This chapter presents the kind of sources from which the researcher mostly gathered. It also explains the significant information about the references on the specific study. It is a summary of all the theories and findings obtained in the review of related literature relating them to the objective of the problem of the study. Foreign Parenting practices of a representative sample of 1,056 urban mothers with very young children were studied via the Parent Behavior Checklist (Fox, 1994) and the Behavior Screening Questionnaire (Richman & Graham, 1971).
Potential determinants of parenting practices were also addressed, including maternal age, marital status, education level, number of children living at home, and family socioeconomic status. Less positive parenting practices concerning nurturing and discipline were found among mothers who were younger, had more than one child living at home, were single, had a lower income level, and had lower educational attainment. These mothers also tended to perceive their children as demonstrating more difficult behavior problems.
However, the negative influence of some determinants of parenting practices, such as low income, was found to be moderated by the presence of other determinants, such as more education. The present results provide evidence that multiple determinants influence parenting practices among parents of young children. (Robert A. Fox, Donald L. Platz & Kathleen S. Bentley, “Maternal Factors Related to Parenting Practices, Developmental Expectations, and Perceptions of Child Behavior Problems”. 2010, p 431-441).
This article reviews the literature on the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. The review of the empirical research indicates that parental involvement and monitoring are robust predictors of adolescent achievement. Several studies, however, indicate that parental involvement declines in adolescence, prompting the call for future research on the reasons for and associated consequences of this decline. Furthermore, the review indicates that authoritative parenting tyles are often associated with higher levels of student achievement, although these findings are not consistent across culture, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
Darling and Steinberg’s contextual model of parenting provides a promising model to help resolve these discrepancies, however, further research is needed to examine the major linkages of the model. It is also argued that the contextual model should expand its notion of context towards the larger cultural and economic context in which families reside. Spera, Christopher, “Educational Psychology Review: A Review of the Relationship Among Parenting Practices, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent School Achievement”. June 2005, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 125-146). Research over the past 20 years suggests that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship significantly affects the development of risk behaviors in adolescent health. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of studies published between 1996-2007 that address specific relationships between parenting styles and six priority adolescent risk behaviors.
The review supports the substantial influence of parenting style on adolescent development. Adolescents raised in authoritative households consistently demonstrate higher protective and fewer risk behaviors than adolescents from non-authoritative families. There is also considerable evidence to show that parenting styles and behaviors related to warmth, communication and disciplinary practices predict important mediators, including academic achievement and psychosocial adjustment.
Careful examination of parenting style patterns in diverse populations, particularly with respect to physical activity and unintentional injury, will be a critical next step in the development of efficacious, culturally tailored adolescent health promotion interventions. (Kathy Newman Lynda Harrison2 2 Carol Dashiff Susan Davies3 Newman K, Harrison L, Dashiff C, Davies S. “Relationships between parenting styles and risk behaviors in adolescent health: an integrative literature review. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem”. 2008, janeiro-fevereiro; 16(1):142-50).