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Phonetics of English

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Phonetics of English Outline 1. Classification of English consonants 2. Classification of English vowels 3. Modifications of consonants and vowels 4. British and American pronunciation models. Most distinctive features of American English pronunciation 5. Suprasegmental phonetics 1. Classification of English consonants Russian phoneticians classify consonants according to the following principles: i) degree of noise; ii) place of articulation; iii) manner of articulation; iv) position of the soft palate; v) force of articulation. (I) There are few ways of seeing situation concerning the classification of English consonants.

According to V. A. Vassilyev primary importance should be given to the type of obstruction and the manner of production noise. On this ground he distinguishes two large classes: a) occlusive, in the production of which a complete obstruction is formed; b) constrictive, in the production of which an in complete obstruction is formed. Each of the two classes is subdivided into noise consonants and sonorants. Another point of view is shared by a group of Russian phoneticians. They suggest that the first and basic principle of classification should be degree of noise.

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Such consideration leads to dividing English consonants into two general kinds: a) noise consonants; b) sonorants. There are no sonorants in the classifications suggested by British and American scholars. D. Jones and H. Gleason, for example, give separate groups of nasals [m, n, ? ], lateral [l] and semi-vowels, or glides [w, r, j (y)]. B. Bloch and G. Trager besides nasals and lateral give trilled [r]. According to Russian phoneticians sonorants are considered to be consonants from articulatory, acoustic and phonological point of view. (II) The place of articulation. This principle of classification is rather universal.

English consonants are divided into: a) lingual; b) labial; c) glottal. There is, however, controversy about terming the active organs of speech. Russian phoneticians divide the tongue into the following parts: (1) front with the tip, (2) middle, and (3) back. A. Gimson’s terms differ from those used by Russian phoneticians: apical is equivalent to forelingual; frontal is equivalent to mediolingual; dorsum is the whole upper area of the tongue. (III) Russian scholars consider the principle of classification according to the manner of articulation to be one of the most important.

They suggest a classification from the point of view of the closure. It may be: (1) complete closure, then occlusive consonants are produced; (2) incomplete closure, then constrictive consonants are produced; (3) the combination of the two closures, then occlusive-constrictive consonants, or affricates, are produced; (4) intermittent closure, then rolled, or trilled consonants are produced. A. Gimson, H. Gleason, D. Jones and other foreign phoneticians include in the manner of noise production groups of lateral, nasals, and semi-vowels which do not belong to a single class.

Russian phoneticians subdivide consonants into unicentral (pronounced with one focus) and bicentral (pronounced with two foci), according to the number of noise producing centers, or foci. According to the shape of narrowing constrictive consonants and affricates are subdivided into sounds with flat narrowing and round narrowing. (IV) According to the position of the soft palate all consonants are subdivided into oral and nasal. When the soft palate is raised oral consonants are produced; when the soft palate is lowered nasal consonants are produced. V) According to the force of articulation consonants may be fortis and lenis. This characteristic is connected with the work of the vocal cords: voiceless consonants are strong and voiced are weak. 2. Classification of English vowels The first linguist who tried to describe and classify vowels for all languages was D. Jones. He devised the system of 8 Cardinal Vowels. Fig. 1 The system of Cardinal Vowels is an international standard. In spite of the theoretical significance of the Cardinal Vowel system its practical application is limited.

Russian phoneticians suggest a classification of vowels according to the following principles: 1) stability of articulation; 2) tongue position; 3) lip position; 4) character of the vowel end; 5) length; 6) tenseness. 1. Stability of articulation. This principle is not singled out by British and American phoneticians. According to Russian scholars vowels are subdivided into: a) monophthongs (the tongue position is stable); b) diphthongs (it changes, that is the tongue moves from one position to another); c) diphthongoids (an intermediate case, when the change in the position is fairly weak).

Diphthongs are defined differently by different authors. A. C. Gimson, for example, distinguishes 20 vocalic phonemes which are made of vowels and vowel glides. D. Jones defines diphthongs as unisyllabic gliding sounds in the articulation of which the organs of speech start from one position and then glide to another position. There are two vowels in English [i:, u:] that may have a diphthongal glide where they have full length, and the tendency for diphthongization is becoming gradually stronger. 2. The position of the tongue.

According to the horizontal movement Russian phoneticians distinguish five classes: 1) front; 2) front-retracted; 3) central; 4) back; 5) back-advanced. British phoneticians do not single out the classes of front-retracted and back-advanced vowels. So both [i:] and [? ] are classed as front, and both [u:] and [? ] are classed as back. The way British and Russian phoneticians approach the vertical movement of the tongue is also slightly different. British scholars distinguish three classes of vowels: high (or close), mid (or half-open) and low (or open) vowels.

Russian phoneticians made the classification more detailed distinguishing two subclasses in each class, i. e. broad and narrow variations of the three vertical positions. Consequently, six groups of vowels are distinguished. English vowels and diphthongs may be placed on the Cardinal Vowel quadrilateral as shown in Figs. 2, 3, 4. Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 3. Lip position. Traditionally three lip positions are distinguished: spread, neutral, rounded. Lip rounding takes place due to physiological reasons rather than to any other.

Any back vowel in English is produced with rounded lips, the degree of rounding is different and depends on the height of the raised part of the tongue; the higher it is raised the more rounded the lips are. 4. Character of the vowel end. This quality depends on the kind of the articulatory transition from a vowel to a consonant. This transition (VC) is very closed in English unlike Russian. As a result all English short vowels are checked when stressed. The degree of checkness may vary and depends on the following consonants (voiceless, voiced or sonorant). 5.

Vowel length or quantity has for a long time been the point of disagreement among phoneticians. It is a common knowledge that a vowel like any sound has physical duration. When sounds are used in connected speech they cannot help being influenced by one another. Duration of a vowel depends on the following factors: 1) its own length; 2) the accent of the syllable in which it occurs; 3) the phonetic context; 4) the position in a rhythmic structure; 5) the position in a tone group; 6) the position in an utterance; 7) the tempo of the utterance; and 8) the type of pronunciation.

The problem the analysts are concerned with is whether variations in quantity are meaningful (relevant). Such contrasts are investigated in phonology. 6. Tenseness. It characterizes the state of the organs of speech at the moment of vowel production. Special instrumental analysis shows that historically long vowels are tense while historically short vowels are lax. 3. Modifications of consonants and vowels The modifications are observed both within words and word boundaries. There are the following types of modification: assimilation, accommodation, reduction, elision, and inserting.

The adaptive modification of a consonant by a neighboring consonant in a speech chain is assimilation. Accommodation is used to denote the interchanges of VC or CV types. Reduction is actually qualitative or quantitative weakening of vowels in unstressed positions. Elision is a complete loss of sounds, both vowels and consonants. Inserting is a process of sound addition. The main cases of modification in English as follows: Modifications of consonants 1. Assimilation 1. 1. Place of articulation •t, d ? dental before [? ,? ]: eighth, at the, said that •t, d ? ost-alveolar before [r]: tree, true, dream, the third room •s, z ? post-alveolar before [? ]: this shop, does she •t, d ? affricates before [j]: graduate, could you •m ? labio-dental before [f]: symphony •n ? dental before [? ]: seventh •n ? velar before [? ]: thank 1. 2. Manner of articulation •loss of plosion: glad to see you, great trouble •nasal plosion: sudden, at night, let me see •lateral plosion: settle, at last 1. 3. Work of the vocal cords •voiced ? voiceless: newspaper, gooseberry (and in grammatical items: has, is, does ? [s]; of, have ? f] Notice: In English typical assimilation is voiced ? voiceless; voiceless ? voiced is not typical. 1. 4. Degree of noise •sonorants ? are partially devoiced after [p, t, k, s] 2. Accommodation 2. 1. Lip position •consonant + back vowel: pool, rude, who (rounded) •consonant + front vowel: tea, sit, keep (spread) 3. Elision 3. 1. Loss of [h] in personal and possessive pronouns and the forms of the auxiliary verb have. 3. 2. [l] tends to be lost when preceded by [? :]: always, already, all right 3. 3. In cluster of consonants: next day, just one, mashed potatoes 4. Inserting of sounds . 1. Linking [r] (potential pronunciation of [r]): car owner 4. 2. Intrusive [r]: [r] is pronounced where no r is seen in the spelling: china and glass; it is not recommended to foreign learners. Modifications of vowels 1. Reduction 1. 1. Quantitative 1. 2. Qualitative 2. Accommodation 2. 2. Positional length of vowels: knee – need – neat 2. 3. Nasalization ?f vowels: preceded or followed by [n, m]: never, no, then, men. 4. British and American pronunciation models In traditional phonetic description, it has been usual to describe the characteristics of one particular type of speech.

Where possible, analysts have looked for a ‘standard’ or ‘model’ accent. In Spain, for example, Castilian Spanish has for centuries been treated as the ‘purest’ form of Spanish, and the one which foreigners should attempt to copy. In Britain, a similar standard traditionally is known as Received Pronunciation (RP). In the nineteenth century Received Pronunciation (RP) was a social marker, a prestige accent of an Englishman. “Received” was understood in the sense of “accepted in the best society”. The speech of aristocracy and the court phonetically was that of the London area.

Then it lost its local characteristics and was finally fixed as a ruling-class accent, often referred to as “King’s English”. It was also the accent taught at public schools. With the spread of education, cultured people not belonging to upper classes were eager to modify their accent in the direction of social standards. We know that teaching practice as well as a pronouncing dictionary must base their recommendations on one or more models. A pronunciation model is a carefully chosen and defined accent of a language.

An increasing number of writers now prefer to refer to the standard English pronunciation as a BBC accent. This model accent for British English is represented in the 15th (1997), the 16th (2003) and 17th (2006) editions of EPD. This is the pronunciation of professional speakers employed by the BBC as newsreaders and announcers. The model of British English pronunciation recorded in LPD is a modernized version of RP. For American English, EPD also follows what is frequently heard from professional voices on national network news and information programmes.

It is similar to what has been termed General American, which refers to a geographically (largely non-coastal) and socially based set of pronunciation features. It is important to note that no single dialect – regional or social – has been singled out as an American standard. Even national media with professionally trained voices have speakers with regionally mixed features. However, ‘Network English’, in its most colourless form, can be described as a relatively homogeneous dialect that reflects the ongoing development of progressive American dialects. This ‘dialect’ itself contains some variant forms.

J. C. Wells prefers the term General American. According to him, this is what is spoken by the majority of Americans, namely those who do not have a noticeable eastern or southern accent. 4. 1. Most distinctive features of American English pronunciation Vowels. American English is commonly described as having lax vowels, tense vowels, and wide diphthongs. Vowel length in American English is generally considered to be conditional by phonological environment, so the long/short distinction in BBC English is not usually present, though we use the length mark on the tense vowels [i: ? ? : ? : u:] in order to mark their relationship lo the English long vowels. Since the diphthongal movement in [e? ] and [o? ] is small in American pronunciation, these are treated as tense vowels. Vowels preceding /r/ are notably influenced by rhotic colouring. Word spellings such as bird, word, earth, jerk, which now rhyme with [? ] in American English, at one time in history had differing vowels. The retroflexed vowels [? ] and [? ], stressed and unstressed, are among those features that noticeably distinguish American English from BBC English.

All vowels occurring before [r] within a syllable are likely to become “r-coloured” to some extent. So there are 18 vowels in AmE: •lax vowels: ? e ? ? ? ? •tense vowels: i: ? : ? : ? : u: e? o? •wide diphthongs: a? a? ?? •retroflexed vowels (“r-coloured”) ? ? There is an issue of the diphthong in the words like home. This has for many years been represented as [?? ]. [o? ] is the preferred transcription for the American English diphthong. The American [? ] vowel is somewhat closer than BBC [? ], and seems to be evolving into an even closer vowel in many speakers. It is used in the same words as BBC [? and also in most of the words which in BBC have [? :] when there is no letter “r” in the spelling, e. g. pass, ask. The quality of American [? :] is similar to the BBC [? :] vowel; it is used in some of the words which have [? :] in BBC when there is no letter “r” in the spelling (e. g. father, calm). It also replaces the BBC short [? ] vowel in many words (e. g. hot, top, bother): bother rhymes with father. American [? :] is more open in quality than BBC [? :]. It is used where BBC has [? :] (e. g. cause, walk), and also replaces BBC short [? ] in many words, e. g. long, dog;.

American [u:] is similar to BBC [u:], but is also used where BBC has [ju:] after alveolar consonants (e. g. new, duty). Consonants. There are numerous phonetic and phonological differences between British and American English, as there are within regional and social varieties within the two political entities. Two differences receive sufficient attention and have attained sufficient generality within the two varieties. One is phonetic: the “flapped” medial [t] (as in butter) is transcribed as [t? ]. The other is phonological: the presence (in American English) of postvocalic [r] (as in farmer [‘f? :r. m? ]).

The difference between “clear” and “dark” [l] is much less marked in American than in the BBC accent, so that even prevocalic [l] in American pronunciation sounds dark to English ears. The accent used for British English is classed as non-rhotic – the phoneme [r] is not usually pronounced except when a vowel follows it. The American pronunciations, on the other hand, do show a rhotic accent, and in general in the accent described, [r] is pronounced where the letter “r” is found in the spelling. 5. Suprasegmental phonetics Syllable formation in English is based on the phonological opposition vowel – consonant.

Vowels are usually syllabic while consonants are not with the exceptions of [l], [m], [n], which become syllabic in a final position preceded by a noise consonant: bottle [b? tl], bottom [b? tm], button [b? tn] and [r] (in those accents which pronounce [r]) perhaps [pr? ps]. The structure of English syllables can be summarized as follows: 1. Many syllables have one or more consonants preceding the nucleus. These make up the syllable onset: me, so, play. Traditionally, they are known as open syllables. 2. Many syllables have one or more consonants following the nucleus.

They make up the syllable coda. They are traditionally known as closed syllables: cat, jump. 3. Also there are covered (note) and uncovered (oak) syllables. 4. The combination of nucleus and coda has a special significance, making up the rhyming property of a syllable. The other aspect of this component is syllable division. The problem of syllable division exists in case of intervocalic consonants and their clusters, like in such words as city, extra, standing and others. We could enumerate the following peculiarities of the syllabic structure of English: 1.

There cannot be more than one vowel within one syllable; in words with the syllabic structure CVVC the point of syllable division is between the two vowels. 2. Syllabic boundary is after an intervocalic consonant preceded by a short stressed vowel. 3. Syllabic boundary is before an intervocalic consonant if is not preceded by the above-mentioned vowels. 4. Sonorants [l], [m], [n] are syllabic if they are preceded by noise consonants. 5. The typical and most fundamental syllabic structure is of (C) VC type. 6. Word final consonants are normally of weak-end type. The functions of the syllable. The first is constitutive function.

It lies in its ability to be a part of a word or a word itself. The other function is distinctive one. In this respect the syllable is characterized by its ability to differentiate words and word-forms: an aim – a name, an ice house – a nice house, etc. I saw her eyes – I saw her rise, I saw the meat – I saw them eat. Word stress. English word stress is traditionally defined as dynamic, but in fact, the special prominence of the stressed syllables is manifested in the English language not only through the increase of intensity, but also through the changes in the vowel quantity, consonant and vowel quality and pitch of the voice.

The free placement of stress is exemplified in the English and Russian languages, e. g. English: ‘appetite – be’ginning – ba’lloon; Russian: ????? – ?????? – ??????. The word stress in English as well as in Russian is not only free but it may also be shifting, performing the function of differentiating lexical units, parts of speech, grammatical forms. In English word stress is used as a means of word-building; in Russian it marks both word-building and word forms, e. g. ‘contrast – con’trast; ‘habit – habitual, ‘music – mu’sician; ???? — ????; ?????? — ??????.

The British linguists usually distinguish three degrees of stress in the word. A. C. Gimson, for example, shows the distribution of the degrees of stress in the word examination: 3 2 4 1 5. The primary stress is the strongest, it is marked by number 1, the secondary stress is the second strongest marked by 2. All the other degrees are termed weak stress. Unstressed syllables are supposed to have weak stress. The American scholars distinguish four degrees of word stress but term them: primary stress, secondary stress, tertiary stress and weak stress.

The difference between the secondary and tertiary stresses is very subtle and seems subjective. The second pretonic syllables of such words as libe’ration, recog’nition are marked by secondary stress in BrE, in AmE they are said to have tertiary stress. In AmE tertiary stress also affects the suffixes -ory, -ary, -ony of nouns which are considered unstressed in BrE, e. g. ‘territory, ‘ceremony, ‘dictionary. The accentual structure of English words is liable to instability due to the different origin of several layers in the Modern English word-stock.

In Germanic languages the word stress originally fell on the initial syllable or the second syllable, the root syllable in the English words with prefixes. This tendency was called recessive. Most English words of Anglo-Saxon origin as well as the French borrowings (dated back to the 15th century) are subjected to this recessive tendency. Unrestricted recessive tendency is observed in the native English words having no prefix, e. g. mother, daughter, brother, swallow, in assimilated French borrowings, e. g. reason, colour, restaurant. Restricted recessive tendency marks English words with prefixes, e. . foresee, withdraw, apart. A great number of words of Anglo-Saxon origin are monosyllabic or disyllabic, both notional words and form words. There is a wide agreement among Russian linguists that intonation is a complex, a whole, formed by significant variations of pitch, loudness and tempo closely related. In the pitch component we may consider the distinct variations in the direction of pitch, pitch level and pitch range. According to R. Kingdon, the most important nuclear tones in English are: Low Fall, High Fall, Low Rise, High Rise, and Fall-Rise.

The meanings of the nuclear tones are difficult to specify in general terms. Roughly speaking the falling tone of any level and range expresses certainty, completeness, and independence. A rising tone on the contrary expresses uncertainty, incompleteness or dependence. A falling-rising tone may combine the falling tone’s meaning of assertion, certainty with the rising tone’s meaning of dependence, incompleteness. At the end of a phrase it often conveys a feeling of reservation; that is, it asserts something and at the same time suggests that there is something else to be said.

At the beginning or in the middle of a phrase it is a more forceful alternative to the rising tone, expressing the assertion of one point, together with the implication that another point is to follow. In English there is often clear evidence of an intonation-group boundary, but no audible nuclear tone movement preceding. In such a circumstance two courses are open: either one may classify the phenomenon as a further kind of head or one may consider it to be the level nuclear tone. Low Level tone is very characteristic of reading poetry.

Mid-Level tone is particularly common in spontaneous speech functionally replacing the rising tone. There are two more nuclear tones in English: Rise-Fall and Rise-Fall-Rise. But adding refinement to speech they are not absolutely essential tones for the foreign learner to acquire. Rise-Fall can always be replaced by High Fall and Rise-Fall-Rise by Fall-Rise without making nonsense of the utterance. Two more pitch parameters are pitch ranges and pitch levels. Three pitch ranges are generally distinguished: normal, wide, and narrow. Pitch levels may be high, medium, and low.

Loudness is used in a variety of ways. Gross differences of meaning (such as anger, menace, excitement) can be conveyed by using an overall loudness level. The tempo of speech is the third component of intonation. The term tempo implies the rate of the utterance and pausation. The rate of speech can be normal, slow and fast. The parts of the utterance which are particularly important sound slower. Unimportant parts are commonly pronounced at a greater speed than normal. Any stretch of speech can be split into smaller portions, i. e. phonetic wholes, phrases, intonation groups by means of pauses.

We may distinguish the following three kinds of pauses: 1. Short pauses which may be used to separate intonation groups within a phrase. 2. Longer pauses which normally manifest the end of the phrase. 3. Very long pauses, which are approximately twice as long as the first type, are used to separate phonetic wholes. Functionally, there may be distinguished syntactic, emphatic and hesitation pauses. Syntactic pauses separate phonopassages, phrases, and intonation groups. Emphatic pauses serve to make especially prominent certain parts of the utterance.

Hesitation pauses are mainly used in spontaneous speech to gain some time to think over what to say next. They may be silent or filled. Pitch movements are inseparably connected with loudness. Together with the tempo of speech they form a tone-group which is the basic unit of intonation. A tone group contains one nucleus and may contain other stressed or unstressed syllables normally preceding or following the nucleus. The boundaries of a tone group may be marked by temporal pauses. Intonation groups serve to actualize syntagms in oral speech.

The syntagm is a group of words which is semantically and syntactically complete. Each intonation group may consist of one or more potential syntagms, e. g. the sentence I think he is coming soon has two potential syntagms: I think and he is coming soon. In oral speech it is normally actualized as one intonation group. The intonation group is a stretch of speech which may have the length of the whole phrase. But the phrase often contains more than one intonation group. The number of intonation groups depends on the length of the phrase and the degree of semantic importance or emphasis given to various parts of it: This? ed was not ? slept? in — ? This bed? was? not ? slept? in An additional terminal tone on this bed expresses an emphasis on this bed in contrast to other beds. Not all stressed syllables are of equal importance. One of the syllables has the greater prominence than the others and forms the nucleus, or focal point of an intonation pattern. Formally the nucleus may be described as a strongly stressed syllable which is generally the last strongly accented syllable of an intonation pattern and which marks a significant change of pitch direction.

The nuclear tone is the most important part of the intonation group without which the latter cannot exist at all. On the other hand, an intonation pattern may consist of one syllable which is its nucleus. The tone of a nucleus determines the pitch of the rest of the intonation pattern following it which is called the tail. The nucleus and the tail form what is called terminal tone. The two other sections of the intonation group are the head and the ?r?-head which form the pre-nuclear part of the intonation pattern and, like the tail, they may be looked upon as optional elements.

The pre-nuclear part can take a variety of pitch patterns. Variation within the pre-nucleus does not usually affect the grammatical meaning of the utterance, though it often conveys meanings associated with attitude or phonetic styles. There are three common types of pre-nucleus: a descending type in which the pitch gradually descends (often in “steps”) to the nucleus; an ascending type in which the syllables form an ascending sequence and a level type when all the syllables stay more or less on the same level.

The meaning of the intonation group is the combination of the “meaning” of the terminal tone and the pre-nuclear part combined with the “meaning” of pitch range and pitch level. The parts of the intonation group can be combined in various ways manifesting changes in meaning, cf. : the High Head combined with Low Fall, High Fall, Low Rise, High Rise, Fall-Rise in the phrase Not at all. >Not at ? all (reserved, calm). >Not at all) (surprised, concerned). >Not at all (encouraging, friendly). >Not at all (questioning). >Not at all (intensely encouraging, protesting).

The more the height of the pitch contrasts within the intonation pattern the more emphatic the intonation group sounds, cf. : He’s won. Fan? tastic. Fan? tastic. The changes of pitch, loudness and tempo are not haphazard variations. No matter how variable the individual variations of these prosodic components are they tend to become standardized, so that all speakers of the language use them in similar ways under similar circumstances. These abstracted characteristics of intonation structures may be called intonation patterns which form the prosodic system of English.

It is still impossible to classify all the fine shades of feeling and attitude which can be conveyed by slight changes in pitch, loudness and in various other ways. On the other hand it is quite possible to make a broad classification of intonation patterns which are so different in their nature that they materially change the meaning of the utterance and to make different pitches and degrees of loudness in each of them. Such an analysis resembles the phonetic analysis of sounds of a language whereby phoneticians establish the number of significant sounds it uses.

The distinctive function of intonation is realized in the opposition of the same word sequences which differ in certain parameters of the intonation pattern. Intonation patterns make their distinctive contribution at intonation group, phrase and text levels. Thus in the phrases: If ? Mary comes / let me> know at ? once (a few people are expected to come but it is Mary who interests the speaker) If >Mary comes / let me> know at ? once (no one else but Mary is expected to come) the intonation patterns of the first intonation groups are opposed.

In the opposition I enjoyed it – I enjoyed it the pitch pattern operates over the whole phrase adding in the second phrase the notion that the speaker has reservations (implying a continuation something like ‘but it could have been a lot better’). Any section of the intonation pattern, any of its three constituents can perform the distinctive function thus being phonological units. The most powerful phonological unit is the terminal tone. The opposition of terminal tones distinguishes different types of sentence. The same sequence of words may be interpreted as a different syntactical type, i. e. statement or a question, a question or an exclamation being pronounced with different terminal tones, e. g. : Tom saw it (statement) – Tom saw it? (general question) Didn’t you enjoy it? (general question) – Didn’t you enjoy it? (exclamation) Will you be quiet? (request) – Will you be quiet? (command). The number of terminal tones indicates the number of intonation groups. Together with the increase of loudness terminal tones serve to single out the semantic centre of the utterance. By semantic centre we mean the information centre which may simultaneously concentrate the expression of attitudes and feelings.

The words in an utterance do not necessarily all contribute an equal amount of information, some are more important to the meaning than others. This largely depends on the context or situation in which the intonation group or a phrase is said. Some words are predisposed by their function in the language to be stressed. In English lexical (content) words are generally accented while grammatical (form) words are more likely to be unaccented although words belonging to both of these groups may be unaccented or accented if the meaning requires it.

Cite this Phonetics of English

Phonetics of English. (2019, May 02). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/phonetics-of-english-168/

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