Jose Risal, the National Hero of the Philippines

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JOSE RIZAL, the national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan race, was born on June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11 children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families. His father, Francisco Mercado Rizal, an industrious farmer whom Rizal called “a model of fathers,” came from Binan, Laguna; while his mother, Teodora Alonzo y Quintos, a highly cultured and accomplished woman whom Rizal called “loving and prudent mother,” was born in Meisic, Sta.

Cruz, Manila. At the age of 3, he learned the alphabet from his mother; at 5, while learning to read and write, he already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age 8, he wrote a Tagalog poem, “Sa Aking Mga Kabata,” the theme of which revolves on the love of one’s language. In 1877, at the age of 16, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree with an average of “excellent” from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila.

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In the same year, he enrolled in Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas, while at the same time took courses leading to the degree of surveyor and expert assessor at the Ateneo. He finished the latter course on March 21, 1877 and passed the Surveyor’s examination on May 21, 1878; but because of his age, 17, he was not granted license to practice the profession until December 30, 1881. In 1878, he enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas but had to stop in his studies when he felt that the Filipino students were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors.

On May 3, 1882, he sailed for Spain where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid. On June 21, 1884, at the age of 23, he was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and on June 19,1885, at the age of 24, he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of “excellent. ”  Having traveled extensively in Europe, America and Asia, he mastered 22 languages. These include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects.

A versatile genius, he was an architect, artists, businessman, cartoonist, educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician, mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, opthalmic surgeon, poet, propagandist, psychologist, scientist, sculptor, sociologist, and theologian. He was an expert swordsman and a good shot. In the hope of securing political and social reforms for his country and at the same time educate his countrymen, Rizal, the greatest apostle of Filipino nationalism, published, while in Europe, several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary tendencies.

In March 1887, his daring book, NOLI ME TANGERE, a satirical novel exposing the arrogance and despotism of the Spanish clergy, was published in Berlin; in 1890 he reprinted in Paris, Morga’s SUCCESSOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS with his annotations to prove that the Filipinos had a civilization worthy to be proud of even long before the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil; on September 18, 1891, EL FILIBUSTERISMO, his second novel and a sequel to the NOLI and more revolutionary and tragic than the latter, was printed in Ghent.

Because of his fearless exposures of the injustices committed by the civil and clerical officials, Rizal provoked the animosity of those in power. This led himself, his relatives and countrymen into trouble with the Spanish officials of the country. As a consequence, he and those who had contacts with him, were shadowed; the authorities were not only finding faults but even fabricating charges to pin him down. Thus, he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago from July 6, 1892 to July 15, 1892 on a charge that anti-friar pamphlets were found in the luggage of his sister Lucia who arrive with him from Hong Kong.

While a political exile in Dapitan, he engaged in agriculture, fishing and business; he maintained and operated a hospital; he conducted classes- taught his pupils the English and Spanish languages, the arts. The sciences, vocational courses including agriculture, surveying, sculpturing, and painting, as well as the art of self defense; he did some researches and collected specimens; he entered into correspondence with renowned men of letters and sciences abroad; and with the help of his pupils, he constructed water dam and a relief map of Mindanao – both considered remarkable engineering feats.

His sincerity and friendliness won for him the trust and confidence of even those assigned to guard him; his good manners and warm personality were found irresistible by women of all races with whom he had personal contacts; his intelligence and humility gained for him the respect and admiration of prominent men of other nations; while his undaunted courage and determination to uplift the welfare of his people were feared by his enemies. When the Philippine Revolution started on August 26, 1896, his enemies lost no time in pressing him down.

They were able to enlist witnesses that linked him with the revolt and these were never allowed to be confronted by him. Thus, from November 3, 1986, to the date of his execution, he was again committed to Fort Santiago. In his prison cell, he wrote an untitled poem, now known as “Ultimo Adios” which is considered a masterpiece and a living document expressing not only the hero’s great love of country but also that of all Filipinos. After a mock trial, he was convicted of rebellion, sedition and of forming illegal association.

In the cold morning of December 30, 1896, Rizal, a man whose 35 years of life had been packed with varied activities which proved that the Filipino has capacity to equal if not excel even those who treat him as a slave, was shot at Bagumbayan Field. Rizal at age 11 Rizal at age 16 Rizal at 18 years old while a student of medicine at the U. S. T Rizal in Madrid at the age of 25 Rizal at age 35 The Mercado – Rizal Family The Rizals is considered one of the biggest families during their time.

Domingo Lam-co, the family’s paternal ascendant was a full-blooded Chinese who came to the Philippines from Amoy, China in the closing years of the 17th century and married a Chinese half-breed by the name of Ines de la Rosa. Researchers revealed that the Mercado-Rizal family had also traces of Japanese, Spanish, Malay and Even Negrito blood aside from Chinese. Jose Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents, Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso Realonda, and nine sisters and one brother. FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898) Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado.

Born in Binan, Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila. TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913) Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. She was a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and well-read. She was born in Santa Cruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila. SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913) Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas. PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930) Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child.

Studied at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution. NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939) The third child. married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a teacher and musician. OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887) The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from childbirth. LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919) The fifth child. Married Matriano Herbosa. MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945) The sixth child. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Binan, Laguna. JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) The second son and the seventh child. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30,1896.

CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865) The eight child. Died at the age of three. JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945) The ninth child. An epileptic, died a spinster. TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951) The tenth child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die. SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929) The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero. The Mercado – Rizal Family | Francisco, the father, was a serious looking man of sturdy build. He was born in Binan, Laguna on April 18, 1818. | | Teodora, the mother, was a vigorious and persevering woman with a benevolent heart and a likable personality. | Saturnina (1850-1913), eldest of the Rizal children, became the wife of Manuel T. Hidalgo of tanauan, Batangas. | | Paciano, the second child in the family and Rizal’s only brother. | | Narcisa (1852-1939), third Rizal, was married to Antonio Lopez of Morong, Rizal. | | Olympia (1855-1887), fourth Rizal child, was married to Silvestre Ubaldo. She died of childbirth in 1887. | | Lucia (1857-1919), fifth Rizal child, was the wife of Mariano Herbosa. | | Maria (1859-1945), the sixth Rizal child, became the wife of Daniel Faustino Cruz of Binan, Laguna. | Jose Rizal (1861-1896), became the national hero of the Philippines. | | Trinidad (1868-1951), the tenth Rizal child. | | Soledad (1870-1929), the youngest Rizal child became the wife of Pantaleon Quinter| Jose Rizal: Early childhood In Calamba, Laguna 19 June 1861 JOSE RIZAL, the seventh child of Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso y Quintos, was born in Calamba, Laguna. 22 June 1861 He was baptized JOSE RIZAL MERCADO at the Catholic of Calamba by the parish priest Rev. Rufino Collantes with Rev. Pedro Casanas as the sponsor. 28 September 1862

The parochial church of Calamba and the canonical books, including the book in which Rizal’s baptismal records were entered, were burned. 1864 Barely three years old, Rizal learned the alphabet from his mother. 1865 When he was four years old, his sister Conception, the eight child in the Rizal family, died at the age of three. It was on this occasion that Rizal remembered having shed real tears for the first time. 1865 – 1867 During this time his mother taught him how to read and write. His father hired a classmate by the name of Leon Monroy who, for five months until his (Monroy) death, taught Rizal the rudiments of Latin.

At about this time two of his mother’s cousin frequented Calamba. Uncle Manuel Alberto, seeing Rizal frail in body, concerned himself with the physical development of his young nephew and taught the latter love for the open air and developed in him a great admiration for the beauty of nature, while Uncle Gregorio, a scholar, instilled into the mind of the boy love for education. He advised Rizal: “Work hard and perform every task very carefully; learn to be swift as well as thorough; be independent in thinking and make visual pictures of everything. ” 6 June 1868

With his father, Rizal made a pilgrimage to Antipolo to fulfill the vow made by his mother to take the child to the Shrine of the Virgin of Antipolo should she and her child survive the ordeal of delivery which nearly caused his mother’s life. From there they proceeded to Manila and visited his sister Saturnina who was at the time studying in the La Concordia College in Sta. Ana. 1869 At the age of eight, Rizal wrote his first poem entitled “Sa Aking Mga Kabata. ” The poem was written in tagalog and had for its theme “Love of One’s Language. ” In Binan, Laguna 1870 His brother Paciano brought Rizal to Binan, Laguna.

He was placed under the tutelage of Justiniano Aquino Cruz, studying Latin and Spanish. In this town he also learned the art of painting under the tutorship of an old painter by the name of Juancho Carrera. 17 December 1870 Having finished his studies in Binan, Rizal returned to Calamba on board the motorboat Talim. His parents planned to transfer him to Manila where he could continue his studies. Back in Calamba 1871 His mother was imprisoned in Sta. Cruz, Laguna for allegedly poisoning the wife of her cousin Jose Alberto, a rich property owner of Binan and brother of Manuel and Gregorio. 1872

For the first time, Rizal heard of the word filibustero which his father forbid the members of his family to utter, including such names as Cavite and Burgos. (It must be remembered that because of the Cavite Mutiny on January 20, 1872, Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora were garroted at Bagumbayan Field on February 17, 1872. ) Jose Rizal: Early Education Early Education in Calamba and Binan Rizal had his early education in Calamba and Binan. It was a typical schooling that a son of an ilustrado family received during his time, characterized by the four R’s- reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion.

Instruction was rigid and strict. Knowledge was forced into the minds of the pupils by means of the tedious memory method aided by the teacher’s whip. Despite the defects of the Spanish system of elementary education, Rizal was able to acquire the necessary instruction preparatory for college work in Manila. It may be said that Rizal, who was born a physical weakling, rose to become an intellectual giant not because of, but rather in spite of, the outmoded and backward system of instruction obtaining in the Philippines during the last decades of Spanish regime.

The Hero’s First Teacher The first teacher of Rizal was his mother, who was a remarkable woman of good character and fine culture. On her lap, he learned at the age of three the alphabet and the prayers. “My mother,” wrote Rizal in his student memoirs, “taught me how to read and to say haltingly the humble prayers which I raised fervently to God. ” As tutor, Dona Teodora was patient, conscientious, and understanding. It was she who first discovered that her son had a talent for poetry. Accordingly, she encouraged him to write poems.

To lighten the monotony of memorizing the ABC’s and to stimulate her son’s imagination, she related many stories. As Jose grew older, his parents employed private tutors to give him lessons at home. The first was Maestro Celestino and the second, Maestro Lucas Padua. Later, an old man named Leon Monroy, a former classmate of Rizal’s father, became the boy’s tutor. This old teacher lived at the Rizal home and instructed Jose in Spanish and Latin. Unfortunately, he did not lived long. He died five months later. After a Monroy’s death, the hero’s parents decided to send their gifted son to a private school in Binan.

Jose Goes to Binan One Sunday afternoon in June , 1869, Jose, after kissing the hands of his parents and a tearful parting from his sister, left Calamba for Binan. He was accompanied by Paciano , who acted as his second father. The two brothers rode in a carromata, reaching their destination after one and one-half hours’ drive. They proceeded to their aunt’s house, where Jose was to lodge. It was almost night when they arrived, and the moon was about to rise. That same night, Jose, with his cousin named Leandro, went sightseeing in the town. Instead of enjoying the sights, Jose became depressed because of homesickness. In the moonlight,” he recounted, “I remembered my home town, my idolized mother, and my solicitous sisters. Ah, how sweet to me was Calamba, my own town, in spite of the fact that was not as wealthy as Binan. ” First Day in Binan School The next morning (Monday) Paciano brought his younger brother to the school of Maestro Justiniano Aquino Cruz. The school was in the house of the teacher, which was a small nipa hut about 30 meters from the home of Jose’s aunt. Paciano knew the teacher quite well because he had been a pupil under him before. He introduced Jose to the teacher, after which he departed to return to Calamba.

Immediately, Jose was assigned his seat in the class. The teacher asked him: “Do you know Spanish? ” “A little, sir,” replied the Calamba lad. “Do you know Latin? ” “A little, sir. ” The boys in the class, especially Pedro, the teacher’s son laughed at Jose’s answers. The teacher sharply stopped all noises and begun the lessons of the day. Jose described his teacher in Binan as follows: “He was tall, thin, long-necked, with sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward, and he used to wear a sinamay shirt, woven by the skilled hands of the women of Batangas.

He knew by the heart the grammars by Nebrija and Gainza. Add to this severity that in my judgement was exaggerated and you have a picture, perhaps vague, that I have made of him, but I remember only this. ” First School Brawl. In the afternoon of his first day in school, when the teacher was having his siesta, Jose met the bully, Pedro. He was angry at this bully for making fun of him during his conversation with the teacher in the morning. Jose challenged Pedro to a fight. The latter readily accepted, thinking that he could easily beat the Calamba boy who was smaller and younger.

The two boys wrestled furiously in the classroom, much to the glee of their classmates. Jose, having learned the art of wrestling from his athletic Tio Manuel, defeated the bigger boy. For this feat, he became popular among his classmates. After the class in the afternoon, a classmate named Andres Salandanan challenged him to an arm-wrestling match. They went to a sidewalk of a house and wrestled with their arms. Jose, having the weaker arm, lost and nearly cracked his head on the sidewalk. In succeeding days he had other fights with the boys of Binan.

He was not quarrelsome by nature, but he never ran away from a fight. Best Student in School In academic studies, Jose beat all Binan boys. He surpassed them all in Spanish, Latin, and other subjects. Some of his older classmates were jealous of his intellectual superiority. They wickedly squealed to the teacher whenever Jose had a fight outside the school, and even told lies to discredit him before the teacher’s eyes. Consequently the teacher had to punish Jose. Early Schooling in Binan Jose had a very vivid imagination and a very keen sense of observation.

At the age of seven he traveled with his father for the first time to Manila and thence to Antipolo to fulfill the promise of a pilgrimage made by his mother at the time of his birth. They embarked in a casco, a very ponderous vessel commonly used in the Philippines. It was the first trip on the lake that Jose could recollect. As darkness fell he spent the hours by the katig, admiring the grandeur of the water and the stillness of the night, although he was seized with a superstitious fear when he saw a water snake entwine itself around the bamboo beams of the katig.

With what joy did he see the sun at the daybreak as its luminous rays shone upon the glistening surface of the wide lake, producing a brilliant effect! With what joy did he talk to his father, for he had not uttered a word during the night! When they proceeded to Antipolo, he experienced the sweetest emotions upon seeing the gay banks of the Pasig and the towns of Cainta and Taytay. In Antipolo he prayed, kneeling before the image of the Virgin of Peace and Good Voyage, of whom he would later sing in elegant verses. Then he saw Manila, the great metropolis , with its Chinese sores and European bazaars.

And visited his elder sister, Saturnina, in Santa Ana, who was a boarding student in the Concordia College. When he was nine years old, his father sent him to Binan to continue studying Latin, because his first teacher had died. His brother Paciano took him to Binan one Sunday, and Jose bade his parents and sisters good-bye with tears in his eyes. Oh, how it saddened him to leave for the first time and live far from his home and his family! But he felt ashamed to cry and had to conceal his tears and sentiments. “O Shame,” he explained, “how many beautiful and pathetic scenes the world would witness without thee! They arrived at Binan in the evening. His brother took him to the house of his aunt where he was to stay, and left him after introducing him to the teacher. At night, in company with his aunt’s grandson named Leandro, Jose took a walk around the town in the light of the moon. To him the town looked extensive and rich but sad and ugly. His teacher in Binan was a severe disciplinarian. His name was Justiniano Aquino Cruz. “He was a tall man, lean and long-necked, with a sharp nose and a body slightly bent forward. He used to wear a sinamay shirt woven by the deft hands of Batangas women.

He knew by memory the grammars of Nebrija and Gainza. To this add a severity which, in my judgement I have made of him, which is all I remember. ” The boy Jose distinguished himself in class, and succeeded in surpassing many of his older classmates. Some of these were so wicked that, even without reason, they accused him before the teacher, for which, in spite of his progress, he received many whippings and strokes from the ferule. Rare was the day when he was not stretched on the bench for a whipping or punished with five or six blows on the open palm.

Jose’s reaction to all these punishments was one of intense resentment in order to learn and thus carry out his father’s will. Jose spent his leisure hours with Justiniano’s father-in-law, a master painter. From him he took his first two sons, two nephews, and a grandson. His way life was methodical and well regulated. He heard mass at four if there was one that early, or studied his lesson at that hour and went to mass afterwards. Returning home, he might look in the orchard for a mambolo fruit to eat, then he took his breakfast, consisting generally of a plate of rice and two dried sardines.

After that he would go to class, from which he was dismissed at ten, then home again. He ate with his aunt and then began at ten, then home again. He ate with his aunt and then began to study. At half past two he returned to class and left at five. He might play for a short time with some cousins before returning home. He studied his lessons, drew for a while, and then prayed and if there was a moon, his friends would invite him to play in the street in company with other boys. Whenever he remembered his town, he thought with tears in his eyes of his beloved father, his idolized mother, and his solicitous sisters.

Ah, how sweet was his town even though not so opulent as Binan! He grew sad and thoughtful. While he was studying in Binan, he returned to his hometown now and then. How long the road seemed to him in going and how short in coming! When from afar he descried the roof of his house, secret joy filled his breast. How he looked for pretexts to remain longer at home! A day more seemed to him a day spent in heaven, and how he wept, though silently and secretly, when he saw the calesa that was flower that him Binan!

Then everything looked sad; a flower that he touched, a stone that attracted his attention he gathered, fearful that he might not see it again upon his return. It was a sad but delicate and quite pain that possessed him. Life and Studies at Ateneo The Jesuits were considered the best educators of Spain, and perhaps of Europe, and so, when they were permitted to return to the Philippines, although their power to administer parishes was restricted except in the remote regions of Mindanao, the privilege of founding colleges, they had to apply to the City of Manila for subsidies.

That is why the college which began to function in the year 1865, was called the Ateneo Municipal. To enter the Ateneo a candidate was subjected to an entrance examination on Christian doctrine, reading, writing, grammar, and elementary arithmetic. Jose did not take his entrance examinations Jose did not remain in Manila but returned first to his town to celebrate the fiesta of its patron saint; it was then that his father changed his mind and decided to send him to the Ateneo instead.

Since Mercado, the first surname of the family, had come under suspicion of the authorities because it was the name used by Paciano when he was studying and working with Father Burgos, in whose house he lived, Jose adopted the second surname, Rizal. Paciano who accompanied Jose, found him a house in Walled City, but Intramuros looked gloomy to Jose, and he later found lodging outside, in the house of a spinster situated on Calle Carballo, district of Santa Cruz. As if chance would furnish him data for his future campaigns, he became acquainted in that house with various mestizos, begotten by friars.

The Jesuitical system of instruction was considered more advanced than that of other colleges in that epoch. Its discipline was rigid and its methods less mechanical. It introduced physical culture as part of its program as well as the cultivation of the arts, such as music, drawing, and painting. It also establishes vocational courses in agriculture, commerce, and mechanics as a religious institute, its principal purpose was to mold the character and the will of the boys to comply more easily with the percepts of the Church.

The students heard mass before the beginning of the class, which was opened and closed with prayers. In the first two terms the classes were divided into groups of interns and externs: the first constituted the Roman Empire and the second, the Carthaginian Empire. In each empire there were five dignitaries: Emperor, Tribune, Decurion, Centurion, and Standard-Bearer. These dignities were won by means of individual competitions in which it was necessary to catch one’s adversary in error three times.

The empires considered themselves in perpetual warfare, and when an individual of one empire was caught in error by one belonging to the enemy empire, a point was counted in favor of the latter. At the end of each week or two, the points in favor of each were added and the empire, which obtained more point, was declared winner. There was a fraternity of Mary and Saint Louis Gonzaga, to which only those who distinguished themselves in the class for their piety and diligence could belong. This fraternity met on Sundays and after mass held public programs in which poems were recited or debates were held.

With all these inducements it was only natural that should be a spirit of emulation, a striving to surpass ones colleagues found in the Ateneo. The first professor Jose had was Fr. Jose Bech, whom he describes as a man of high stature; lean body, bent forward; quick gait; ascetic physiognomy, severe and inspired; small, sunken eyes; sharp Grecian nose; thin lips forming an arch with its sides directed toward the chin. ” He was somewhat of a lunatic and of an uneven humor; sometimes he was hard and little tolerant and at other times he was gay and playful as a child.

Among Jose’s classmates were Peninsulares and sons of Peninsulares; Francisco G. Oliva, very talented but not very studious; Joaquin Garrido, endowed with a poor memory but with much talent and industry; and Gonzalo Marzano, who occupied the throne of Emperor. From the first days Jose learned to systematize his work; he fixed a program of what he had to do in the twenty-four hours of the day and did not in the least deviate from it. Thus he disciplined his will and subjected it to the commands of his reason.

As a newcomer, Jose was at first put at the tail of the class, but he was soon promoted and kept on being promoted so that at the end of one month he had attained to the rank of Emperor. At the end of the term he obtained marks of excellent in all the subjects and in the examinations. He had reason to feel proud of his advancement; and so when he went home on vacation that year, he ran alone to see his mother in the prison and tell her the happy news. He must have uttered this exclamation on learning from his mother that they had played her a mean trick.

The judge, who was a blind partisan of the friars having been a domestic of theirs, told her that if she confessed her culpability he would release her at once. With the desire to see her children again, she pleaded guilty; but the judge, instead of releasing her, convicted her. In a few months the judge asked her forgiveness for what he had done because according to him his conscience hurt him, but the case had no remedy because it was already on appeal. The second year, Jose had the same professor as in the previous year; but instead of lodging outside the City, he resided at No. Calle Magallanes. At the end of the term he obtained a medal, and upon returning to his town, he again visited his mother in jail alone. This was three months before her release. The rejoicing that her release produced in his spirit had much influence on the result of his studies in the third year, for he began to win prizes in the quarterly examinations. About that time he devoted himself to reading novels, and one of those he enjoyed most was Dumas’ (father) The Count of Monte Cristo.

The sufferings of the hero of the twelve years. He also asked his father to buy him a copy of The Universal History by Cesar Cantanu, and according to himself he profited much from its perusal. The family, who saw in Jose great aptitude for study, decided to place him as intern or boarding student in the college the following year. In the corner of the dormitory facing the sea and the pier Jose passed his two years of internship. In the fourth year of his course he had Fr. Francisco Sanchez as professor.

Jose describes him as a model of rectitude, a solicitude, and love for the student, and his studied mathematics, rhetoric, and Greek, and he must have progressed much, for at the end of the year he-obtained five medals, which pleased him immensely because with them I could repay my father somewhat for his sacrifices. His aptitude for poetry revealed itself early, and from that time on he did not cease to cultivate it. An incident which demonstrates Jose’s independence of character took place at this time. Fr. Leoncio Lopez, parish priest of the town, who was a great friend of his father, also liked Jose as a little friend.

He was cultured but at the same time timid and tender. One day Jose’s mother showed Father Lopez a poem of his young friend and that the latter must have copied it from a book. Jose, who heard this, answered the priest violently, for which his mother reprehended him. Afterward Father Lopez came to know from the Jesuits themselves that Jose was a pupil who excelled in poetry; and, in spite of his age, made a trip to Manila expressly to apologize to Jose. That gesture of Father Lopez’ won him Jose’s esteem and they became good friends again, lending each other the books they had.

In the fifth years Jose had other professors: Frs. Vilaclara and Mineves. He studied philosophy, physics, chemistry, and natural history, but his devotion to poetry was such that his professor in philosophy advised him once to leave it, which made him cry. But in his rest hours he continued cultivating the Muses under the direction of his old professor, Father Sanchez. Jose had then written a short story (leyenda), which was only slightly corrected by his professor, and a dialogue, which was enacted at the end of the course, alluding to the collegians’ farewell.

However, philosophy, just and serve, inquiring into the wherefores of things, interested him as much as poetry; physics, drawing back the veil that divine drama of nature was enacted, natural history seemed to him somewhat uninteresting although he much liked the shells and sometimes imagined seeing a goddess in each shell he was on the shelf. Jose was considered small of stature and he tried to correct this defect by applying himself regularly to gymnastics in the college. He also engaged in other physical exercises, such as fencing.

After his baccalaureate, he surprised his family with his skill in handling the sword when he gave an exhibition bout with the best swordsman of the town. He also devoted time to painting and sculpture. In drawing and painting he was under the guidance and direction of the Ateneo professor, the Peninsula Don Augustin Saez, who honored him with his affection and consideration because of his progress. In sculpture his instructor was a Filipino, Romualdo de Jesus, who felt proud in the last years of his life of having had such an excellent pupil. Jose Rizal: Philosophy Philosophies in Life.

PHILOSOPHY may be defined as the study and pursuit of facts which deal with the ultimate reality or causes of things as they affect life. The philosophy of a country like the Philippines is made up of the intricate and composite interrelationship of the life histories of its people; in other word, the philosophy of our nation would be strange and undefinable if we do not delve into the past tied up with the notable life experiences of the representative personalities of our nation. Being one of the prominent representatives of Filipino personalities, Jose Rizal is a fit subject whose life philosophy deserves to be recognized.

Having been a victim of Spanish brutality early in his life in Calamba, Rizal had thus already formed the nucleus of an unfavorable opinion of Castillian imperialistic administration of his country and people. Pitiful social conditions existed in the Philippines as late as three centuries after his conquest in Spain, with agriculture, commerce, communications and education languishing under its most backward state. It was because of this social malady that social evils like inferiority complex, cowardice, timidity and false pride pervaded nationally and contributed to the decay of social life.

This stimulated and shaped Rizal’s life phylosophy to be to contain if not eliminate these social ills. Educational Philosophy Rizal’s concept of the importance of education is clearly enunciated in his work entitled Instruction wherein he sought improvements in the schools and in the methods of teaching. He maintained that the backwardness of his country during the Spanish ear was not due to the Filipinos’ indifference, apathy or indolence as claimed by the rulers, but to the neglect of the Spanish authorities in the islands.

For Rizal, the mission of education is to elevate the country to the highest seat of glory and to develop the people’s mentality. Since education is the foundation of society and a prerequisite for social progress, Rizal claimed that only through education could the country be saved from domination. Rizal’s philosophy of education, therefore, centers on the provision of proper motivation in order to bolster the great social forces that make education a success, to create in the youth an innate desire to cultivate his intelligence and give him life eternal. Religious Philosophy

Rizal grew up nurtured by a closely-knit Catholic family, was educated in the foremost Catholic schools of the period in the elementary, secondary and college levels; logically, therefore, he should have been a propagator of strictly Catholic traditions. However, in later life, he developed a life philosophy of a different nature, a philosophy of a different Catholic practice intermingled with the use of Truth and Reason. Why the change? It could have been the result of contemporary contact, companionship, observation, research and the possession of an independent spirit.

Being a critical observer, a profound thinker and a zealous reformer, Rizal did not agree with the prevailing Christian propagation of the Faith by fire and sword. This is shown in his Annotation of Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Rizal did not believe in the Catholic dogma that salvation was only for Catholics and that outside Christianity, salvation was not possible even if Catholics composed only a small minority of the world’s religious groups.

Nor did he believe in the Catholic observation of fasting as a sacrifice, nor in the sale of such religious items as the cross, medals, rosaries and the like in order to propagate the Faith and raise church funds. He also lambasted the superstitious beliefs propagated by the priests in the church and in the schools. All of these and a lot more are evidences of Rizal’s religious philosophy. Political Philosophy In Rizal’s political view, a conquered country like the Philippines should not be taken advantage of but rather should be developed, civilized, educated and trained in the science of self-government.

He bitterly assailed and criticized in publications the apparent backwardness of the Spanish ruler’s method of governing the country which resulted in: 1. the bondage and slavery of the conquered ; 2. the Spanish government’s requirement of forced labor and force military service upon the n natives; 3. the abuse of power by means of exploitation; 4. the government ruling that any complaint against the authorities was criminal; and 5. Making the people ignorant, destitute and fanatic, thus discouraging the formation of a national sentiment.

Rizal’s guiding political philosophy proved to be the study and application of reforms, the extension of human rights, the training for self government and the arousing of spirit of discontent over oppression, brutality, inhumanity, sensitiveness and self love. Ethical Philosophy The study of human behavior as to whether it is good or bad or whether it is right or wrong is that science upon which Rizal’s ethical philosophy was based. The fact that the Philippines was under Spanish domination during Rizal’s time led him to subordinate his philosophy to moral problems.

This trend was much more needed at that time because the Spaniards and the Filipinos had different and sometimes conflicting morals. The moral status of the Philippines during this period was one with a lack of freedom, one with predominance of foreign masters, one with an imposition of foreign religious worship, devotion, homage and racial habits. This led to moral confusion among the people, what with justice being stifled, limited or curtailed and the people not enjoying any individual rights. To bolster his ethical philosophy, Dr.

Rizal had recognized not only the forces of good and evil, but also the tendencies towards good and evil. As a result, he made use of the practical method of appealing to the better nature of the conquerors and of offering useful methods of solving the moral problems of the conquered. To support his ethical philosophy in life, Rizal: 1. censured the friars for abusing the advantage of their position as spiritual leaders and the ignorance and fanaticism of the natives; 2. counseled the Filipinos not to resent a defect attributed to them but to accept same as reasonable and just; . advised the masses that the object of marriage was the happiness and love of the couple and not financial gain; 4. censured the priests who preached greed and wrong morality; and 5. advised every one that love and respect for parents must be strictly observed. Social Philosophy That body of knowledge relating to society including the wisdom which man’s experience in society has taught him is social philosophy. The facts dealt with are principles involved in nation building and not individual social problems.

The subject matter of this social philosophy covers the problems of the whole race, with every problem having a distinct solution to bolster the people’s social knowledge. Rizal’s social philosophy dealt with; 1. man in society; 2. influential factors in human life; 3. racial problems; 4. social constant; 5. social justice; 6. social ideal; 7. poverty and wealth; 8. reforms; 9. youth and greatness; 10. history and progress; 11. future Philippines. The above dealt with man’s evolution and his environment, explaining for the ost part human behavior and capacities like his will to live; his desire to possess happiness; the change of his mentality; the role of virtuous women in the guidance of great men; the need for elevating and inspiring mission; the duties and dictates of man’s conscience; man’s need of practicing gratitude; the necessity for consulting reliable people; his need for experience; his ability to deny; the importance of deliberation; the voluntary offer of man’s abilities and possibilities; the ability to think, aspire and strive to rise; and the proper use of hearth, brain and spirit-all of these combining to enhance the intricacies, beauty and values of human nature. All of the above served as Rizal’s guide in his continuous effort to make over his beloved Philippines. Different characters of Jose Rizal The Many-Sided Personality Filipinos and foreigners alike have paid tribute to Jose Rizal claiming that his place of honor in history is secure.

It was his Austrian bosom friend, Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, rector of the Imperial Atheneum of Leitmeritz, who said “Rizal was the greatest product of the Philippines and his coming to the world was like the appearance of a rare comet, whose rare brilliance appears only every other century. ” Another German friend, Dr. Adolf B. Meyer, director of the Dresden Museum who admired his all around knowledge and ability, remarked “Rizal’s many-sidedness was stupendous. ” Our own Dr. Camilo Osias pointed to him as the “versatile genius. ” His precocity since early boyhood turned into versatility in later years. Being curious and inquisitive, he developed a rare facility of mastering varied subjects and occupations. Actor Rizal acted as a character in one of Juan Luna’s paintings and acted in school dramas. Agriculturist

Rizal had farms in Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte (1892-1896) where he planted lanzones, coconuts and other fruit-bearing trees. Ambassador Of Good Will His friendliness, goodwill and cultural associations with friends entitled him as one. Animal Lover As a small boy, Rizal loved animals including birds, fish, insects, and other specimens of animal life. Fowls, rabbits, dogs, horses, and cats constituted his favorites. As much as possible, he did not wish fowls to be killed even for food, and showed displeasure in being asked to eat the cooked animal. The family garden in Calamba abounded with insects galore and birds native to the Calamba environs.

He wrote about and sketched animals of the places he had toured. Anthropologist He made researches on the physical and social make up of man. Archeologist Rizal studied monuments and antique currency everywhere he went. He drew most of the monuments he saw. Ascetic Rizal always practiced self-discipline wherever he went. Book lover He had a big library and brought many books abroad. Botanist Rizal maintained a garden in Dapitan where he planted and experimented on plants of all kinds Businessman He had a partner in Dapitan in the Abaca business there (1892-1896). Cartographer He drew maps of Dapitan, The Philippines and other places he visited. Chess Player

He played chess and bear several Germans and European friends and acquaintances. Citizen of the world His extensive travels and multitude of friends in Europe, Middle East and Asia made him one. Commentator Rizal always expresses and published his personal opinion. Conchologist He had a good shell collection in Dapitan. An American conchologist praised him. Educator Rizal taught in his special school in Dapitan. Ethnologist In his travels, Rizal was able to compare different races and he noted the differences. Father of community school He proposed college in Hong Kong and his special school in Dapitan made him a father of community schools. Fencer He fenced with Europeans and Juan Luna and other friends in Europe.

Freemason abroad He was member of La Solidaridad Lodge in Spain. Horticulture and farmer He experimented on and cultivated plants in Dapitan. Historian His annotation of Antonio de Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas entitled him as one. Humorist There are many humorous incidents in the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Ichthyologist He collected 38 new varieties of fish in Dapitan. Japanophile His admiration of Japanese traits and his knowledge of her language proved he was one. Journalist He authored the published many articles in Spanish and English and London. Laboratory worker He was employed in the clinic of Dr. L. Wecker in Paris.

Linguist He spoke over 20 foreign languages. Lover of truth He chided Spanish writers for not writing the truth about the Filipinos. He was always truthful since boyhood. Musicians He played the flute and composed pieces of music and cultivated music appreciation. Mythologist Rizal used mythology in his Noli and Fili. Nationalist He gave full expression of the native spirit strengthened by world civilization and loved and defended everything Filipino. Newspaperman He wrote and published articles in many publications and was one of the organizers of the La Solidaridad. Ophthalmologist He graduated in an ophthalmologic college in Spain. Orientalist

Rizal admired the special characteristic and beauties of Oriental countries peoples. Pharmacologist Rizal treasured and popularized the usefulness and preparation of cures for treatment of his patients. Philologist Rizal loved of learning and literature is unequalled. Philosopher Rizal not only loved wisdom but also regulated his life and enjoyed calmness of the life at all time Physical culturist Rizal maintained a good health by exercising all parts of his body and eating proper foods Physicians He treated several patients afflicted not only with eye diseases. Plant lover As a child, Rizal spend most of his time in the family garden which was planted with fruit trees, Shrubs and decorative trees.

His diaries contained detailed description and sketches of plants, flowers and fruits he saw in the places he visited. He wrote poems on flower he like very much as his poems To the Flowers of Heidelberg. Poet Rizal wrote over 35 poems including his famous Ultimo Adios. Politician Although Rizal did not engage in Politics, he exposed the evils of the political activities of the Spaniards in the Philippines through his writing. Polyglot Rizal spoke and wrote in 20 languages. Proofreader In Germany, He worked as a part-time proofreader of his livelihood. Propagandist As a reformer, Rizal encourages the recommendation of improving the government entities and discourage abuses publishing articles.

Public relation man He worked for better cooperation of rulers and subjects in his country. Reformer He published the modern methods of government administration, so changes could be made. Researcher Being a wide reader, he compared the old and new practices in life. Revolutionist Rizal encouraged reforms, discouraged old, impractical usage, and desired new and useful laws to benefit his countrymen. He desired changes for the better. Rhetorician Rizal has always practiced the art of persuasive and impressive speaking and writing. Rural reconstruction worker He practiced rural reconstruction work in Dapitan in 1894 and succeeded. Sanitary engineer

His construction of a water system in Dapitan exemplified this practice by Rizal. Scientist Rizal’s practice of many sciences here and abroad made him noted scientist. Sculptor His works of his father and of Father Guerrico, S. J. typified his sculptural ability. Sharp shooter He could hit a target 20 meters away. Sinologist Rizal’s ancestry and his ability to speak Chinese made him one. Sociologist In Rizal’s study of Philippines social problems, he always encouraged and introduced solutions. Sodalist He always joined fraternities, associations and brotherhood, for self-improvement. Sportsman He engaged from a surveying class at the Ateneo after passing his A. B. here. Tourist He was considered the foremost tourist due to his extensive travels. Traveler He traveled around the world three times. Tuberculosis expert For having cured himself of this disease, he became and was recognized as an expert. Youth leader He considered the youth as “the hope of his Fatherland. ” Zoologist He was fond of pets. He researched later on their physiology, classification and habits. Jose Rizal’s Travels Rizal’s First Trip Abroad 3 May 1882 Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera.

He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista. 4 May 1882 He got seasick on board the boat. 5 May1882 He conversed with the passengers of the ship; he was still feeling sea-sick. 6 May 1882 He played chess with the passengers on board. 8 May 1882 He saw mountains and Islands. 9 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Singapore. 10 May 1882 He went around the town of Singapore and maid some observations. 11 May 1882 In Singapore, at 2 p. m. , Rizal boarded the boat Djemnah to continue his trip to Spain. He found the boat clean and well kept. 12 May 1882 He had a conversation with the passengers of the boat. 13 May 1882 Rizal was seasick again. 14 May 1882

On his way to Marseilles, Rizal had a terrible dream. He dreamed he was traveling with Neneng (Saturnina) and their path was blocked by snakes. May 15 1882 Rizal had another disheartening dream. He dreamed he returned to Calamba and after meeting his parents who did not talk to him because of not having consulted them about his first trip abroad, he returned traveling abroad with one hundred pesos he again borrowed. He was so sad and broken hearted. Soon he woke up and found himself inside his cabin. 17 May 1882 Rizal arrived at Punta de Gales. 18 May 1882 At 7:30 a. m. , he left Punta de Gales for Colombo. In the afternoon, Rizal arrived at Colombo and in the evening the trip was resumed. 6 May 1882 Rizal was nearing the African coast 27 May 1882 He landed at Aden at about 8:30 a. m. He made observation at the time. 2 June 1882 He arrived at the Suez Canal en route to Marseilles. 3 June 1882 He was quarantined on board the Djemnah in the Suez Canal. 6 June 1882 It was the fourth day at Suez Canal and was still quarantined on board of the boat. 7 June 1882 Rizal arrived at Port Said. In a letter to his parents, He described his trip en route to Aden along the Suez Canal. 11 June 1882 Rizal disembarked and, accompanied by a guide, went around the City of Naples for one hour. This was the first European ground he set foot on. 12 June 1882

At ten o’clock in the evening, the boat anchored at Marseilles. He sleptn board. 13 June 1882 Early on the morning he landed at Marseilles and boarded at the Noalles Hotel. Later he around for observation. 14 June 1882 His second in Marseilles. 15 June 1882 He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train. Rizal in Barcelona, Spain 16 June 1882 At 12:00 noon, Rizal arrived at Barcelona and boarded in the Fonda De Espana. 23 June 1882 In a letter, Rizal related to his parents his experiences during his trip from Port Said to Barcelona. In the same Letter, he requested them to send him a birth certificate and statement showing that he had parents in the Philippines. 18 August 1882 P.

Leoncio Lopez of Calamba issued a certified copy of Rizal’s birth certificate. 20 August 1882 His article “Amor Patrio” was published in the Diarong Tagalog, a Manila newspaper edited by Basilio Teodoro. This was the First article he wrote abroad. Rizal in Madrid, Spain 2 September 1882 Rizal matriculated at the Universidad Central de Madrid. He took the following subjects: medical clinic, surgical clinic, legal medicine and obstetrical clinic. 2 October 1882 He attended his regular classes which stared in all earnest. 4 October 1882 Asked to deliver a poem by the members of Circulo Hispano-Filipino, there together in the effort to save the association from disintegration, Rizal recited “Me piden versus. The meeting was held at the house of Pablo Ortiga y Rey. 7 October 1882 He attended again of the Circulo Hisfano-Filipino held in house of Mr. Ortiga. 2 November 1882 He wrote the article “Revista de Madrid” which was in intended for publication in the Diarong Tagalog in Manila, but was not published because the newspaper stops its circulation. 7 November 1882 Rizal wrote an article entitled “Las Dudas”. The article was signed Laong – Laan. 30 December 1882 In a letter, Rizal revealed to Paciano his plan of going to Paris or Rome in June. He wanted to practice French in Paris and Italian in Rome and to observe the customs of people in those cities. In the evening, Rizal dreamed he was an actor dying in the scene, feeling intensely the shortage of his breath, the weakening of his strength, and darkening of his sight. He woke up tired and breathless. 1 January 1883 Rizal felt sad in the morning. He recollected the terrible dream he had the previous night. 15 January 1883 He attended the birthday of Pablo Ortiga with some of the Filipinos. 16 January 1883 He attended the masquerade ball in Alhambra with some of his countrymen. 13 February 1883 In a letter Rizal appraised his brother Paciano of his activities in Madrid, his impressions of the city and his meeting with his friends in gathering.

In part he said: “The Tuesday of the Carnival we had a Filipino luncheon and dinner in the house of the Pateros, each one contributing one duro. We ate with our hands, boiled rice, chicken adobo, fried fish and roast pig. 2 May 1882 Rizal recollected his past impressions when he left his hometown Calamba. This day he attended a fiesta in Madrid. 26 May 1883 In a letter, Rizal was informed by Paciano of the 1,350 loaves of milled sugar produced from the Pansol farm and at the same time granting him to proceed to Paris as soon as he finished the medical course in Madrid. 15 June 1883 Rizal left Madrid for Paris to spend his summer and to observe the big French City. Rizal in Paris, France 17 June 1883 Rizal arrived at Paris.

He spent the whole day walking around and observing the beautiful cities. 18 June 1883 With Felipe Zamora and Cunanan, He visited the Leannec Hospital to observe how Dr, Nicaise treated his patients. He was stunned to see the advanced facilities in the accommodation in the said hospital. 19 June 1883 He again visited Dr. Nicaise who showed the technique of operation. Later he went to see dupytren Museum. 20 June 1883 Rizal visited the Lariboisiere Hospital where Felix Pardo de Tavera was an extern. Here he observe the examination of the different diseases of women. 21 June 1883 After watching the done by Dr. Duply, he went to the Jardin d’ Acclimatation situated outside the Paris in the Forest of Bologna.

He found there plants of all species and the rarest and most beautiful birds. 5 July 1883 In a letter to his parents, sisters and brother, Rizal continued describing the museum, buildings and hospitals he had visited in Paris. 2 August 1883 In a letter to his parents, he continued describing his visits to museum and his excursions to important place in Paris. Rizal Back in Madrid 20 August 1883 Rizal was back in Madrid from his summer vacation in Paris. 6 September 1883 He changed his residence from Barquillo St. N0. 34, 4 to San Miguel no. 7, 1 Centro. 28 September 1883 He enrolled at the central Universidad de Madrid for the second course in medicine.

October 1883 He came to know of the imprisonment, by order of Sr. Vicente Barrantes, of the 14 rich innocent persons in Manila. The Prisoners who knew nothing is the cause of their detention and who became sick later, were kept in a humid prison cell. Rizal was indignant of his inhuman act. 16 October 1883 He learned from Mariano Katigbak about the 400 cholera victims in Lipa and 3 of beri-beri. 28 October 1883 He had a new address. He live with Eduardo Lete and the two Llorente brothers, Julio and Abdon, in Bano 15 Pral. 21 November 1883 Rizal informed his family of his plan to graduate in medicine at the end of the course in June. 27 November 1883

His sister Maria that Soledad was married on November 4, 1883 informed Rizal in a letter. Narcisa also informed him that the causes of the delay of sending him a letters were the cholera, the typhoon, and the death of the parish priest, events, which occurred in succession. 31 December 1883 In the evening Rizal delivered a speech in a banquet held at the Cafe de Madrid. Many Filipinos were gathered in the restaurant to bid goodbye to the year 1884. 2 January 1884 Rizal proposed to the member of the Circulo assembled in the house of the Pateros, the publication of a book by association. This idea became the embryo of this first novel Noli Me Tangere . 3 January 1884

Early in the morning, Rizal went to the University of San Carlos only to find out that there was no class. He immediately went to the Cafe de Madrid to meet members of the Circulo who were gathered again to discuss the proposed book. 4 January 1884 Rizal received letter from his Uncle Antonio Rivera. They were, according to him, full of good and interesting news. 5 January 1884 Rizal and the Filipino student were reunited again in the house of Pateros to reorganized the association. Since no action was taken on that day, it was agreed to gather again the next Sunday. 6 January 1884 Rizal meet Valentine Ventura. They took their supper in the English restaurant in Madrid. 7 January 1884

Rizal’s professor in Greek slashed at the students accusing them insubordination. The students of the San Carlos University were on strike, thus preventing him to attend the strike. 8 January 1884 Rizal finished two drawings. He met Ruiz who proposed him that if there be someone who would pay the expenses of the Circulo, Rizal would be made president. 9 January 1884 He did a single centavo on He attended. Rizal Back in Madrid 10 January 1884 Rizal received two letters: one from his uncle Antonio dated December 2 and the other from Paciano dated November 30. 11 January 1884 In Madrid, Rizal was visited by Antonio Aguirre. Later, he went to class and met Pareda there. 12 January 1884 Rizal went to the theatre.

He enjoyed seeing the “El Octavo No Mentir” and “Un Ano Mas. ” 13 January 1884 In the afternoon, in the house of the Paterno’s, Rizal extended the meeting of the Filipino students 15 January 1884 Rizal and other Filipino students in Madrid attended the birthday party of Pablo Ortiga y Rey. There was a dance. 16 January 1884 In the morning, Rizal went to class. After his class, he visited his patient on the number 10 bed who thanked Rizal for the help he extended. The patient recovered immediately. 17 January 1884 He went with Llorente to witness the proceedings in the senate. At 6:00 p. m. , after more than 5 hours of waiting outside, they were able to enter the hall. 18 January 1884

Rizal was not able to attend his classes due to the demonstrations of the students of the College of Law and the College of Medicine against the Minister of Finance. 20 January 1884 Rizal met Valentin Ventura and Rafael. He sent to C. O. (Consuelo Ortiga) a piece of guimaras cloth. He bought a tenth part of a lottery ticket for three pesetas. 21 January 1884 He went to class. The students of the College of Law still refused to enter. They wanted the abolition of the decrees. Rizal thru Eduardo Lete, receive the thanks of C. O. guimaras cloth. 23 January 1884 Rizal visited the artist Estevan and Melecio. He meet Antonio and Maximino and later Pedro. The Pateros requested him to exhibit his photos, but Rizal refused because the pictures contained dedication. 24 January 1884

Rizal was visited by Valentin Ventura. The strike of the students in the University of San Carlos was settled and the students of the College of Law entered their classes 25 January 1884 Rizal had a sad dream. He dreamed the returned home, but what a sad reception! His parents did not meet him. 26 January 1884 Rizal with Estevan Figueroa, Sanmarti, Eduardo Lete and Rafael went to the house of Etermes Figueron. This was the most peaceful reunion the Filipinos had. 27 January 1884 He had a picture taken in the house of Otero. He was visited by Maximino and Antonio Paterno. They planned to see the Ateneo, Madrid, but the weather did not permit them. 28 January 1884

He visited the Ateneo with Antonio and Maximino it was beautiful, wide and well decorated. He met beautiful girl at the door of his neighbor’s house. 29 January 1884 He attended the Masquerade ball in Madrid in which he enjoyed by dancing every piece. There were two masked person who were joking him but whom he did not recognize. 30 January 1884 Rizal sent three letters to the Philippines, one for his uncle Antonio Rivera, another for Jose Cecilio (Chengoy) and the other for Lolay. He sent also newspapers: El Imperial, El Dia and El Liberal. 31 January 1884 Rizal made an accounting of his one month expenses. For the month of January, he spent a total of 329. 63 pesetas. 1 February 1884

He went to the theatre of Eslava to hear politics and bull-fighting. Later he went to the Cafe de Madrid. 2 February 1884 Rizal in the Filipino students were gathered in the house of D. Paul, to discuss the affairs of the association. 3 February 1884 He was visited by the Cortabitarte sisters accompanied by their mother. He receive them amiably. 4 February 1884 He stayed at home, seriously reviewing his lesson for the examination. 5 February 1884 He visited Valentin Ventura who was slight sick of dermatitis. 6 February 1884 Rizal felt sad for the death of hid professor in History, D. Federico Lara. Of the professor, Rizal said: “very nice person, at least by the little I knew of him. ” 7 February 1884

He witnessed the discussion between the two Spaniards in the street of Lobo, one sustained that all Spaniards are brave and the other, that not all are brave. 9 February 1884 He was very much disgusted of the result of the “La Macosta” which he saw for 2. 10 pesetas. 10 February 1884 Rizal had a work around the University District. Later, he went to see Consuelo Ortiga. 13 February 1884 He sent letters to his uncle Rivera and to his family, the latter with a picture. 17 February 1884 Rizal made operation on arterial vein in the Hospital de la Princesa. 25 February 1884 He attended the carnival where he saw at his side a beautiful girl, with blue eyes and a pleasant smile. 7 March 1884

Rizal performed an operation with Mariani. In the evening, he attended English lecture conducted by a Mr. Schuts in the Ateneo de Madrid. 9 March 1884 He was visited by Cunanan and Valentin Ventura. They talked on various matters. 11 March 1884 Rizal receive an information from his uncle Antonio to the effect the Sra. Ticang became crazy. – He bought a German on this day. 15 March 1884 He visited D. Quintin Meynet in Atocha Street, Madrid. Later He and Eduardo Lete, Sanmarti, Paco Esquivel and Esteven Figueroa were gathered in the house of Pablo Ortiga. 19 march 1884 He receive postcards from Pepe Esquivel, Aguirre, from the family of Ruiz , Eriate, D.

Pablo y Carillo, Pedro Paterno. 30 March 1884 Rizal wrote letters for home, for Leonor Rivera and for his uncle Antonio Rivera. 31 March 1884 He enjoyed his visit with the family of V: talked with the children. For him, this day was full of recollections. He realized that days ran fast. Rizal Back in Madrid 8 April 1884 He started his sculptural work representing the “wounded gladiator. ” 13 April 1884 He receive letters from Leonor Rivera, Uncle Antonio, and from Chengoy (Jose Cecilio). He was very much contented with the news, although not of the health of the Leonor. 17 April 1884 He saw Rossi, the Italian actor representing the Kean, Dumas’ drama.

He was surprise of the effect – well represented. Jose Cecilio informed him about the rivalry between Leonor Valenzuela and Leonor Rivera. He told rizal in a letter about the desire of Miss Rivera to see Miss Valenzuela with the object of settling the rivalry. – From the same letter learned that two thirds medical students studying University of Santo Thomas failing grades. 20 April 1884 He receive uncle Antonio 500 pesetas he went to visit the brother, but they were home. 24 April 1884 In the evening he saw Hamlet presented and he had a pleasant moment how wonderfully was interpreted. 1 May 1884 He stopped eating in Calle de Lobo, Madrid; he wnt to the Calle de Principe.

He dropped his German language lessons in order to devote the entire month to his studies for the coming examinations. 6 May 1884 Rizal answered Lorenzo D’Ayot who published an article entitled “El Teatro Tagalo. ” 5 June 1884 He took the examination on medical clinic, 2nd course, in Central University de Madrid. 6 June 1884 He took the examination in his last subject in Medicine, Surgical clinic, 2nd course. He got grade of “ver good. ” 9 June 1884 Rizal filed an application for graduation for the degree of Licentiate in Medicine. 13 June 1884 He took an examination in Greek and Latin literature. He obtained a grade of “excellent” in both subjects. 4 June 1884 He took an examination in Greek, 1st course, and got a grade of “excellent. ” 17 June 1884 Rizal pawned his ring to pay the fees for the examination. 21 June 1884 He finished the degree of Licentiate in Medicine with the grade of aprobado from the Central Universidad de Madrid. 25 June 1884 Rizal won first prize in Greek contest, after which he delivered a speech in honor of the two Filipino painters, Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo. The occasion commemorated the triumph of the two, especially Luna who won the first prize for his Spoliarium during the National Exposition of Fine Arts held in Madrid that year. 26 June 1884

He took an examination in Universal History, 2nd course. He grade of “excellent. ” 27 June 1884 He was informed in a letter by Mariano Katigbak about the deteriorating health of Leonor Rivera caused by her too much loving and waiting for her love one. 1 July 1884 Rizal explained the term “Filibusterismo” in the newspaper of Madrid El Progreso, calling the attention of the Spanish authorities over the case of future of the Filipinos. He asked for freedom of the press and the right of representation of the Spanish Cortes. 29 August 1884 He came to know how Pedro Tobin of Nagcarlan Laguna, was gypped in Madrid. The man was fooled and all his cash was lost.

He relayed the news to the Philippines thru his parents. 31 August 1884 The popularity of his speech delivered during the Luna-Hidalgo banquet held in Madrid, reached the Philippines via two ways: one thru the draft Rizal sent to Antonio Rivera and the other thru the periodicals he sent to his friends. Rizal Back in Madrid 30 September 1884 He was issued the diploma of ordinary prize obtained during the examination given last June 30, in the subjects of Greek and Latin Literature at the Central Universidad De Madrid. 5 November 1884 He receive the news from Paciano that the cause of the sickness of their mother was his speech delivered during the banquet in honor of two Filipino painters.

Their mother feared that Rizal could no longer return to the Philippines as opined by both his friends and enemies in the country. 16 November 1884 He wrote a letter to his family in Calamba asking their permission for him to return to the Philippines. – Because of the treaty of commerce being negotiated between Spain and United States and the plan of England to enter into the said treaty, Rizal predicted the fate of the Philippine sugar. He said it would turn from bad to worse. 20 November 1884 Rizal witnessed the tumultuous scene in the Central Universidad de Madrid where the students and professors staged a strike against excommunication imposed by the bishop on the lecture proclaiming the freedom of science and of the teacher. 21 November 1884

With Valentin Ventura, he escaped from being arrested by a police lieutenant and a secret service man in connection with strike staged by the University students. 22 November 1884 He disguised himself three times to evade arrest by the law agents who were eyeing on him. The indignation rally of the students continued and more arrest were affected. 26 November 1884 Desirous to help the family, Rizal in a letter reiterated his wish to return home. 11 December 1884 Teodora Alonso admonished not to meddle in things which would give her displeasures, not tomfail to comply with the duties of good Christian, and not to expect too many letter from her and she was already very old and could not see very well due to her failing sight. 1 January 1885

Paciano begged Rizal to wait for the opportune time to return to the Philippines. In a letter, he told Rizal that their parents would see him in Hong kong sometime in the future, and not in the Philippines were the situation was dangerous for him. Paciano asked for some information about sugar beets in Europe, and advised Rizal to write tell their parents things that would always please them. 26 February 1885 In a letter Rizal told Jose Cecilio to marry Miss Leonor Valenzuela, than see her married to the other person. The letter arrive on the Philippines last April 5 1885, on the same boat which took Governor General Emilio Torero. 30 March 1885

Rizal sent a letter to his brother Paciano why not receive his pension. In the same letter he mentioned his going either to England or Germany to specialized in ophthalmology. 18 April 1885 He asked Jose Cecilio for advise as to who, between two Leonors, would be an ideal partner in life. Cecilio, as an answer to the question, selected Leanoe Rivera for being more feminine, more ductile, sweeter, milder, nicer, and above all more educated. 16 June 1885 Rizal receive a letter from Manuel Hidalgo informing him of another cholera case which occurred in Manila. He requested by a letter to buy for him ( Hildalgo) tha Spanish book Emilio written by Rousseau. He receive one hundred pesos (P100) from Saturnina and Manuel Hidalgo as their contribution to his expenses in finishing Doctorate degree. 19 June 1885 Rizal finished the degree in Licentiate in Philosophy and Letters with grade sobresaliente from the Central Universidad of Madrid. 28 June 1885 Rizal wrote to P. Faura and Sr. Barrantes requesting them to work for the transfer of Silvestre Ubaldo to Calamba from Albay were the letter was signed as post master and telegraphic operator. 30 July 1885 In a letter, he asked permission from his parents to cure cholera patients in towns were there were no doctors in order to earn at least $12 a day. He was financially hard up and wanted to help his parents. 30 September 1885

He was issued a diploma of ordinary prize on Hebrew language, obtained during the examination offered last june 13 at the Central Universidad de Madrid. He w2as also issued on his date another diploma of ordinary prize on Greek language, 2nd course. 1 October 1885 Rizal planned to leave Madrid by the middle of the month. He intended to go to Germany to learn the German language and to study advance course of ophthalmology. Rizal in France 19 November 1885 While in Paris, Rizal recieved information from Ceferino de Leon about the prevailing vices among the Filipinos in the house of Aceveno in Madrid, abetted by the lousy women gamblers. 27 November 1885

Rizal’s transfer to Paris was disapproved by Paciano who, at the same time, informed Rizal that his letter caused their mother to shed tears; that Rizal’s brown horse would be sold, the money to be remitted to him in Paris together with the chronometer watch worth $300 (Mexican dollars). 4 December 1885 He was practicing ophthalmology with Dr. Weeker at the Crugen Clinic. 19 December 1885 The news that the Filipinos in Madrid were preparing a Christmas banquet in spite of the little money they had, was relayed in a letter to Rizal in Paris by Ceferino de Leon who also informed the former about his (de Leon’s) plan of going to Paris the following summer. 1 January 1886

Rizal represented to Paz Pardo de Tavera a pair of Greek vases which he painted the other with the picture of the Filipinos engaged in cockfighting, and the other with the same people at work as milkmen and as prisoners at hard labor. January 1886 In the album of Paz Pardo de Tavera, he entered the illustrated story of the monkey and the turtle. Rizal in Strasburg, Germany 2 February 1886 Rizal arrived at Strasburg, Germany. He visited the celebrated cathedral and climbed a tower of 142 meters high, the fourth highest of the European towers. Rizal in Heidelberg, Germany 3 February 1886 He arrived at Heidelberg. The town to him looked gay. On the streets he saw students with cups of different colors. 6 February 1886 Rizal was living in a boarding house costing him 28 duros a month.

He found German life full of potatoes; potatoes in the morning and potatoes in the evening. 9 February 1886 He penned a letter to his family in Calamba describing his life in Heidelberg and his trip from Paris to the city of flowers. 14 February 1886 With an old woman as guide, Rizal visited the interior of the famous castle in Heidelberg. He saw the hallmof the pages. Waiting room, audience chamber, the court, and many other parts of building. 17 February 1886 In a letter, he informed his family in Calamba of his visits to the eye clinic of Dr. Otto Becker. 18 February 1886 He planned to change his residence. He wanted to tranfer to 12 Ludwigsplats, near the University. 9 February 1886 He must have transferred to 12 Ludwigsplats. In a letter to his family in Calamba, he describe the duels he saw in Hirschgasse among students belonging to different corporation. 11 March 1886 He wrote to his younger sister, Trinidad, describing the German girl as “serious, studious, and very much attached to his work” However, she did not have that “delicacy of hearth’ of the Filipino woman. He advised Trinidad to read and read. 22 April 1886 While in Heidelberg experiencing the feeling of nostalgia for his parents and his country, Rizal wrote the poem “A Las Flores de Heidelberg. ” Rizal in Wilhelmsfeld, Germany 26 April 1886

He left Heidelberg for Wilhemsfeld to honor invitation extended to him by Reverend Karl Ullmer whom Rizal meet one day in the woods with the Pastor’s wife, daughter Eta and son Freidrich. In Wilhelmsfeld where Pastor Ullmer was staying and working, Rizal was invited to visit the vicarage. Later, on Rizal’s choice, he boarded with the Ullmer family until he left Wilhelmsfeld by last week of June. 9 June 1886 From Wilhelmsfeld, he reiterated in a letter to his parents, the necessity of writing him the badly needed amount. 20-25 June 1886 Rizal left Wilhelmsfeld for Hiedelberg. In Wilhemsfeld he studied the German country life and ppractice speaking good German with the Ullmer’s family with whom he live. Rizal Returned to Heidelberg 26 June 1886

From Heidelberg Rizal sent to Reverend Ullmer the note of 100 pesetas. He wanted to comply with the promise of paying a latter the amount he incurred while he was in Wilhemsfeld. 14 July 1886 In Hiedelberg Rizal was admitted member of the chess Club Germany. The Club Presidents F. Zeferenz and E. Arrnirum. 31 July 1886 He sent to Prof. Ferdinant Blumentritt a book in arithmetic written in Spanish in Tagalog. This started the communication between the two and also the start of their life long friendship. 6 July 1886 Rizal wrote few expressive lines dedicated to this beautiful city Heidelberg. He was to start his travel thru the cities along Rhine River. On this day he witnessed the fifth centenary celebration of the founding of the University of Heidelberg, which he enjoyed very much. Rizal on His Way to Leipzig 9 August 1886 Rizal left Hiedelberg for Leipzig 10 August 1886 He left Bonn for Colonia, on his way to Leipzig. 12 August 1886 He arrived at Coblents, one of the cities along the Rhine River. 13 August 1886 Rizal was in Ehrenfels, Germany. 14 August 1886 At 10:10 in the morning, he left Frankfurt for Leipzig. Rizal in Leipzig, Germany 15 August 1886 Rizal arrive at Leipzig at 9:30 in the morning. 16 August 1886 In a letter, Rizal offered his little knowledge in Tgalog to Prof. Blumentrit for thr latter’s study of the language.

He said that his knowledge in tagalog which he studied since boyhood is as useful as that friars and chroniclers who had stayed for a short time in the Philippines. 2 September1886 He witnessed the fiesta of the Sedan, which was highlighted by the inauguration of the beautiful fountain in front of the museum of Leipzig 13 October 1886 Rizal, in company with the school teacher, Hering visited one of two big beer manufacturing companies, situated in Reudnitz, and owned by a Mr. Riebek. 14 October 1886 He got acquainted persolly with Doctor Hans Meyer, chief of the Bibliographical Institute of the Germany, and author of one of the two famous encyclopaedical dictionaries of Germany. 21 October 1886

Rizal left Leipzig for Halle to observe the country life of the people there. He returned in the afternoon. Rizal in Dresden, Germany 29 October 1886 Rizal arrived at Dresden at 8:20 in the morning. 30 October 1886 He visited the Palacio Japonais and many other interesting places in Dresden. 31 October 1886 In Dresden, he met Dr. A. B. Mayer, naturalist of the Dresden University. He was shown interesting things taken from the Palaos Islands and from tombs in the Philippines. 1 November 1886 He left Dresden this morning for Berlin. In the station, he was nearly cheated by the taxi driver. Rizal in Berlin, Germany 1 November 1886 At 1:25 P. M. , Rizal arrived at Berlin and boarded at the Central Hotel. 2 November 1886

Rizal wrote a letter to his friend Pastor Karl Ullmer informing the latter of his arrival at the big German capital the day before. He wrote: “Remembrances to your loving wife, Eta and to Friedrich. ” 4 November 1886 In a letter he informed Prof. Blumentritt about his meeting with Dr. A. B. Meyer last October 31 in Dresden. He was already residing at Jaeger Straesse 71,111. 9 November 1886 He was admitted to the Real Biblioteca de Berlin to do some research and to read other books. His admission ended on March 1,1887. 22 November 1886 In a letter, he informed Pro. Blumentritt that he had already sent to his nephews in the Philippines the tragedies of Schiller and the stories of anderson, which he translated into Tagalog. 27 November 1886

He made a small outline of the Teruray, dialect of the binhabitants of the Western coast of Mindanao,which he later sent to Prof. Blumentritt. 11 December 1886 Maximo Viola joined Rizal in Berlin. Rizal was not able to meet Viola at the station because the former was sick. 12 December 1886 Early in the morning Rizal visited Viola at the Central Hotel. They took breakfast together I the restaurant below then hotel. 15 December 1886 He started teaching Viola the German language. 23 December 1886 He started dreaming of his mother. 24 December 1886 Rizal was high spirit although he just recovered from sickness. He was very happy to be with Maximo Viola. He finished translating one third of the book Waitz. 25 December 1886

Rizal wrote his mother: “It is three times now that I constantly dream you and sometimes the dreaam repeats itself in a single night. I would not like to superstitious even if the Bible and the Gospel believe dreams, but I like to believe that you are thinking constantly me and this makes my mind reproduce what goes on in you for after all my brain is a part of yours, and this is not stran because while I am asleep here, you are awake there. ” 27 December 1886 He was required by the German police to provide himself with the necessary passports or the risk of being expelled from German soil after three weeks. 30 December 1886 In a letter, told Prof.

Blumentritt, of a plan of Maximo Viola to cope with him to Leitmeritz during his visit there. 31 December 1886 A certain Captain and ex-aide of Geneva Moltke of the French-pruss War invited Rizal to his home to celebrate the incoming New Year. Before this fiesta, Rizal bought a pair of chin pitchers, painting them figure of an old man representing the outgoing year and a boy personifying the incoming year. January 1887 He became a member of the Ethnographic Society of Berlin in whose meeting he had the rare opportunity of hearing the interesting lecture of Dr. Donitz on pre-historic Japanese tombs which contained sets of dishes and other decorations. 11 January 1887

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Jose Risal, the National Hero of the Philippines. (2016, Dec 10). Retrieved from

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