REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents both foreign and local related literatures relevant to the study. This relevance is shown by the proponents in order to give more reason and understanding of the proposition. Related Literature and Studies
Downsides in Caffeine
New research from John Hopkins Medical School shows that performance increases due to caffeine intake are the result of caffeine drinkers experiencing a short-term reversal of caffeine withdrawal. In essence, coming off caffeine reduces your cognitive performance and has a negative impact on your mood.
Drinking caffeine triggers the release of adrenaline. When caffeine puts your brains and body into this hyper-aroused state, your emotions overrun your behavior. The negative effects of a caffeine-generated adrenaline surge are not just behavioral. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that large doses of caffeine raise blood pressure, stimulate the heart, and produce rapid shallow breathing, which readers of Emotional Intelligence2.0 know deprives the brain of oxygen needed to keep your thinking calm & rational.
For you to wake up feeling rested your brain needs to move through an elaborate series of cycles. You can help this process along and improve the quality of your sleep by reducing your caffeine intake.
Caffeine has a six-hour half-life, which means it takes a full 24 hours to work its way out of your system. Have a cup of joe at 8 A.M. and you will still have 25% of caffeine in your body at 8 p.m. Anything you drink in the afternoon will still be at 50& strength at bedtime. Any caffeine in your bloodstream –- with the negative effects increasing with the dose – makes it harder to fall asleep. Withdrawal from Caffeine
The caffeine withdrawal syndrome has been well-characterized in numerous
rigorous double-blind studies. The potential for caffeine withdrawal to cause clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning is reflected by the inclusion of caffeine withdrawal as an official diagnosis in ICD-10 (World Health Organization) and as a proposed diagnosis in DSM-IVC (American Psychiatric Association). There is also evidence that children experience withdrawal effects during caffeine abstinence.
Signs and symptoms include headache, fatigue, sleepiness/drowsiness, difficulty in concentrating, work difficulty, irritability, depression, anxiety, flu-like symptoms, and impairment in psychomotor, vigilance and cognitive performances.
In healthy & normal caffeine consumers who abstain for 24 hours indicate that the incidence of withdrawal headache is about 50%. The caffeine withdrawal syndrome follows an orderly time course. Onset usually occurs 12 to 24 hours after terminating caffeine intake, although onset as late as 36 hours has been documented. Peek withdrawal intensity has generally been described as occurring 20 to 48 hours after abstinence. The duration of withdrawal has most often been described as ranging between 2 days & 1 week, although longer durations have been occasionally noted. Health Benefits of Drinking Tea
Boosts the immune system. Green tea boosts the number of “regulatory T cells” in the body, which are important for the immune system, according to research from the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University.
Rehydrates. “Studies on caffeine have found very high doses dehydrated and everyone assumes that caffeine-containing beverages dehydrate. But even if you had a really strong cup of tea or coffee which is quite hard to make, you would still have a net gain of fluid’, study researcher Carrie Ruxton of Kings College London, told BBC news.
May Lower Risk of Heart Disease. The University of Maryland Medical Center also found that research has shown that green tea and black ttea have atherosclerosis-preventing effects, although FDA has yet to allow tea makers
to claim that green tea affect heart disease risk.
Could shrink tumors. Scottish researchers found that applying a compound in green tea shrinks tumors in lab tests. The compound is a flavonoid, called epigallocatechin gallate.
Potential Prostate Cancer Treatment, Green tea compounds were the delivery mechanism, bringing the radioactive gold nanoparticles to the tumors. The gold was then able to kill the cancer cells, ABC News reported.
Boosting function in old age. The research, which included 14,000 adultys ages 65 & older over a 3-year period, showed that the ones who drank the most green tea had the best functioning in old age compared with those who drank the least.
Lowers blood pressure. Drinking black tea could slightly decrease blood pressure, according to a study in the Archives of Internal Medicine.
Aids Weight Loss. Drinking 5 cups a day is linked with weight loss, particularly in decreasing belly fat, Health.com reported. Coffee and Its Relation to College Students
The truth is that coffee, like anything consumed in excess, can be very harmful for the body. However, there are also positive effects to use of the substance, which many students may also be unaware of.
Fourth-year Chicano/Chicana studies major and education minor Rosio Almaguier, says she experienced headaches, anxiety and “jittery-ness” while she still drank a lot of coffee (4-5 times a week), but admits, “I just liked the awake feeling and the flavor. That’s why I kept drinking it.” However, she decided to lower her intake after deciding to run in the Sta. Barbara marathon, saying that “coffee dehydrated me and gave me momentary energy, but then I felt really sleepy. I drink tea now, nd coffee about twice a week.”
Fourth-year biochemistry major Julio Orozco drank about 2 cups of coffee a day in his second year of college, & up to two pots during final exams & when pulling an all-nighter. After recovering from gastritis, Julio says, “I
rarely drink it now, But when I do, under certain circumstances, I feel sluggish and hence may want to drink more. But I don’t.”
Soft Drinks’ Comparison to Energy Drinks
On average, energy drinks substantially contain more caffeine than soft drinks. The caffeine content of energy drinks ranges from about 50 to 300 mg in each 8 oz. serving, while caffeinated soft drinks typically have between 20 to 72 mg of caffeine in an average of 12 oz. serving, according to the Centers for Science in the Public Interest.
The specific amount of sugar varies depending on the brandm most nondiet energy drinks contain between 20 to 30g of sugar per serving. Soft drinks, usually contain between 20 to 30g of sugar per serving.
Soft drinks consist mostly of carbonated water and sugar. The other ingredients of the beverage are designed to enhance the taste, color of the product or preserve the freshness of the beverage. Energy drinks typically include variety of supplemented ingredients designed to serve specific purposes. These supplemental ingredients may include B vitamins, tourine, carnitne, glucuron lactose, inositol, ginseng or guarana. Purpose of Caffeine in Athletics
There are many athletes that believe the substance can enhance their physical as well as mental performance. It is supposed that caffeine can improve the athlete’s endurance in sports where long-term stamina is needed. Studies show that caffeine has very little effect on athletes requiring quick burst of energy such as sprinters and swimmers. Also, caffeine has been known to decrease fatigue in athletes, which plays a physical as well as psychological role in the performance of an athlete.
Caffeine’s mental appeal is just as trendy as its physical purpose. Caffeine has been proven to stimulate the nervous system. Caffeine stimulate it at
high levels, like the medulla and cortex, and even has the ability to reach the spinal cord in larger doses. For athletes competing in sports where a quick thinking and rapid reactions are necessary, caffeine can provide a huge edge. However, these results are much more inconsistent than the experiments done on caffeine endurance sports. Coffee Health Benefits
Coffee could lower women’s depression risk. Women who drink 2 to 3 cups of coffee a day have 15% lower risk, while women who drink 4 or more cups have a 20% lower risk.
Coffee could save your brain. A study in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease suggests that there’s something in coffee – that interacts with caffeine to boost levels of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), a growth factor that seems to be able to fight off Alzheimer’s disease in mice.
Coffee could lower men’s prostate cancer risk. A Harvard School of Public Health study shows that men who drink 6 cups of coffee a day have a 60% decreased chance of developing a dangerous form of prostate cancer.
Coffee could ward off the world’s most common cancer. New research presented at the American Association for Cancer Research Conference shows that coffee could help to ward off basal cell carcinoma.
Coffee could protect you from type 2 diabetes. Drinking coffee is associated with a lower Type 2 diabetes risk, with more coffee consumption linked to a greater increase in risk.
Coffee could decrease Parkinson’s risk. Drinking a few cups of coffee a day cold lower the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease by as much as 25% according to a journal published last year in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.