Adolescence is the developmental period of transition between childhood and adulthood; it involves biological, cognitive and socio emotional changes. These changes transform the young person’s vision of the self into more complex, well- organized and consistent picture. Self-conception of adolescents changes in structure As well as content. Structurally it becomes more differentiated and organized.
WHAT IS SELF-CONCEPT?
Self-concept refers to self-evaluation or self perception, and it represents the sum of an individual’s beliefs about his or her own attributes. Self concept reflects how an adolescent evaluates himself or herself in domains (or areas) in which he or she considers success important. An adolescent can have a positive self-concept in some domains and a negative self-concept in others. Research also suggests that each individual has a global (or overall) self concept that reflects how the individual evaluates his or her self-worth as a whole.
An adolescent can make targeted self-evaluations in a number of different domains. Researchers have identified the following eight domains that make up an adolescent’s self-concept:
• Scholastic competence
• Athletic competence
• Physical appearance
• Peer acceptance
• Close friendships
• Romantic relationships
• Job competence
Negative self-concept in adolescence has been associated with depression, drug use, and eating disorders in girls. Both male and female adolescents struggle with negative selfconcepts, but female adolescents tend to worry more about physical appearance than do males.
SIGNS OF NEGATIVE SELF-CONCEPT IN ADOLESCENTS
Several signs may indicate that an adolescent has a negative self-concept. These may include one or more of the following:
• Doing poorly in school;
• Having few friends;
• Putting down oneself and others;
• Rejecting compliments;
• Teasing others;
• Showing excessive amounts of anger;
• Being excessively jealous;
• Appearing conceited; or
• Hesitating to try new things.
For adolescents, having a high academic self-concept is associated with positive academic performance and having a high physical self-concept is related to increased physical activity are some examples. Positive overall self-concepts have been linked to various markers of positive development, including positive peer relationships and overall happiness. There are two seemingly conflicting views regarding the role of gender on the self-concept of adolescents.
Some researchers suggest that young girls show lower self-esteem compared to boys (Oliva, 1999). According to them these differential patterns of self-appraisal have their origins partly in parental gender linked beliefs and partly in cultural stereotypes regarding their capabilities. Some other empirical studies have found no gender difference in the self-esteem of the adolescents. In recent years Indian family life has undergone so many transformations, there have been remarkable attitudinal changes regarding women. The women are no longer seen to have assumed the role of secondary earners in their families; rather they have risen to the height of primary earners or atleast co- earners. In many fields, women prove their intelligence, efficiency and expertise as their male counterparts. Young adolescent girls are very much aware of the prevailing cultural standard of attractiveness. When they meet these standards, their self-esteem is enhanced. If they are not able to meet the standards, their self- esteem is harmed. They face fermidable challenges in meeting the punishing cultural standards of attractiveness.
During early adolescence, sometimes there is a decline in the self-esteem of girls for negative body image. Evidence suggests that men derive self-esteem more from individuating themselves from others (i.e. feeling unique in comparison with others), where as women derive self-esteem in terms of their connection to others. Cross & Madson (1997) argue that many of the sex differences we observe in behaviour are due to different ways men and women define themselves.
Men maintain an independent sense of self that is separate from others; women by contrast, maintain an interdependent sense of self in which others are integrated into the self. Men are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their independence from others (emphasizing personal attributes and skills) and women are more likely to describe themselves in terms of their connections to others (emphasizing roles, relationship to others). Andrew (2002) found that boys scored significantly lower on social self-concept than girls.
RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY
Positive interactions, relationships, and social environment can influence academic performance (Murphy , 2003). Ferguson (2003) discovered an association between teachers’ perceptions, expectations, and behaviors and their students’ beliefs, behaviors, work habits and development of self concept. Because academic environments (secondary and higher secondary) differ from place to place, it is useful to determine the effects on students who has undergone transition and entered college to acquire degree in different streams of education. Thus the current study will explore exploring the relationship between the self-concept and the academic achievement of these students so that it may assist educators to improve students’in these areas.
STUDY OF SELF CONCEPT AMONG ADOLESCENCE BOYS AND GIRLS
* To study the demographic factors such as age, locale and socio economic status among boys and girls * To study self concept among boys and girls
* To study self concept among boys and girls of different stream of education in the degree college. * To study self concept among boys and girls in relation to their academic achievement. Sample:
* The present study will be conducted on a sample of 200 students comprising of 100 boys and 100 girls in the age group of 17-19 years undergoing college education in different streams. Random sampling technique will be adopted to select the sample from different colleges of Jammu province.
Degree colleges of Jammu province
Tools and Description
Measures of ‘Self-Concept Scale’ (Hadley et al, 2008) will be used to measure self concept. The scale measures following domains of self-concept: scholastic competence, athletic competence, physical appearance, peer acceptance, and conduct/morality. individuals has to rate the extent to which they personally agree with each of a series of six statements from Strongly Disagree, Disagre, Neither, Agree, Agree Strongly. Statistical analysis
The data collected will be subjected to statistical analysis by using Mean, S.D, Z test (Critical Ratio for large sample), and chi square test to facilitate interpretation. In this study two level of significance will be considered viz.0.05 and 0.01 levels.
·Limited sample (100 boys and 100 girls) restrict generalization of the study to the population. ·Moreover effects of other parameters like value, intelligence and parent’s and teachers perception regarding self concept will not be evaluated.
Understanding of development of self concept will help in further empirically-based interventions and design measurement tools that educators can use to facilitate development of the same and build competenceys among student.
Ferguson, R. F. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions and expectations and the Black-White test score gap. Urban Education, 48, 460-507.
Murphy, J. C. (2003). Rural, urban, and minority education—Kayla, Carmela, Valencia, Franklin, and Trey: Case studies in African American school success and parenting behaviors. Journal of Early Education and Family Review, 10, 33-45.
Hadley, AM, Elizabeth, MS, Hair, C and Moore, KA.(2008) Assessing what kid think about themselves: A guide to adolescents self concept for out of school time program practitioners . Child trends, 32 2-6.
Rath S, Nanda S, (2012) self Concept: A Psychological Study on adolescence. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(5),49-61.