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Recruiting and Selecting staff

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Today, in every organisation personnel planning as an activity is necessary. It is an important part of an organisation. Human Resource Planning is a vital ingredient for the success of the organisation in the long run. There are certain ways that are to be followed by every organisation, which ensures that it has right number and kind of people, at the right place and right time, so that organisation can achieve its planned objective.

The objectives of Human Resource Department are Human Resource Planning, Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, Career planning, Transfer and Promotion, Risk Management, Performance Appraisal and so on.

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Each objective needs special attention and proper planning and implementation. For every organisation it is important to have a right person on a right job. Recruitment and Selection plays a vital role in this situation. Shortage of skills and the use of new technology are putting considerable pressure on how employers go about Recruiting and Selecting staff.

It is recommended to carry out a strategic analysis of Recruitment and Selection procedure. With reference to this context, this paper is been prepared to put a light on Recruitment and Selection process. This paper includes Meaning and Definition of Recruitment and Selection, Need and Purpose of Recruitment, Evaluation of Recruitment Process, Recruitment Tips. Sources of Recruitment through which an Organisation gets suitable application. Scientific Recruitment and Selection, which an Organisation should follow for, right manpower. Job Analysis, which gives an idea about the requirement of the job.

Next is Selection process, which includes steps of Selection, Types of Test, Types of Interview, Common Interview Problems and their Solutions. Approaches to Selection, Scientific Selection Policy, Selection in India and problems. Recruitment and Selection are simultaneous process and are incomplete without each other. They are important components of the organisation and are different from each other. Since all the aspect needs practical example and explanation this project includes Recruitment and selection Process of Infosys. And a practical case study.

It also contains addresses of various and top placement consultants and the pricelist of advertisements in the magazine. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 2. MEANING OF RECRUITMENT…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 2. 1 NEED FOR RECRUITMENT…………………………………………………………………………………3 2. 2 PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT…………………………………………….. 3 2. 3 UNSCIENTIFIC RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION………………………………………………. 4 2. 4 SCIENTIFIC RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION……………………………………………………. 4 3. RECRUITMENT PROCESS…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. 1 STAGE 1: RECRUITMENT PLANNING…………………………………………………………………4 3. 2 STAGE 2: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT……………………………………………………………….. 5 3. 3 STAGE 3: SEARCHNG………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 3. 4 STEP 4: SCREENING……………………………………………………………………………………………6 3. 5 STAGE 5: EVALUATION AND CONTROL……………………………………………………………. 6 4. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 4. 1 INTERNAL RECRUITMENT…………………………………………………………………………………7 4. 2 EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT……………………………………………………………………………….. 8 4. 3 EVALUATION OF INTERNAL & EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT…………………………….. 11 5.

SELECTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 5. 1 PURPOSE OF SELECTION…………………………………………………………………………………12 5. 2 SELECTION PROCESS………………………………………………………………………………………. 12 5. 2. 1 ENVIRONMENT FACTOR AFFECTING SELECTION…………………………………………14 5. 2. 2 STEP 1: PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW………………………………………………………………14 5. 2. 3 STEP 2: SELECTION TEST…………………………………………………………………………….. 14 5. 2. 4 STEP 3: INTERVIEW……………………………………………………………………………………. 17 5. 2. 5 STEP 4: REFERENCE CHECK…………………………………………………………………………. 20 5. 2. 6 STEP 5: SELECTION DECISION…………………………………………………………………….. 21 5. . 7 STEP 6: PHYSICAL EXAMINATION………………………………………………………………. 21 5. 2. 8 STEP 7: JOB OFFER………………………………………………………………………………………. 21 5. 2. 9 STEP 8: CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT…………………………………………………………22 5. 2. 10 STEP 9: CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS…………………………………….. 23 5. 2. 11 STEP 10: EVALUATION OF SELECTION PROGRAMME………………………………. 23 5. 3 FOUR APPROACHES TO SELECTION……………………………………………………………….. 23 5. 4PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE SELECTION………………………………………………………………24 5. 5SELECTION PRACTICES…………………………………………………………………………………….. 24 6 A CASE STUDY ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS OF

UNILEVER BANGLADESH LIMITED………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26 7. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 32 INTRODUCTION Recruitment and selection are two of the most important functions of personnel management. Recruitment precedes selection and helps in selecting a right candidate. Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of efficient personnel.

Every organisation needs to look after recruitment and selection in the initial period and thereafter as and when additional manpower is required due to expansion and development of business activities. ‘Right person for the right job’ is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Ever organisation should give attention to the selection of its manpower, especially its managers. The operative manpower is equally important and essential for the orderly working of an enterprise.

Every business organisation/unit needs manpower for carrying different business activities smoothly and efficiently and for this recruitment and selection of suitable candidates is essential. Human resource management in an organisation will not be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a business unit. MEANING OF RECRUITMENT Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for the jobs, from among whom the right people can be selected.

A formal definition states, “It is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for the employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applicants are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected”. In this, the available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit applications so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection. In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for selection of most suitable candidates.

Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees According to EDWIN FLIPPO,”Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. ” 2. 1 NEED FOR RECRUITMENT: The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situation: Vacancies due to promotions, transfer, retirement, termination, permanent disability, death and labour turnover. Creation of new vacancies due to the growth, expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise.

In addition, new vacancies are possible due to job specification. 2. 2 PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT: • Determine the present and future requirements of the organization on conjunction with its personnel-planning and job analysis activities. • Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. • Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. • Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its work force. • Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. • Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. • Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants. 2. 3 UNSCIENTIFIC RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION: Previously, the selection of candidates was influenced by superstitions, beliefs, personal prejudices of managers looking after the recruitment and selection of the staff.

The net result of such unscientific recruitment and selection are: • Low productivity of labour • High turnover • Excessive wastage of raw materials • More accidents and corresponding loss to the organization • Inefficient working of the whole organization and finally • Ineffective executive of training and management development programs 2. 4 SCIENTIFIC RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION The importance of selection recruitment and selection of staff is now accepted in the business world. Selection is important as it has its impact on work performance and employee cost.

As result scientific methods of recruitment and selection are extensively for the selection of managers and the supervisory staff. The assistance of experts such as industrial psychologist and management consultants are also taken for the purpose of scientific selection. As a result, the objective of “right man for the right job” is achieved in many organizations. Moreover, “right job” is the basic principle in manpower procurement. RECRUITMENT PROCESS Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and attracting job seekers so as to build a pool of qualified job applicants.

The process comprises five interrelated stages, viz, i. Planning. ii. Strategy development. iii. Searching. iv. Screening. v. Evaluation and control. 3. 1 STAGE 1: RECRUITMENT PLANNING: The first stage in the recruitment process is planning. Planning involves the translation of likely job vacancies and information about the nature of these jobs into set of objectives or targets that specify the (1) Numbers and (2) Types of applicants to be contacted. Numbers of contact: Organization, nearly always, plan to attract more applicants than they will hire.

Some of those contacted will be uninterested, unqualified or both. Each time a recruitment Programme is contemplated, one task is to estimate the number of applicants necessary to fill all vacancies with the qualified people. Types of contacts: It is basically concerned with the types of people to be informed about job openings. The type of people depends on the tasks and responsibilities involved and the qualifications and experience expected. These details are available through job description and job specification. 3. 2 STAGE 2: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT:

When it is estimated that what types of recruitment and how many are required then one has concentrate in (1). Make or Buy employees. (2). Technological sophistication of recruitment and selection devices. (3). Geographical distribution of labour markets comprising job seekers. (4). Sources of recruitment. (5). Sequencing the activities in the recruitment process. ‘Make’ or ‘Buy’: Organisation must decide whether to hire le skilled employees and invest on training and education programmes, or they can hire skilled labour and professional.

Essentially, this is the ‘make’ or ‘buy’ decision. Organizations, which hire skilled and professionals shall have to pay more for these employees. Technological Sophistication: The second decision in strategy development relates to the methods used in recruitment and selection. This decision is mainly influenced by the available technology. The advent of computers has made it possible for employers to scan national and international applicant qualification. Although impersonal, computers have given employers and ob seekers a wider scope of options in the initial screening stage.

Where to look: In order to reduce the costs, organisations look in to labour markets most likely to offer the required job seekers. Generally, companies look in to the national market for managerial and professional employees, regional or local markets for technical employees and local markets for the clerical and blue-collar employees. When to look: An effective recruiting strategy must determine when to look-decide on the timings of events besides knowing where and how to look for job applicants. 3. 3 STAGE 3: SEARCHNG:

Once a recruitment plan and strategy are worked out, the search process can begin. Search involves two steps Source activation and I. Selling. SOURCE ACTIVATION: Typically, sources and search methods are activated by the issuance of an employee requisition. This means that no actual recruiting takes place until lone managers have verified that vacancy does exist or will exist. If the organisation has planned well and done a good job of developing its sources and search methods, activation soon results in a flood of applications and/or resumes.

The application received must be screened. Those who pass have to be contacted and invited for interview. Unsuccessful applicants must be sent letter of regret. SELLING: A second issue to be addressed in the searching process concerns communications. Here, organisation walks tightrope. On one hand, they want to do whatever they can to attract desirable applicants. On the other hand, they must resist the temptation of overselling their virtues. In selling the organisation, both the message and the media deserve attention. Message refers to the employment advertisement.

With regards to media, it may be stated that effectiveness of any recruiting message depends on the media. Media are several-some have low credibility, while others enjoy high credibility. Selection of medium or media needs to be done with a lot of care. 3. 4 STEP 4: SCREENING: Screening of applicants can be regarded as an integral part of the recruiting process, though many view it as the first step in the selection process. Even the definition on recruitment, we quoted in the beginning of this chapter, excludes screening from its scope.

However, we have included screening in recruitment for valid reasons. The selection process will begin after the applications have been scrutinized and short-listed. Hiring of professors in a university is a typical situation. Application received in response to advertisements is screened and only eligible applicants are called for an interview. A selection committee comprising the Vice-chancellor, Registrar and subject experts conducts interview. Here, the recruitment process extends up to screening the applications. The selection process commences only later. 3. 5 STAGE 5: EVALUATION AND CONTROL:

Evaluation and control is necessary as considerable costs are incurred in the recruitment process. The costs generally incurred are: – • Salaries for recruiters. • Management and professional time spent on preparing job description, job specifications, advertisements, agency liaison and so forth. • The cost of advertisements or other recruitment methods, that is, agency fees. • Recruitment overheads and administrative expenses. • Costs of overtime and outsourcing while the vacancies remain unfilled. • Cost of recruiting unsuitable candidates for the selection process.

EVALUATION OF RECRUITMENT PROCESS The recruitment has the objective of searching for and obtaining applications for job seekers in sufficient number and quality. Keeping this objective in the mind, the evaluation might include: Return rate of application sent out. Number of suitable candidates for selection. Retention and performance of the candidates selected. Cost of the recruitment process Time lapsed data Comments on image projected. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT SOURCES OF MANAGERIAL RECRUITMENT INTERNAL SOURCES EXTERNAL SOURCES ) Promotion 1) Campus recruitment 2) Transfers 2) Press advertisement 3) Internal notification 3) Management consultancy service (Advertisement) & private employment exchanges 4) Retirement 4) Deputation of personnel or transfer from one enterprise to another 5) Recall 5) Management training schemes 6) Former employees 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins 7) Miscellaneous external sources The sources of recruitment can be broadly categorized into internal and external sources- 4. 1 Internal Recruitment – Internal recruitment seeks applicants for positions from within the company. The various internal sources include( Promotions and Transfers – Promotion is an effective means using job posting and personnel records. Job posting requires notifying vacant positions by posting notices, circulating publications or announcing at staff meetings and inviting employees to apply.

Personnel records help discover employees who are doing jobs below their educational qualifications or skill levels. Promotions has many advantages like it is good public relations, builds morale, encourages competent individuals who are ambitious, improves the probability of good selection since information on the individual’s performance is readily available, is cheaper than going outside to recruit, those chosen internally are familiar with the organization thus reducing the orientation time and energy and also acts as a training device for developing middle-level and top-level managers. However, promotions restrict the field of selection preventing fresh blood & ideas from entering the organization. It also leads to inbreeding in the organization.

Transfers are also important in providing employees with a broad-based view of the organization, necessary for future promotions. • Employee referrals- Employees can develop good prospects for their families and friends by acquainting them with the advantages of a job with the company, furnishing them with introduction and encouraging them to apply. This is a very effective means as many qualified people can be reached at a very low cost to the company. The other advantages are that the employees would bring only those referrals that they feel would be able to fit in the organization based on their own experience. The organization can be assured of the reliability and the character of the referrals.

In this way, the organization can also fulfill social obligations and create goodwill. • Former Employees- These include retired employees who are willing to work on a part-time basis, individuals who left work and are willing to come back for higher compensations. Even retrenched employees are taken up once again. The advantage here is that the people are already known to the organization and there is no need to find out their past performance and character. Also, there is no need of an orientation programme for them, since they are familiar with the organization. • Dependents of deceased employees- Usually, banks follow this policy. If an employee dies, his / her spouse or son or daughter is recruited in their place.

This is usually an effective way to fulfill social obligation and create goodwill. • Recalls: – When management faces a problem, which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave, it may de decided to recall that persons after the problem is solved, his leave may be extended. Retirements: – At times, management may not find suitable candidates in place of the one who had retired, after meritorious service. Under the circumstances, management may decide to call retired managers with new extension. Internal notification (advertisement): – Sometimes, management issues an internal notification for the benefit of existing employees.

Most employees know from their own experience about the requirement of the job and what sort of person the company is looking for. Often employees have friends or acquaintances who meet these requirements. Suitable persons are appointed at the vacant posts. 4. 2 External Recruitment – External recruitment seeks applicants for positions from sources outside the company. They have outnumbered the internal methods. The various external sources include( • Professional or Trade Associations :- Many associations provide placement service to its members. It consists of compiling job seeker’s lists and providing access to members during regional or national conventions.

Also, the publications of these associations carry classified advertisements from employers interested in recruiting their members. These are particularly useful for attracting highly educated, experienced or skilled personnel. Also, the recruiters can zero on in specific job seekers, especially for hard-to-fill technical posts. • Advertisements :- It is a popular method of seeking recruits, as many recruiters prefer advertisements because of their wide reach. Want ads describe the job benefits, identify the employer and tell those interested how to apply. Newspaper is the most common medium but for highly specialized recruits, advertisements may be placed in professional or business journals.

Advertisements must contain proper information like the job content, working conditions, location of job, compensation including fringe benefits, job specifications, growth aspects, etc. The advertisement has to sell the idea that the company and job are perfect for the candidate. Recruitment advertisements can also serve as corporate advertisements to build company’ image. It also cost effective. • Employment Exchanges:- Employment Exchanges have been set up all over the country in deference to the provision of the Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act, 1959. The Act applies to all industrial establishments having 25 workers or more each. The Act requires all the industrial establishments to notify the vacancies before they are filled.

The major functions of the exchanges are to increase the pool of possible applicants and to do the preliminary screening. Thus, employment exchanges act as a link between the employers and the prospective employees. These offices are particularly useful to in recruiting blue-collar, white collar and technical workers. • Campus Recruitments:- Colleges, universities, research laboratories, sports fields and institutes are fertile ground for recruiters, particularly the institutes. Campus Recruitment is going global with companies like HLL, Citibank, HCL-HP, ANZ Grindlays, L&T, Motorola and Reliance looking for global markets. Some companies recruit a given number of candidates from these institutes every year.

Campus recruitment is so much sought after that each college; university department or institute will have a placement officer to handle recruitment functions. However, it is often an expensive process, even if recruiting process produces job offers and acceptances eventually. A majority leave the organization within the first five years of their employment. Yet, it is a major source of recruitment for prestigious companies. • Walk-ins, Write-ins and Talk-ins- The most common and least expensive approach for candidates is direct applications, in which job seekers submit unsolicited application letters or resumes. Direct applications can also provide a pool of potential employees to meet future needs.

From employees’ viewpoint, walk-ins are preferable as they are free from the hassles associated with other methods of recruitment. While direct applications are particularly effective in filling entry-level and unskilled vacancies, some organizations compile pools of potential employees from direct applications for skilled positions. Write-ins are those who send written enquiries. These jobseekers are asked to complete application forms for further processing. Talk-ins involves the job aspirants meeting the recruiter (on an appropriated date) for detailed talks. No application is required to be submitted to the recruiter. • Contractors:- They are used to recruit casual workers.

The names of the workers are not entered in the company records and, to this extent; difficulties experienced in maintaining permanent workers are avoided. • Consultants:- They are in the profession for recruiting and selecting managerial and executive personnel. They are useful as they have nationwide contacts and lend professionalism to the hiring process. They also keep prospective employer and employee anonymous. However, the cost can be a deterrent factor. • Head Hunters:- They are useful in specialized and skilled candidate working in a particular company. An agent is sent to represent the recruiting company and offer is made to the candidate.

This is a useful source when both the companies involved are in the same field, and the employee is reluctant to take the offer since he fears, that his company is testing his loyalty. • Radio, Television and Internet:- Radio and television are used to reach certain types of job applicants such as skilled workers. Radio and television are used but sparingly, and that too, by government departments only. Companies in the private sector are hesitant to use the media because of high costs and also because they fear that such advertising will make the companies look desperate and damage their conservative image. However, there is nothing inherently desperate about using radio and television.

It depends upon what is said and how it is delivered. Internet is becoming a popular option for recruitment today. There are specialized sites like naukri. com. Also, websites of companies have a separate section wherein; aspirants can submit their resumes and applications. This provides a wider reach. • Competitors:- This method is popularly known as “poaching” or “raiding” which involves identifying the right people in rival companies, offering them better terms and luring them away. For instance, several executives of HMT left to join Titan Watch Company. There are legal and ethical issues involved in raiding rival firms for potential candidates.

From the legal point of view, an employee is expected to join a new organization only after obtaining a ‘no objection certificate’ from his/ her present employer. Violating this requirement shall bind the employee to pay a few months’ salary to his/ her present employer as a punishment. However, there are many ethical issues attached to it. • Mergers and Acquisitions:- When organizations combine, they have a pool of employees, out of whom some may not be necessary any longer. As a result, the new organization has, in effect, a pool of qualified job applicants. As a result, new jobs may be created. Both new and old jobs may be readily staffed by drawing the best-qualified applicants from this employee pool. This method facilitates the immediate implementation of an organization’s strategic plan.

It enables an organization to pursue a business plan, However, the need to displace employees and to integrate a large number of them rather quickly into a new organization means that the personnel-planning and selection process becomes critical more than ever. 4. 3 Evaluation of Internal & External Recruitment: Merits and Demerits of ‘Recruiting people from ‘Within’ |Merits |Demerits | | | | |1) Economical: The cost of recruiting internal candidates is |1) Limited Choice: The organization is forced to select candidates| |minimal. No expenses are incurred on advertising. from a limited pool. It may have to sacrifice quality and settle down| |2) Suitable: The organization can pick the right candidates having |for less qualified candidates. | |the requisite skills. The candidate can choose a right vacancy where|2) Inbreeding: It discourages entry for talented people, available| |their talents can be fully utilized. |outside an organization. Existing employees may fail to behave in | |3) Reliable: The organization has the knowledge about suitability |innovative ways and inject necessary dynamism to enterprise | |of a candidate for a position. ‘Known devils are better than unknown|activities. | |angels! |3) Inefficiency: Promotions based on length of service rather than| |4) Satisfying: A policy of preferring people from within offers |merit, may prove to be a blessing for inefficient candidate. They do | |regular promotional avenues for employees. It motivates them to work|not work hard and prove their worth. | |hard and earn promotions. They will work with loyalty commitment and| | |enthusiasm. |4) Bone of contention: Recruitment from within may lead to | | |infighting among employees aspiring for limited, higher level | | |positions in an organization.

As years roll by, the race for premium | | |positions may end up in a bitter race. | The merits and demerits of recruiting candidates from outside an organization may be stated thus: Merits and Demerits of External sources of Recruitment |Merits |Demerits | | | | |Wide Choice: The organization has the freedom to select |Expenses: Hiring costs could go up substantially.

Tapping multifarious | |candidates from a large pool. Persons with requisite |sources of recruitment is not an easy task either. | |qualifications could be picked up. | | | |Time consuming: It takes time to advertise, screen, to test and test and to | |Infection of fresh blood: People with special skills and |select suitable employees. Where suitable ones are not available, the | |knowledge could be hired to stir up the existing employees |process has to be repeated. | |and pave the way for innovative ways of working. | | |De-motivating: Existing employees who have put in considerable service may | |Motivational force: It helps in motivating internal |resist the process of filling up vacancies from outside. The feeling that | |employees to work hard and compete with external candidates |their services have not been recognized by the organization, forces then to | |while seeking career growth. Such a competitive atmosphere |work with less enthusiasm and motivation. | |would help an employee to work to the best of his abilities. | | |Uncertainty: There is no guarantee that the organization, ultimately will be| |Long term benefits: Talented people could join the ranks, |able to hire the services of suitable candidates. It may end up hiring | |new ideas could find meaningful expression, a competitive |someone who does not fit and who may not be able to adjust in the new setup. | |atmosphere would compel people to give out their best and | | |earn rewards, etc. | | | | SELECTION The size of the labour market, the image of the company, the place of posting, the nature of job, the compensation package and a host of other factors influence the manner of aspirants are likely to respond to the recruiting efforts of the company. Through the process of recruitment the company tries to locate prospective employees and encourages them to apply for vacancies at various levels. Recruiting, thus, provides a pool of applicants for selection. To select mean to choose.

Selection is the process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organisation. The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. 5. 1 PURPOSE OF SELECTION The purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job in an organisation best, to find out which job applicant will be successful, if hired. To meet this goal, the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in terms of age, qualifications, skills, experience, etc. the needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates.

The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants through successive stages of selection process. How well an employee is matched to a job is very important because it is directly affects the amount and quality of employee’s work. Any mismatched in this regard can cost an organisation a great deal of money, time and trouble, especially, in terms of training and operating costs. In course of time, the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration. He may even circulate ‘hot news’ and juicy bits of negative information about the company, causing incalculable harm to the company in the long run. Effective election, therefore, demands constant monitoring of the ‘fit’ between people the job. 5. 2 SELECTION PROCESS

Selection is along process, commencing from the preliminary interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of employment. The following chart gives an idea about selection process: – 5. 2. 1 ENVIRONMENT FACTOR AFFECTING SELECTION: – Selection is influenced by several factors. More prominent among them are supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market, unemployment rate, labour- market conditions, legal and political considerations, company’s image, company’s policy, human resources planning and cost of hiring. The last three constitute the internal environment and the remaining form the external environment of selection process. 5. 2. 2 STEP 1: PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW

The applicants received from job seekers would be subject to scrutiny so as to eliminate unqualified applicants. This is usually followed by a preliminary interview the purpose of which is more or less the same as scrutiny of application, that is, eliminate of unqualified applicants. Scrutiny enables the HR specialists to eliminate unqualified jobseekers based on the information supplied in their application forms. Preliminary interview, on the other hand, helps reject misfits for reason, which did not appear in the application forms. Besides, preliminary interview, often called ‘courtesy interview’, is a good public relation exercise. 5. 2. 3 STEP 2: SELECTION TEST:

Job seekers who pass the screening and the preliminary interview are called for tests. Different types of tests may be administered, depending on the job and the company. Generally, tests are used to determine the applicant’s ability, aptitude and personality. The following are the type of tests taken: 1). Ability tests: – Assist in determining how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job. An excellent illustration of this is the typing tests given to a prospective employer for secretarial job. Also called as ‘ACHEIVEMENT TESTS’. It is concerned with what one has accomplished. When applicant claims to know something, an achievement test is taken to measure how well they know it.

Trade tests are the most common type of achievement test given. Questions have been prepared and tested for such trades as asbestos worker, punch-press operators, electricians and machinists. There are, of course, many unstandardised achievement tests given in industries, such as typing or dictation tests for an applicant for a stenographic position. 2). Aptitude test: – Aptitude tests measure whether an individuals has the capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training. The use of aptitude test is advisable when an applicant has had little or no experience along the line of the job opening. Aptitudes tests help determine a person’s potential to learn in a given area.

An example of such test is the general management aptitude tests (GMAT), which many business students take prior to gaining admission to a graduate business school programme. Aptitude test indicates the ability or fitness of an individual to engage successfully in any number of specialized activities. They cover such areas clerical aptitude, numerical aptitude, mechanical aptitude, motor co-ordination, finger dexterity and manual dexterity. These tests help to detect positive negative points in a person’s sensory or intellectual ability. They focus attention on a particular type of talent such as learning or reasoning in respect of a particular field of work. Forms of aptitude test: a. Mental or intelligence tests:

They measure the overall intellectual ability of a person and enable to know whether the person has the mental ability to deal with certain problems. b. Mechanical aptitude tests: They measure the ability of a person to learn a particular type of mechanical work. These tests helps to measure specialized technical knowledge and problem solving abilities if the candidate. They are useful in selection of mechanics, maintenance workers, etc. c. Psychomotor or skills tests: They are those, which measure a person’s ability to do a specific job. Such tests are conducted in respect of semi- skilled and repetitive jobs such as packing, testing and inspection, etc. 3). Intelligence test:

This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. Mental ability, presence of mind (alertness), numerical ability, memory and such other aspects can be measured. The intelligence is probably the most widely administered standardized test in industry. It is taken to judge numerical, skills, reasoning, memory and such other abilities. 4). Interest Test: This is conducted to find out likes and dislikes of candidates towards occupations, hobbies, etc. such tests indicate which occupations are more in line with a person’s interest. Such tests also enable the company to provide vocational guidance to the selected candidates and even to the existing employees.

These tests are used to measure an individual’s activity preferences. These tests are particularly useful for students considering many careers or employees deciding upon career changes. 5). Personality Test: The importance of personality to job success is undeniable. Often an individual who possesses the intelligence, aptitude and experience for certain has failed because of inability to get along with and motivate other people. It is conducted to judge maturity, social or interpersonal skills, behavior under stress and strain, etc. this test is very much essential on case of selection of sales force, public relation staff, etc. where personality plays an important role.

Personality tests are similar to interest tests in that they, also, involve a serious problem of obtaining an honest answer. 6). Projective Test: This test requires interpretation of problems or situations. For example, a photograph or a picture can be shown to the candidates and they are asked to give their views, and opinions about the picture. 7). General knowledge Test: Now days G. K. Tests are very common to find general awareness of the candidates in the field of sports, politics, world affairs, current affairs. 8). Perception Test: At times perception tests can be conducted to find out beliefs, attitudes, and mental sharpness. etc. 9). Graphology Test: It is designed to analyze the handwriting of individual.

It has been said that an individual’s handwriting can suggest the degree of energy, inhibition and spontaneity, as well as disclose the idiosyncrasies and elements of balance and control. For example, big letters and emphasis on capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and competitiveness. A slant to the right, moderate pressure and good legibility show leadership potential. 10). Polygraph Test: Polygraph is a lie detector, which is designed to ensure accuracy of the information given in the applications. Department store, banks, treasury offices and jewellery shops, that is, those highly vulnerable to theft or swindling may find polygraph tests useful. 11). Medical Test: It reveals physical fitness of a candidate.

With the development of technology, medical tests have become diversified. Medical servicing helps measure and monitor a candidate’s physical resilience upon exposure to hazardous chemicals. CHOOSING TESTS: The test must be chosen in the criteria of reliability, validity, objectivity and standardization. They are: – 1. RELIABILITY: – It refers to standardization of the procedure of administering and scoring the test results. A person who takes tests one day and makes a certain score should be able to take the same test the next day or the next week and make more or less the same score. An individual’s intelligence, for example, is generally a stable characteristic.

So if we administer an intelligence test, a person who scores 110 in March would score close to 110 if tested in July. Tests, which produce wide variations in results, serve little purpose in selection. 2. VALIDITY: – It is a test, which helps predict whether a person will be successful in a given job. A test that has been validated can be helpful in differentiating between prospective employees who will be able to perform the job well and those who will not. Naturally, no test will be 100% accurate in predicting job success. A validated test increases possibility of success. There are three ways of validating a test. They are as follows: – 1).

Concurrent Validity: – this involves determining the factors that are characteristics of successful employees and then using these factors as the yardsticks. 2). Predictive Validity: – it involves using a selection test during the selection process and then identifying the successful candidates. The characteristics of both successful and less successful candidates are then identified. 3). Synthetic Validity: – it involves taking parts of several similar jobs rather than one complete job to validate the selection test. 3. OBJECTIVITY: – When two or more people can interpret the result of the same test and derive the same conclusion(s), the test is said to be objective. Otherwise, the test evaluators’ subjective opinions may render the test useless. 4.

STANDARDRIZATION: – A test that is standardized is administered under standard condition to a large group of person who are representatives of the individuals for whom it is intended. The purpose of standardization is to obtain norms or standard, so that a specific test score can be meaningful when compared to other score in the group. 5. 2. 4 STEP 3: INTERVIEW: The next step in the selection process is an interview. Interview is formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability. It is considered to be excellent selection device. It is face-to-face exchange of view, ideas and opinion between the candidates and interviewers.

Basically, interview is nothing but an oral examination of candidates. Interview can be adapted to unskilled, skilled, managerial and profession employees. Objectives of interview: – Interview has at least three objectives and they are a follows: – I. Helps obtain additional information from the applicants II. Facilitates giving general information to the applicants such as company policies, job, products manufactured and the like III. Helps build the company’s image among the applicants. Types of interview: – Interviews can be of different types. There interviews employed by the companies. Following are the various types of interview: – 1) Informal Interview:

An informal interview is an oral interview and may take place anywhere. The employee or the manager or the personnel manager may ask a few almost inconsequential questions like name, place of birth, names of relatives etc. either in their respective offices or anywhere outside the plant of company. It id not planned and nobody prepares for it. This is used widely when the labour market is tight and when you need workers badly. 2) Formal Interview: Formal interviews may be held in the employment office by he employment office in a more formal atmosphere, with the help of well structured questions, the time and place of the interview will be stipulated by the employment office. 3) Non-directive Interview:

Non-directive interview or unstructured interview is designed to let the interviewee speak his mind freely. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions, but his all attention is to the candidate. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding whenever he is silent e. g. “Mr. Ray, please tell us about yourself after your graduated from high school”. The idea is o give the candidate complete freedom to “sell” himself, without the encumbrances of the interviewer’s question. But the interviewer must be of higher caliber and must guide and relate the information given by the applicant to the objective of the interview. 4) Depth Interview:

It is designed to intensely examine the candidate’s background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates. For example, if the candidate says that he is interested in tennis, a series of questions may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate. These probing questions must be asked with tact and through exhaustive analysis; it is possible to get a good picture of the candidate. 5) Stress Interview: It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by him under conditions of stress and strain. The interviewer may start with “Mr.

Joseph, we do not think your qualifications and experience are adequate for this position,’ and watch the reaction of the candidates. A good candidates will not yield, on the contrary he may substantiate why he is qualified to handle the job. This type of interview is borrowed from the Military organisation and this is very useful to test behaviour of individuals when they are faced with disagreeable and trying situations. 6) Group Interview: It is designed to save busy executive’s time and to see how the candidates may be brought together in the employment office and they may be interviewed. 7) Panel Interview: A panel or interviewing board or selection committee may interview the candidate, usually in the case of supervisory and managerial positions.

This type of interview pools the collective judgment and wisdom of the panel in the assessment of the candidate and also in questioning the faculties of the candidate. [pic] 8) Sequential Interview: The sequential interview takes the one-to-one a step further and involves a series of interview, usually utilizing the strength and knowledgebase of each interviewer, so that each interviewer can ask questions in relation to his or her subject area of each candidate, as the candidate moves from room to room. 9) Structures Interview: In a structured interview, the interviewer uses preset standardized questions, which are put to all the interviewees.

This interview is also called as ‘Guided’ or ‘Patterned’ interview. It is useful for valid results, especially when dealing with the large number of applicants. 10) Unstructured Interview: It is also known as ‘Unpatterned’ interview, the interview is largely unplanned and the interviewee does most of the talking. Unguided interview is advantageous in as much as it leads to a friendly conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee and in the process, the later reveals more of his or her desire and problems. But the Unpatterned interview lacks uniformity and worse, this approach may overlook key areas of the applicant’s skills or background.

It is useful when the interviewer tries to probe personal details of the candidate it analyse why they are not right for the job. 11) Mixed Interview: In practice, the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured and unstructured questions. This approach is called the Mixed Interview. The structured questions provide a base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants. 12) Impromptu Interviews: This interview commonly occurs when employers are approached directly and tends to be very informal and unstructured. Applicants should be prepared at all times for on-the-spot interviews, especially in situations such as a job fair or a cold call.

It is an ideal time for employers to ask the candidate some basic questions to determine whether he/she may be interested in formally interviewing the candidate. 13) Dinner Interviews: These interviews may be structured, informal, or socially situated, such as in a restaurant. Decide what to eat quickly, some interviewers will ask you to order first (do not appear indecisive). Avoid potentially messy foods, such as spaghetti. Be prepared for the conversation to abruptly change from friendly chat to direct interview questions, however, do not underestimate the value of casual discussion, some employers place a great value on it. Be prepared to switch gears rapidly, from fun talk to business talk. 4) Telephone Interviews: Have a copy of your resume and any points you want to remember to say nearby. If you are on your home telephone, make sure that all roommates or family members are aware of the interview (no loud stereos, barking dogs etc. ). Speak a bit slower than usual. It is crucial that you convey your enthusiasm verbally, since the interviewer cannot see your face. If there are pauses, do not worry; the interviewer is likely just taking some notes. 15) Second Interviews: Job seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initial interview. Middle or senior management generally conducts the second interview, together or separately.

Applicants can expect more in-depth questions, and the employer will be expecting a greater level of preparation on the part of the candidates. Applicants should continue to research the employer following the first interview, and be prepared to use any information gained through the previous interview to their advantage. 5. 2. 5 STEP 4: REFERENCE CHECK:- Many employers request names, addresses, and telephone numbers of references for the purpose of verifying information and perhaps, gaining additional background information on an applicant. Although listed on the application form, references are not usually checked until an applicant has successfully eached the fourth stage of a sequential selection process. When the labour market is very tight, organisations sometimes hire applicants before checking references. Previous employers, known as public figures, university professors, neighbours or friends can act as references. Previous employers are preferable because they are already aware of the applicant’s performance. But, the problem with this reference is the tendency on the part of the previous employers to over-rate the applicant’s performance just to get rid of the person. Organisations normally seek letters of reference or telephone references. The latter is advantageous because of its accuracy and low cost.

The telephone reference also has the advantage of soliciting immediate, relatively candid comments and attitude can sometimes be inferred from hesitations and inflections in speech. It may be stated that the information gathered through references hardly influence selection decisions. The reasons are obvious: • The candidate approaches only those persons who would speak well about him or her. • People may write favorably about the candidate in order to get rid of him or her. • People may not like to divulge the truth about a candidate, lest it might damage or ruin his/her career. 5. 2. 6 STEP 5: SELECTION DECISION:- After obtaining information through the preceding steps, selection decision- the most critical of all the steps- must be made.

The other stages in the selection process have been used to narrow the number of the candidates. The final decision has to be made the pool of individuals who pas the tests, interviews and reference checks. The view of the line manager will be generally considered in the final selection because it is he/she who is responsible for the performance of the new employee. The HR manager plays a crucial role in the final selection. 5. 2. 7 STEP 6: PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: – After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is, often, contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination.

The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records. There are several objectives behind a physical test. Obviously, one reason for a physical test is to detect if the individual carries any infectious disease. Secondly, the test assists in determining whether an applicant is physically fit to perform the work. Thirdly, the physical examination information can be used to determine if there are certain physical capabilities, which differentiate successful and less successful employees. Fourth, medical check-up protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to them or might otherwise endanger the employer’s property.

Finally, such an examination will protect the employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid because the injuries or illness were present when the employee was hired. 5. 2. 8 STEP 7: JOB OFFER: – The next step in the selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. Job offer is made through a letter of appointed. Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty. The appointee must be given reasonable time for reporting. Thos is particularly necessary when he or she is already in employment, in which case the appointee is required to obtain a relieving certificate from the previous employer.

Again, a new job may require movement to another city, which means considerable preparation, and movement of property. The company may also want the individual to delay the date of reporting on duty. If the new employee’s first job upon joining the company is to go on company until perhaps a week before such training begins. Naturally, this practice cannot be abused, especially if the individual is unemployed and does not have sufficient finances. Decency demands that the rejected applicants be informed about their non-selection. Their applicants may be preserved for future use, if any. It needs no emphasis that the applications of selected candidates must also be preserved for the future references. 5. . 9 STEP 8: CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT: – After the job offer has bee mad and candidates accept the offer, certain documents need to be executed by the employer and the candidate. One such document is the attestation form. This form contains vital details about the candidate, which are authenticated and attested by him/her. Attestation form will be a valid record for the future reference. There is also a need for preparing a contract of employment. The basic information that should be included in a written contract of employment will vary according to the level of the job, but the following checklist sets out the typical headings: 1. Job title 2.

Duties, including a parse such as “The employee will perform such duties and will be responsible to such a person, as the company may from time to time direct”. 3. Date when continuous employment starts and the basis for calculating service. 4. Rate of pay, allowance, overtime and shift rates, method of payments. 5. Hours of work including lunch break and overtime and shift arrangements. 6. Holiday arrangements: I) Paid holidays per year. II) Calculation of holiday pay. III) Qualifying period. IV) Accrual of holidays and holiday pay. V) Details of holiday year. VI) Dates when holidays can be taken. VII) Maximum holiday that can be take at any one time. VIII) Carry over of holiday entitlement. IX) Public holidays. 7.

Length of notice due to and from employee. 8. Grievances procedure (or reference to it). 9. Disciplinary procedure (or any reference to it). 10. Work rules (or any reference to them). 11. Arrangements for terminating employment. 12. Arrangements for union membership (if applicable). 13. Special terms relating to rights to patent s and designs, confidential information and restraints on trade after termination of employment. 14. Employer’s right to vary terms of the contract subject to proper notification being given. 5. 2. 10 STEP 9: CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS: – Contrary to popular perception, the selection process will not end with executing the employment contract.

There is another step – amore sensitive one reassuring those candidates who have not selected, not because of any serious deficiencies in their personality, but because their profile did not match the requirement of the organisation. They must be told that those who were selected were done purely on relative merit. 5. 2. 11 STEP 10: EVALUATION OF SELECTION PROGRAMME: – The broad test of the effectiveness of the selection process is the quality of the personnel hired. An organisation must have competent and committed personnel. The selection process, if properly done, will ensure availability of such employees. How to evaluate the effectiveness of a selection programme? A periodic audit is the answer. People who work independent of HR department must conduct audit.

The table below contains an outline that highlights the areas and questions to be covered in a systematic evaluation. 5. 3 Four Approaches to Selection: 1). Ethnocentric Selection: In this approach, staffing decisions are made at the organization’s headquarters. Subsidiaries have limited autonomy, and the employees from the headquarters at home and abroad fill key jobs. Nationals from the parent country dominate the organisations at home and abroad. 2). Polycentric Selection: In polycentric selection, each subsidiary is treated as a distinct national entity with local control key financial targets and investment decisions. Local citizens manage subsidiaries, but the key jobs remain with staff from the parent country.

This is the approach, which is largely practiced in our country 3). Regiocentric Selection: – Here, control within the group and the movements of staff are managed on a regional basis, reflecting the particular disposition of business and operations within the group. Regional managers have greater discretion in decision. Movement of staff is largely restricted to specific geographical regions and promotions to the jobs continue to be dominated by managers from the parents company. 4). Geocentric Staffing: – In this case, business strategy is integrated thoroughly on global basis. Staff development and promotion are based on ability, not nationality.

The broad and other parts of the top management structure are thoroughly international in composition. Needless to say, such organisations are uncommon. 5. 4PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE SELECTION: – The main objective of selection is to hire people having competence and commitment. This objective s often defeated because of certain barriers. The impediments, which check effectiveness of selection, are perception, fairness, validity, reliability and pressure. Perception: – Our inability to understand others accurately is probably the most fundamental barrier to selecting the right candidate. Selection demands an individual or a group of people to assess and compare the respective competencies of others, with the aim of choosing the right ersons for the jobs. But our views are highly personalized. We all perceive the world differently. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of the people. Fairness: – Fairness in selection requires that no individual should be discriminated against on the basis of religion, region, race or gender. But the low numbers of women and other less privileged sections of the society in middle and senior management positions and open discrimination on the basis of age in job advertisements and in the selection process would suggest that all the efforts to minimize inequity have not been effective. Validity: –

Validity, as explained earlier, is a test that helps predict job performance of an incumbent. A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who perform well and those who will not. However, a validated test does not predict job success accurately. It can only increase possibility of success. Reliability: – A reliable method is one, which will produce consistent results when repeated in similar situations. Like validated test, a reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision. Pressure: – Pressure is brought on the selectors by politicians, bureaucrats, relatives, friends and peers to select particular candidates. Candidates selected because of compulsions are obviously not the right ones.

Appointments to public sectors undertakings generally take place under such pressures. 5. 5Selection Practices: The following throws light on how the global giants use selection testing as a basis for picking up the right candidates to fill up the vacancies arising internally: 1. Siemens India: It uses extensive psychometric instruments to evaluate short-listed candidates. The company uses occupational personality questionnaire to understand the candidate’s personal attributes and occupational testing to m

Cite this Recruiting and Selecting staff

Recruiting and Selecting staff. (2018, May 23). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/recruitment-and-selection-essay/

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