manuel Roxasin 1948. [14] Laurel ran for president against Elpidio Quirino in 1949 but lost in what was then considered by Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray[according to whom? ] as the dirtiest election in Philippine electoral history. [edit]Return to the Senate At Malacanan Palace, 1955.

Clockwise, from top left: Senator Edmundo Cea, Former President Jose P. Laurel Sr. , Senator Primicias, Senate President Eulogio A. Rodriguez, Sr. , President Ramon F. Magsaysay, & House Speaker Jose B. Laurel Jr. Laurel was elected to the Senate in 1951, under the Nacionalista Party. He was urged upon to run for President in 1953, but he declined, working instead for the successful election of Ramon Magsaysay. Magsaysay appointed Laurel head of a mission tasked with negotiating trade and other issues with United States officials, the result being known as the Laurel-Langley Agreement.

[edit]Retirement and death Laurel considered his election to the Senate as a vindication of his reputation. He declined to run for re-election in 1957. He retired from public life, concentrating on the development of the Lyceum of the Philippinesestablished by his family. After the sudden death of President Magsaysay in March 1957, Laurel suggested to then CongressmanFerdinand Marcos to propose to Manila Mayor Arsenio Lacson for the latter to run as President and the former as Lacson’s Vice President. However, the immensely popular Lacson turned down the offer to run againstCarlos P.

Garcia despite Laurel’s pledged support. Marcos, in turn, ran only for President in 1965. During his retirement, Laurel stayed in a 3-story, 7-bedroom mansion dubbed as “Villa Pacencia”, erected in 1957 at Mandaluyong and named after Laurel’s wife. The home was one of three residences constructed by the Laurel family, the other two being located in Tanauan and in Paco, Manila (called “Villa Penafrancia). In 2008, the Laurel family sold “Villa Pacencia” to Senate President Manny Villar and his wife Cynthia.

[15] On November 6, 1959, Laurel died at the Lourdes Hospital, in Manila,[16] from a massive heart attack and a stroke. He is buried in Tanuan. [edit]Notes 1. ^ G. R. No. L-7037, March 15, 1912 2. ^ American Colonial Careerist, p. 104 3. ^ a b Justices of the Supreme Court, p. 175 4. ^ a b c d Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Prin> 5. ^ a b By Sword and By Fire, p. 137 6. ^ Joaquin, Nick (1990). Manila,My Manila. Vera-Reyes, Inc.. 7. ^ Gordon, Andrew (2003).

The Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford University Press. pp. 211. ISBN 0-19-511060-9. Retrieved April 13, 2008. 8. ^ WW2DB: Greater East Asia Conference 9. ^ “Philippine History”. DLSU-Manila. Retrieved January 27, 2011. “Japan’s efforts to win Filipino loyalty found expression in the establishment (Oct. 14, 1943) of a “Philippine Republic,” with Jose P. Laurel, former supreme court justice, as president. But the people suffered greatly from Japanese brutality, and the puppet government gained little support. ” 10. ^ a b Halili, M.

c. (2004). Philippine history. Rex Bookstore, Inc.. pp. 235–241. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 11. ^ a b c Ocampo, Ambeth (2000) [1995]. “The Irony of Tragedy”. Bonifacio’s Bolo (4th ed. ). Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. pp. 60. ISBN 971-27-0418-1. 12. ^ a b c d Ocampo, Ambeth (2000) [1995]. “The Irony of Tragedy”. Bonifacio’s Bolo (4th ed. ). Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. pp. 61. ISBN 971-27-0418-1. 13. ^ Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print. 14. ^ “Proclamation No.

51″. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved January 25, 2011. 15. ^ Gerry Lirio (July 13, 2008). “Villars take over storied Laurel house on Shaw Blvd”. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved March 22, 2009. 16. ^ Justices of the Supreme Court, p. 176 [edit]References Laurel, Jose P. (1953). Bread and Freedom. Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press. Sevilla, Victor J. (1985). Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Vol. I.

Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. pp. 79–80, 174–176. ISBN 971-10-0134-9. Malcolm, George A. (1957). American Colonial Careerist. United States of America: Christopher Publishing House. pp. 103–104, 96–97, 139, 249–251. Aluit, Alfonso (1994). By Sword and Fire: The Destruction of Manila in World War II February 3 – March 3, 1945. Philippines: National Commission for Culture and the Arts. pp. 134–138. ISBN 971-8521-10-0. Ocampo, Ambeth (2000) [1995]. “The Irony of Tragedy”. Bonifacio’s Bolo (4th ed. ). Pasig City: Anvil Publishing. pp. 60–61. ISBN 971-27-0418-1. [1]a

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