D-The international system Is created to prevent anarchy, which is a lack of central government control and lack of rules/law enforcement. Therefore most governments agree on norms of behavior. What behavior is considered good or bad or proper. Rogue states: al douwal el kharija 3an el kanoun. Sovereignty: this means that a government has a control over and can do anything it wants in its own territories; it also means that government should not interfere in the internal affairs of another gov.
Balance of power: by one or a group of states and it is believed that this will maintain the security and stability of the international system.
Great powers/middle powers: GP: are the most military and economic powers (Russia, China, Britain, France, Germany, US) and MP: some are large but not highly industrialized, some are small but have specialized capabilities, and some have considerable influence in their region (regional powers) ex: Brazil, Italy, India, Indonesia, Iran, Canada, Turkey …) Hegemony: Direct opposite of sovereignty, it is the act of total control by one state over the world or over a certain region or over a certain state.
Ex: in the 18th-19th centuries: the British empires, in the 20th -21th centuries: US and in 1990-2005 the Syrian hegemony E-Alliances This is when two or more countries ally themselves in order to increase their power in relation to other states. This will allow them more bargaining power-alliances survive for special goals & purposes and may end after the completion of these goals and purposes. Ex: Soviet unions & us vs. Hitler and Mussolini in WW2…. NATO and the Warsaw. Most alliances are formed because of a perceived threat.
Sun Tzu: Disrupting alliances of enemy states is the most effective way to win a power struggle. El douwal el gharbiye 3am t7ewel tekhlof iran w Syria. Immanuel Kant: the majority of states could unite to punish a state which is aggressive or committed an act of aggression. This is not to allow the self-interest of a state to affect the collective interest of other states especially small ones. Ex: Iran and the west. Conditions to make this work: 1- countries are committed to the group nd group action and more important that these countries and states agree on what constitutes aggression Ex: Iran, The west, Russia and china. F-Liberalism: -These are people who believe that violence and war are irrational and result from defective reasoning and harm the collective and long term wellbeing of a state Ex: World War 2 -They see spending money on building nuclear weapons as absurd because of its destructive power: Money could be spent for much better things.
People are irrational and could use nuclear weapons to destroy the world Ex: these arguments are used by US and Israel against Iran 1-Regimes: An international regime is a set of rules, norms and procedures around which states are expected to converge: Ex the United Nations They do not negate the effect of power but they modify and normalize existing power relations. 2-collective security: This is the formation of wide alliance of most major states in an international system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by any state.
Ex: Iraq/Saddam hussein’s invasion of Kuwait (saddam lamma hajam 3al Kuwait, hajamo 3lei kaza dawle 3al Iraq ta talla3ou men el Kuwait. ) G- Peace Studies This is to seek to move international relations from state to state level into a wide concept of social relations at the individual, domestic and global level. They seek the potential for peace not through the transactions between state leaders but in the transformation of societies and transnational communities ignoring state borders.
They thing a good way to gain knowledge is to participate and not just sit and observe- the want to decrease war and promote the chances of peace. 1-cpnflict resolution: This is the development and implementation of peaceful strategies for solving conflicts other than war and other violent form of leverage. -Mediation: technical mediation by passing messages to the countries of conflict: ex: Pakistan was the mediator between the us and china -Mediation by proposing solutions is the form compromises to please and satisfy both states and parties of the conflict. Mediation by arbitration meaning a 3rd party makes the decision, but both parties of the conflict should agree beforehand. H- Foreign policy These are the strategies used by governments to guide their actions in the world and they spell out and indicate the objectives that state leaders have decided to pursue in a given situation and what ways they intend to use to pursue these objectives Ex: el 7oukoume el lebneniye arratit tettebe3 siyeset el na2eh bel nafes bass be2e kalem ma 3am yetnaffaz la2anno el 7doud moube7a. -Individual decision makers: this is usually when individual make their own final decisions ex quaddafi in Libya and US president harry Truman when he decided to drop the atomic bomb -Usually it involves the issue of rationality: – Keeping national interests safe and secure State and individual rationality should correlate with each other ex: saddam lammafeit 3al Kuwait ken individual rationality -IDM might suffer from misperceptions, selective perceptions, and information screens Ex: Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, Egypt and Syria in 1973: the barlev line of Israel Two misperception of Israel: Arab doesn’t have power to attack Israel and the barlev line is strong enough and can handle any attack, Egypt and Syria attacked the barlev line and it was called the yum Kippur war. 2- Substate actors
A-Diplomats: Usually are Foreign Service officers in other countries or inside their own countries Ambassadors are representatives of their own countries abroad, they all work under the foreign ministry, and they provide information to help foreign policies but their main duties is to carry out policies of their governments. Usually agencies are needed to carry foreign policy objectives but usually they clash with politicians over ways of carrying out policies. Ex: the central intelligence agency (CIA): Department of State: they can be so powerful and can affect the policies opinions, the US in Iraq: intelligence reports that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction, CIA: George TENET. Ex: The Defense intelligence agency (DIA): Department of
Defense Most of time these agencies promote the interests of the agency (in 1990 saddam kabb swarikh SCUDS 3a Israel, fa khafo ykouno hal swarikh 3laya rouss Mass destruction fa bwa2ta el isra2iliyeh lebso masques dodd el ghazet ) B-Interest Groups (Lobbying Groups) A coalition of people who share a common interest in the outcome or result of some political issue and organize themselves to try and influence the issue. Ex: AIPAC, Farmers, Gun Lobby, Rifle Association. Therefore, lobby is giving money for the political campaigns to pressure congress and representatives. 3-Military – Industrial Complex This is a huge, very connected network of governmental agencies, industrial corporations and research interests and institutes all working together in order to supply the nation’s military forces.
Ex: the company that manufactures the F-16 fighting airplane for the USA , after ww2 the usa sa7abo kell el admigha men yalli keno b Germany am3 hitler w akhadouwon la 3endon w henne yalli 3emlo el nuclear bomb Ex: they could be state-owned as in the Soviet Union/ Russia or they could be private companies on a contracting basis (US) All of these make huge profits from the government contracts 4-Public Opinion: These are the range of views on foreign policy issues held by the citizens of a state, it has greater influence in democracies than in dictatorships. Usually public opinion gives governments legitimacy even in authoritarian countries Propaganda and the media play a very important role: negative or positive People usually rally around the flag & the government during times of conflict, war or crisis 5-Democracy In authoritarian regimes or dictatorships it means gov rules without any elections or any respect for civil and political rights, no freedom of expression, of the press… * A democracy is gov by the people with elected representatives (parliament/congress) which respects individual rights in society, specially the ideas that are different from those of the government. (tolerance of opposition) * Most states however works today somewhere in between the two (mixture of public and private sector) these are called Socialist (socialism). These are sectors that cannot the gov let the private investment put their hands on. * Immanuel Kant: Lasting peace depends on state becoming republics with parliament checking the powers of the rules to make war.
This is the US system of checks & balances are compared to a single individual or a ruling party making decisions alone. I-The Causes of War: * In wars man usually ask what the outcome is and not what the causes are * Why do we have conflicts and why do they lead to war? * Conflicts are normal between states and may be defined as a difference in preferred outcomes in a bargaining situation. * Leverage is important and the ultimate outcome of the bargaining process is a settlement 1-the individual level: The decisions to go to war are made by leaders based on rationalism & based on calculations that through war they can achieve more than through times of peace.
EX: Arabs & Israel : 1973 Yum Kippur War Some say it is the irrationality of leaders and people that lead to war Ex: Saddam invasion of Kuwait and Hitler during ww2. 2-the domestic level: This is how much a society is ready to use war as a way to achieve goals Ex: Japan after WW2: a military regime: TOGO (Japanese leader) yalli fet 3emel majzara b china wil Chinese ba3don la halla2 3am ytalbo b enno japan te3terf bel majzara 3- The inter-state level This explains war in term of power relations among major states. Power transactions holds that conflicts generate large wars at times when power is equally distributed and a rising power is trying to overtake another power. This has to do with the probabilities of war.
More true in the 18th and 19th centuries than today because of nuclear weapons. (the risk of war is very high when two conflicting states are more or less powerfully equal) 4- The Global Level -Major war is cyclical with long economic waves (period of 50 years) major wars and the largest are with a cycle based on the creation or decay of world orders. (100 years period) -war is maybe becoming less likely due to the development of technology and especially nuclear power. J-Conflict of Interest All States want maximum power relative to other states. Conflict, then, becomes a universal condition among states that fight over power status (iran 3am tfarje enna ouwwe iklimiye bi tamalloka sle7 nawawe) and alliances.
Sometimes there is no specific conflict over territory. Religion or other specific causes: ex: China invasion of Vietnam in 1979 to teach the Vietnamese a lesson after Vietnam overthrew the Chinese supported by Khmer rouge regime in Cambodia . No territorial dispute but punishment for act china did not like. 1-territorial disputes -The most simply spread in the world and of two kinds: 1- Control of territories of entire state 2- Territorial disputes usually involving borders areas with disputed territories: Ex: Mazari’ Shabaa in Lebanon Ex: Germany’s dispute with France after 1871, over the Alsace-Lorraine terroitories. Ex: Yemen and Saudi Arabia the goal of regaining territory lost to another state is called irredentism. Ex: Israel and the Arab countries where regaining become a matter of national honor, symbol of sovereignty& territorial integrity. – Controlling territories through war which has redrawn borders of the states: Ex: the Golan Heights. -we also have what we call secession which is the efforts of a region to separate from another region and is a special type of conflict over borders. Ex: Chechnya and Dagestan to separate from Russia, the Basque in Spain, XInYang in china – Sometimes ethnic cleansing is including to purify a region or an area of unwanted people: Ex: Yugoslavia : (Serbs/ Croats/ Bosnians) 2- Interstate Borders
These conflicts exist between neighboring states but very of them remain today: Ex: Lebanon and Syria, Yemen and Saudi Arabia 3-Territorial Waters: Considered by states to be a part of its national territories usually it is waters within 3 miles of its shoreline. The UN convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS) generally allows up to 12 miles for shipping and a 200 miles exclusive economic zone for fishing and mineral rights for free navigation, these zones overlap greatly and create lots of problems among states. 4-Airspace All this space above the state is considered territory of the state. Airplanes must take permission before flying over territorial airspace. Ex in 1986, US raided Libya & asked the help of France which refused.
Also outer space is considered international territory. K- Conflicts of Ideas For example: Ethnic conflicts: Serbs/ Croats/ Bosnians …. Chachina/ Dagestan For example: Religious Conflicts: Ireland: Protestant/ Catholic …. Lebanon: Christian/Muslims For example: Ideological Conflicts: Communism vs. Capitalism: the cold war In such conflicts, different means of leverage are used (political, military, diplomatic…) such as war & other violent actions. -wars are sustained intergroup violence deliberately inflicting death and injury and in which a state’s military forces participate to win or take sides with another party (alliance) in order to win. There are different types of war: -hegemonic war: this is for the total control and domination of the world ex: Hitler in the WW2 which was the last hegemonic war. This type of war is no longer possible without total destruction because of nuclear weapons 2-total war: A war by one state against another state in order to control it and occupy it. In this type of war the goal is to reach the capital city and force the gov. to surrender. Ex: Iraq invasion of Kuwait, in this war annexation is possible and he considered Kuwait as annex 19 of Iraq. 3-Limited War: this war includes military actions carried out to gain some objectives that do not necessarily demand the surrender of the enemy.
Ex: the China invasion of Vietnam in 1979. US war against Iraq in Kuwait 1991. Israel in its attack on the Iraqi nuclear reactor. This is what we call raids 4-Civil War: this war is between different groups within a state trying to take power or change the entire system of government 5-Guerilla war: this is a war without any front lines and is part of civil war or total war. These are irregular forces which operate in hiding in the middle of civilian areas in order to be protected by them Ex: the civil war in Syria. It also includes harassing & punishing on enemy to force it to change its behavior or policies. Ex: French resistance against the Nazis in France
EX: hizbullah operations in in south of Lebanon forcing Israeli troops withdraw in 2000 Counterinsurgency: this is when we combat a guerilla army by winning the rural population to stop supporting and sheltering guerilla. Ex: the US in Iraq an Afghanistan 6- terrorism: this is political violence which targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately, the purpose is to discourage and demoralize a civilian population in order to force it to put leverage on the government to change their policies – it is also used to draw the attention of the media for a certain cause. Ex: World trade center in 2001 Ex: Palestinian attack on US& Israeli targets around the world Ex: the Munich Olympic Games attack in 1970
State Sponsored Terrorism: this is when a state use terrorist groups to achieve political gains or goals. Ex: Libya, Iran and North Korea. After Midterm L- The use of force This is when state leaders decide to use violence /war as a way/mean to achieve their goals It is a mean of leverage Economies play a major role in whether a state goes to war or not because a state should be able of sustaining a war for a long time Ex: The Iraq-Iran War (1980-1988) Iran was unable to continue Wars usually affect the economy of a state positively or negatively Ex: US in ww2 helped end the great depression Command of the military forces is at great importance in a war as well as heir organization Available means to fight wars: 1. The Army: is created for this purpose, at its disposal are usually: Infantry, tanks, Land mines, and all sorts of light to heavy weapons. Usually, the armies of the most industrial countries have the advantage because of the technology 2. The Navy: for use in sea passages and to attack land which is close to the sea shores/coast lines Usually, the navy is free to move because oceans and seas are open (ella bel miyeh el iklimiye: except in the territorial waters) and do not belong to anyone unlike territories The importance of the navy is its projection power through aircrafts carriers and other battleships. 3.
The Air force: it usually has several purposes or objectives such as strategic bombings of land or sea targets, air support for land operations, interception of other aircraft, reconnaissance mission, airlifts of supplies, ammunitions (zakhira), weapons and troops. 4. Logistics & intelligence: All the food, fuel, weapons and ammunition It is usually a huge operation and sometimes non-combat troops get killed in such operations. Satellites perform military surveillance and mapping communications, weather updates, early warnings systems, navigation info, etc…. Intelligence gathering/ collecting: Electronic monitoring of telephone lines and all communications, ambassy reports, sending spices/agents into enemy states to collect/gather battlefield information.
Ex: National Security Agency (NSA) in USA: Responsible for satellite, they analyze photos; they encode US communication and decode codes of enemy communications and other foreign countries. 5. Biological and chemical weapons: these weapons release chemical which kill people such as Mustard Gas that was used in WW1 and the use of these weapons by Saddam Hussein against Kurds in North Iraq, the weapons are considered the poor countries weapons. In 1992, a UN chemical weapons convention prohibited the production and use of such weapons. 6. Nuclear Weapons: these are made up/ formed of Ballistic Missile able to carry a warhead along a trajectory and drop it on a target. Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) (Strategic Missiles): these have a range of over 50,000 miles: from Chicago in the US to Moscow in Russia.
They carry up to 10 warheads to drop on different targets Mostly owned by the US and Russia and few by China. Intermediate ICBMs (Tactical Missiles): 1000-3000 miles –Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs): these are protected under water Small Range Ballistic Missiles (SRBMs): Under 1000 miles such as the SCUDS missiles also some owned by Iran and they are usually important for regional conflicts. The Cruise Missiles: these are small missiles able to navigate thousands of miles and can be air, sea, and land missiles. Today only the US and Russia have them. The Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty: (mou3ahadat el 7add men intishar el asli7a el nawawiyya).
It prevents countries that do not have nuclear weapons from developing them and prevents countries which have them from giving them to those who do not have them. M- The world order: This was created to settle/solve differences between countries as most conflicts today are not settled by wars anymore. So states follow rules they develop to govern their relations and interactions and they usually follow these rules. 1. The United Nations: this is the closest thing to a world government but it is not . Sovereign states that are members in the UN do not allow the UN to force it will within their borders except through agreements by members governments. Therefore, the purpose is to provide a global trategy and structure where states can settle/solve conflicts with less reliance/dependence on the use of force. Ex: United Nations Interim Forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL) (kouwwat 7ofz el amn el douwaliya fi loubnan) A-The General Assembly: (al jam3iya el 3oumoumiya): All member nations: representative from all states sit together to listen to speeches and to pass resolutions (kararat) Ex: UN Resolution 242-388(called Israel to withdraw from all territories), UN resolution 425( el khatt el azra2), 1559 (insi7ab el jeish el soureh men Lebanon), 1701(karar irseil kouwweit 7ofz el selem ila loubnan) The General Assembly also coordinates third world countries development projects.
Ex: UNDP: United Nations Development Program (1st world, 2nd world: the developing world(DCs), 3rd world: the least developing countries(LDCs) B- The Security Council: ( majles el amen):Formed of the five great powers who have the right of veto (they are permanent):China, US, Russia, France, Britain and 10 other rotating members who make decisions regarding international peace and international security. This is the body that decides to send forces to keep peace or to fight a war. C-Secretariat: this is the executive branch of the UN- this secretariat administers the UN: Secretary General and all agencies related to the UN such as : UNRWA (Palestinian Refuges), WHO( world health organization), UNDP, UNICEF, UNIFIL 2. International Law This is for the creation of principles for governing international relations among states.
This Law depends on traditions and agreements signed by states Ex: el Misak el watani in Lebanon yalli bi2oul enno ra2is el joumhouriyeh lezem ykoun masi7eh Ex: Iraq when they signed a treaty to allow UN inspections for weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) Treaties are signed and must be implemented and observed Ex: El united nations yalli ne7na talabnehon ne7na wil siryan ta yersmo el 7doud baynetna The enforcement of international laws depends on the power of the states themselves, independently or collectively, to punish aggression or force compliance. Ex: Suddam Hussein invasion of Kuwait and the United Nations forces which forced him out of Kuwait led by the U. S. The World Court (in LAHAGUE in Holland: International court of justice) where states can pursue grievances against each others without the use of force.
Ex: Elie Hobeika in Lebanon wa2ta ttaham el isra2iliyeh b majzaret sabra wa chatila w houwweh ma ken khasso fiya w ken ma3o esbetet btesbot enno Israel hiyyeh metwarrta fa talabo fi el world court yeje 3a lahague y2addem esbeteto bass ma3 el asaf n2atal abel ma yrou7. Sometimes the general assembly and the security council of the UN might ask for advisory court opinions on matters of international law. Also the court is responsible for diplomatic recognition and diplomatic immunity (7asaneh) problems for it involves spying and other negative activities a- War crimes: this is when states violate the laws of war and are accused of war crimes: laws in wars and laws of wars.
Laws in wars are against genocide (el ibedeh el jame3iyyeh) and to make sure that during wars, civilians and non-combatants are not targeted but are protected. Ex: – Hitler before and during WW2 massacring Jews -In Rwanda (Africa) the Hutu tribe massacring the Tutsi tribe – Lamma el ijtiye7 el isra2ileh 3a lebnen w asafo sayda w sour w tawwa2ouwa, lamma el souriyeh tawwa2o el ashrafiyeh w asafouwa It is illegal to target civilians. Another law of war is to protect the prisoners of war. Ex: Slobodan Milosevic and the massacres of prisoners of war in Bosnia-Herzegovina Pows: prisoners of war give up their arms and their right to fight and therefore, earn the right not to be targeted and killed. – Human Rights: these rights were created in order to protect citizens from government (security forces) abuse and government bad treatment. Usually launched against dictatorships where there are no human rights and where people are captured and put in prison without any charges and when they are tortured and usually without any court of law procedure. Ex: the roumieh prison The Syrian presence in Lebanon and the prisoners who simply varnished These are to protect people from crimes against humanity. These rights include the right of citizenship, freedom of speech, freedom of expression, right to vote, freedom of the press and the media, etc… The right for a fair and just trial in case of a crime was committed. N-trade This mean Mercantilism and Liberalism – In Mercantilism, the state protects its economic interests no matter what, at the expense of other states In the old days: Barter trade: exchange (ba3tik 10 kg sekkar w be5od mennak 5 kg banadoura) The trade in the past between china and europe was called the silk road (tari2 el 7arir) ken bel zamenet ysir fiya el tijara between china and Europe 3al j7esh wel bghel, w kenit hal tari2 btemro2 b 7alab w meshein heik 7alab mhemme tijarian. W 7eliyan hal tari2 mzafate w to3tabar men akbar el toro2 el tijariye. -In liberalism, trade takes place under laws, rules and regulations to govern this relationship. 1- Comparative advantage:
This is when states have gains/profits obtained by producing different goods and products and therefore have the advantage depending on their abilities to produce different goods that other countries do not have/produce. Ex: Soybeans in China, Oil in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and OPEC, Coffee in Brazil. 2- Centrally- Planned Economies: These are long term plans where the state controls all the economy, ex: Prices, production, quotas, etc…these are systems of economy found in communist states and dictatorships. Ex: In the Soviet union: 5 years plan- GOS plan :State planning agency Ya3ne iktisad mouwajjah: byejo 3a ma3mal el 7adid bi2ouloulo b 5 years lezem tentoj 3adad m3ayyan , yalle byentoj 2a2al (Ma biwassel lal quotas) bye3dmou aw byenfou.
W yalli byentoj aktar men el quotas keno yra22ou wel surplus ysaddrou w yjibo b 7a2on makanet w m3addet ta y7assno entejon (tractors for example) -Most of the industries and economic sectors are owned by the state – We also have in most states today what we call mixed economies, some industries (the most important ones for national security reasons) owned by the state, and other industries owned by the private sector. 3- Balance of Trade: -This governs the relationship between values of states imports relative/compared to the value of its exports. If we have more exports than imports, then we have a surplus, and if we have more imports than exports, then we have deficit. A deficit in the balance of trade which persists becomes a problem for the state and forces the state to seek loans. Ex: Lebanon and all of its loans: Paris 1, Paris 2, Paris 3…. This creates what we call interdependence and the state must collaborate politically and economically in order to achieve positive results at some point, generally they are positive conditions because the target of the provider state to improve the state’s economic situation in order that the receiver country will be able to return back the amount. Ex: Bi Paris 1 b daftar el shourout el morfa2 ma3 el masare ken baddon enno ysir towtin lal felastiniyeh b lebnen. 4- Protectionism:
There are strategies followed by the state in order to protect their product for the world market in order to strengthen these products. That is why states put tariffs, levies, fines (taxes) on imported goods in order to protect domestic products and to increase state revenue. Usually, the taxes are a percentage of the value of the product (luxury good taxes) Dumping is when the state sells its products on the world market for lower prices to make a profit: illegal -Sometimes the governments provide subsidies to allow products to sell at lower prices at lower prices without losing money. 5- World trade organization (WTO) Its mission is to promote, organize and monitor all aspects of international trade.
It is based on the general agreement on tariff and trade (GATT) It also regulates bilateral trade between 2 states in order to lower barriers and tariffs to benefit both states The purpose is to clear all trade barriers between neighboring states, such as the European union and the north American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA: Between Canada , the US and Mexican) Hard Currency: is money exchanged on the world market Ex: Swiss Franc, French Franc, German Mark, Japanese Yen, US $, British Pound/Sterling. Cartels (is an association of producers of a certain product formed for the purpose of manipulating prices on the world markets) are created especially the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in order to sell a certain product openly on the world market but with regulated prices Embargo: 7azer tijareh (In 1973: war of Arabs against Israel: an oil embargo was forced on all countries supporting Israel. China sarla 10 years 3am t7ewel tfout bel WTO bass US and Japan are blocking their application because china is making piracy (3am t2alled kell el mantoujeit) O- Money and Business: * There are economic institutions that are created in the world to help states which are going through financial difficulties and especially future financial difficulties (Huge Debts) Ex: Lebanon Such as the World Bank (WB), the international monetary fund (Sandouk el Nakd el Watani) (IMF) Sometimes money comes from the providing countries (el douwal el mani7a) ex: Lebanon has given money by France in Paris 1 These are institutions that help countries/states who have big international debt.
Fiscal policy: al siyasa el maliya: This is the policy that regulates taxation and spending. Monetary Policy: al siyasa el nakdiya: this is the policy that regulates the printing and circulation of money. 1- Multinational Corporations: These are usually large companies based in one state with affiliated branches or subsidiaries operating in others states in the world. Their business is usually all over the world, they have fixed facilities and employees all over the world. Branches: Directly owned by the company Subsidiaries: are companies that are partially or wholly-owned by a company Ex: Philip Morris (cigarettes) 2- Telecommunication & Global Culture / Integration
This is not only to communicate with people all over the world, but to find common ground & common interests. These days borders matter less & less & more than ever, the rich and the poor are coming together. Because of this, we have the same music, same news, mostly same interests Usually, the most powerful and dominant countries enjoy what we call culture imperialism (Changing total domination: culture, way of life (unequal to colonialism: Isti3mar : el saytara 3ala iktisad, saytara 3ala el marafe2, istikhraj el mawad bass el sha3b wil dawleh bteb2a 3adeh. Ex: US…. Cultural influence, Hollywood, sports, Mc Donald, language, music, US president considered the most powerful person in the world. P- Environment Global warming is a slow, long term rise in the average temperature in the world-global warming affects and changes weather patterns in many areas in the world affecting lifestyles and mostly agriculture. – The one to blame for GW is the industrial sector in the world This causes what is known as the Green House Effect: khiyam el naylon taba3 el zare3, el e7tibeis el 7arareh yalli mna3mlo fiya ta ysir fina nezra3 eshya ma btotla3 bel shete. UNEP United Nations Environmental Protection is an agency created to monitor/regulate environmental conditions & climate changes from year to year : Kyoto convention Ozone layer: suffer from certain chemicals which are used in industries and that allows the harmful ultraviolet rays coming from the sun to reach earth and harm people as well as the planet altogether. Q- The North/South GAP: Poverty is the biggest problem between north and south especially the gap which exists between the industrial wealthy north and the agricultural, poor south, least development countries (LCDs) and the development countries (DCs) Most of the global south is extremely poor and the state systems of government play the most important role, positively or negatively. Capitalism: Capital is money or set of products or goods used to produce other goods or more goods/reinvest ex: A warehouse is a capital Investment is a big part of capitalism. Capitalism is a system of private ownership which relies on market forces to govern the distribution of goods.
Adam Smith: Laissez –Faire Supply vs. Demand This is largely under control of the private sector and governments; this creates competition and gives the private sector the chance to reinvest in order to maximize the quality of the product and profits. R- Globalization * It is an objective process of increasing economic, political and cultural and social connectivity: Global interconnectedness. * It can be a general open-ended trend or specific economic & political projects. (Before ma ken fi chi esmo state of Italy)…. abel ken fi chi esmo Prussia…. Italy and Germany were formed. 1- Does globalization exists?! It is maybe a myth –not existent?
It can be a new form of imperialism as happened between 1870-1914 ( w ballash el este3mar ma3 haldouwal : Russia, Britain, France, Portugal, Italy, German, Belgium, Holland. For example: the British empire at one time controlled 96% of the surface of the earth, for the British, this seemed to be natural globalization. * It might/ can be progress on a world scale * It might/ can be for people or states in need of economic development. Example: Lebanon * It might/ can be a threat to national identity, Sovereignty & culture. * I might/ can be a system which today institutionalize the power, the privilege and the disproportional wealth of the US * It might/ can be considered a new form of imperialism * It might/ can be an imposition of US and Western Culture on people from other countries.
Ex: The US interference in Iraq and Afghanistan * On an economic side it might/ can be exploitation (istighlal) by multinational corporations, industrialists & Capitalists upon the diverse/ different people of the world as Karl Marx (creator of the communism) suggested. * It might/ can be neoliberal capitalism ( neoliberal: liberalism with less restrictions, where people can benefit more from capitalism) * It might/ can be that market capitalism (linked to production) as practiced in the west and the US is the superior model because it provides greater promises of increasing growth and increasing standards 2- Is Globalization manageable?
* The problem is that inequalities of wealth and power are vast and growing such as the case between the countries of the North and South. It might /can be that western countries and US are more intent on warfare for whatever political and economic ( ex: Egypt: US came and gave Hussny Mbarak 4 billion Dollars per year for its country for one reason: to keep on the peace with Israel bass el nessab araton lal mosriyet fa 2am 3lei el sha3eb) reasons might exist, than on democratic & social reforms. If you want to establish democracy, you can’t in a poor country; so for that reason US used to give Egypt this amount of money, in order to give push to small businesses for the purpose to increase the standard of living.
* Can it be the laissez- faire capitalism Vs. Managed or planned Globalization? * Do we need new institutions (reforms: isla7at) or we can manage with existing institutions?? These reforms or new structures can be carried through the international finance system such as through the international monetary fund (IMF), the world bank (WB), the world trade organization (WTO), organization for economic cooperation & development (OECD) Ex: Lebanon with Paris 1, Paris 2 (we are giving you money in order to build up a good economic system to be able to payback your debts) The different interpretations of globalization are in the heart of the political struggles which will determine what kind of world we live in and what kind of future generations we might have. Ex: Karl Max: communism: Globalization is for some people the spread of wealth & democracy, for others it is exploitation and imperialism/colonization. Political Struggles: The US used the attack on 9-11 into a policy of military supremacy (tafawok) under the banner of “war on terror” from a global policy of economic integration.
BUSH: “ If you are not with us, you are against us”, this does not mean that globalization was weakened by any means or that the US globalization policy has shifted, but it simply meant that globalization, imperialism, terrorism and war have all become aspects of complex global politics and political struggles. * Imperialism and Globalization are important aspects in the rise of terrorism especially that both of them are not themselves innocent of mass murder. * None of these views are entirely correct but none is entirely mistaken because of what our perception of globalization is: If it is Imperialism : Bad If it is Modernization: Good All this depends on what the interests of the states/countries are. 3- Globalization is uneven (unequal) * Globalization does not refer to a global level of equal or even international relations, it is mostly concentrated today in the TRIAD of orth America, Europe, and East Asia (Japan and other countries)
* Globalization therefore is extremely unequal in the distribution of income and wealth: north and south: the gap between the two * For example between 1980 and 1991, 14% of the world population accounted for 80% of investment flows and in 1992 accounted for 70% of world trade. * The ratio of income of the top of 20% of people to the income of the button 20% has jumped from 30. 1% in 1960 to 78. 1% in 1994 * Personal assets of 385 billionaires in the world now exceed/surpass the annual income of countries representing 45% of world population. * Therefore, it seems as if the 3rd world is exempted or excluded from globalization. * While the gap between the north and south has widened in several aspects, the development gap between advanced economies and new industrial countries has narrowed. But the gap between industrial countries and the least development countries LDCs has been widening.
There are also inequalities between and within societies that have also widening sharply since 1970’s, it seems that the inequalities help make rich countries richer, poor countries poorer and even inside countries on a social level, the rich is getting richer and the poor poorer. * Therefore, it is very obvious that we do have uneven globalization. 4- Globalization: A clash (sira3) of civilization? * In 1993, Samuel Huntington believed that a crucial, central and vital aspect of what globalization politics will be in the coming years, was the clash of civilizations. * This is when the world moves out of its western phase and becomes the interaction between western and non western civilizations and among non-western civilizations themselves. Ex: India: Hinduism vs. Islam Syria: Salafis vs. Moderate Moslems / Alawites Saudi Arabia: Al Sharia’s vs. Moderate Moslems
The clash between Saudi Arabia and Iran: a clash between Sunnis & Shiites * After the cold war, and the absence of ideologies, there will be conflict especially within Islamic and religious societies and therefore, there is a need for greater cooperation between Europe, North America, East Europe, Latin America, and more cooperation between Russia and Japan (Russia ba3da men ba3d el cold war till today me7talle jozor KURIL of japan, that’s why mafi relation between japan and Russia) * The west tries to exploit (yastaghell) differences between Isalmic States, especially between the Sunnis (Saudi Arabia) and Shiites (Iran) – This is to protect a system where the west maintains its economic and military power in order to protect its interests.
Therefore Samuel Hantington creates the fundamentalist Islamic threat as well as, the future threat of the yellow peril which leads to the theory of the west against the Rest. Samuel Huntington is pessimistic and this is somehow justified in the world today because of the gloomy views on growing ethnic conflicts that usually becomes also religious conflicts Ex: Ex-Yugoslavia where ethnic groups of different religious fought against each other : Serbs/orthodox , Croats/catholic and Bosnians/Moslems * He talks about two different polarities that existed before: After the end of colonization: 1- North & South: The colonizing Vs. the Colonized 2- East &West: Communism Vs. Capitalism Eventually, these differences faded and disappeared into the background and the cold war also faded All these were replaced by ethnic and religious conflicts and therefore, the world is facing a clash of civilizations.
Cite this Principle of International Relations
Principle of International Relations. (2016, Oct 30). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/principle-of-international-relations/