This study is about the hiring system in Ilocos Sur. The hiring system has become an interesting topic nowadays since it is very relevant to current situation of the society which is the increasing rate in unemployment. Padrino System is the most common system that is very rampant in every place, wherein the person gets the job because he/she has relative in the company being applied to.
In return this system creates undesirable outputs from the person hired. The topic Padrino System was selected and given emphasis by the author according to the relevance in today’s current situation. Each condition is specifically analyzed in different aspects and parts to further understand the study. In doing so, one will be able to broaden one’s ideas and analysis in certain conditions in relation to the topic about Padrino System. This will also have an analysis of the general condition using a theory application-which most probably is conflict theory, a theory discussed in class with relation to the theories presented about hiring.
This paper was developed as a requirement and further study of the Human Resource Development presented in class and as a meaningful output of all the lectures and discussions that happened during class. Analysis was done by choosing a theoretical orientation from the ones discussed in class. Students and professionals are the intended audiences of this study. This study will hopefully be of help in the development of concrete analysis and plans not just towards the Human Resource development in hiring, but of the holistic development as well.
The informations contained in this study were based on researches provided by related literature and on- line based sources, more of secondary sources. Sources related to the study are referred to the bibliography at the end of the study. Conclusions are from the author of the text, as a product of understanding from the related sources. With all the informations and analysis represented, may this hopefully, a stepping stone in solving problems of today’s society. Objectives: This study aims at definite objectives. Generally, this study aims to:
- To apply learned theories in Human Resource Development class through thorough research, investigation and analysis of the given data.
- To understand Human Resource Development theories for further studies.
- To be able to give out a concrete and useful out put out of the learned theoretical orientations discussed in class.
Furthermore, it desires to accomplish these Specific objectives:
- To construct a study applying the theories learned in Human Resource Development class.
- To be able to provide informations in the up- to- date state of hiring.
- To provide ways on how to alleviate the corrupt practice of Padrino System.
Definition of Terms
- Padrino System – (patronage in the Filipino culture and politics) is the value system where one gains favor, promotion, or political appointment through family affiliation (nepotism) or friendship (cronyism), as opposed to one’s merit.
- Nepotism – favoritism granted to relatives regardless of merit.
- Cronyism – partiality to long-standing friends, especially by appointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications.
SITUATIONS CONCERNING PADRINO SYSTEM
Economically, Padrino System is obviously challenged. Mostly, this is caused by the cultural value that has been inherited from the Spanish. Filipinos cherish the ancestral trait of “bayanihan” which means cooperation. However, this can be used to the extreme through “pakikisama” which means that Filipinos prefer smooth relations with colleagues, friends and relatives, even when those others are wrong.
They also have a high sense of gratitude (“utang na loob”): showing appreciation or returning the favour to someone who did something beneficial to you. The “padrino” (godfather) system is still in force. In this case, a “padrino” who is a person of position will get things done faster for you through his clout. It should be noted though that a non-local (expat) is not expected to abide by the unwritten rules of “utang na loob”. Be firm about operational standards and procedures and be transparent with these.
The political situation in our society is at its worst. No matter how we try to change how the things work in our political system, there are still some things that just will not go easily. More and more officials of the government, no matter how they are placed in the government succumb to transactions full of anomalies. The “honesty” infused to us seems to be disappearing because of the overwhelming effects of materialism and the worsening effects of socio- economic conditions. Our excessive desire to own more wealth and money made the virtue of honesty to be a thing of the past. The padrino system is the main cause of graft and corruption.
In every new administration, it is the common practice of the newly elected President of a country or a newly installed President and Chairman of the Board of a company or the newly appointed department head to employ his or her own confidants and team of advisers. The favored persons may be some relatives, friends. classmates or associates. The grateful appointee naturally becomes a loyal follower of the appointing official and the willing conspirator in wrongdoings. The “padrino system” is embedded in many offices especially the government. Vacancies or jobs are created for the proteges.
Promotions are no longer based on seniority or performance but on right connections. It is the same as the “compadre system” whereby an enterprising subordinate will persuade his superior to be the godfather of his son to get promotion or salary increase. These corrupt practices often lead to the bloating of the bureaucracy such that a department secretary may have four undersecretaries and numberless assistant secretaries. In the guise of reorganization to streamline the bureaucracy, a new administration can fire or retire early, tens of thousands of civil servants and replace them with their own people.
In terms of decision making in the Philippine politics, the politicians are of course more on the Upper class. The Upper class provides them the money for all the things they wish to do. Meanwhile, they deceive the lower class people thinking that they know nothing. They try to get their hearts for personal goals. Poor people are deprived with their political rights because many of them are illiterate- no read, no write. In just small amounts, politicians are able to mislead them to do things for them.
The tradition of corruption in Philippine society began during the Spanish colonial era. There was little opportunity for the individual native to move upward socially and economically as these opportunities were controlled by the colonial elite, mostly Spanish high government officials, the Spanish friars, the peninsulars (Spaniards born in Spain who lived and worked in the Philippines), the insulars (sons and daughters of the peninsulars who were born in the Philippines), and the native principalia (lower government officials).
Among the significant ‘qualifications’ for one to become a member of the principalia or to occupy a government position was to have a Spanish or a wealthy native padrino (an influential person who backs one up for a government position), generally a friar or one who was close to a friar since the consent of the friar was then necessary for a native to be in government. The padrino system also applied to positions in private companies and the padrino must be close to the owner or to a high official of those companies.
The padrino system was socially propped up by he compadre system. It was very important to have many compadres or extended social relations with influential persons of society. One had to be a sponsor in weddings, baptisms, and the like, and the co-sponsors became his or her kumares and kumpares, a social relationship which is next only to kinship (or blood relationship). The sponsor also meets other influential persons in these affairs who are potential padrinos. Sometimes people attended social affairs chiefly for the purpose of meeting potential padrinos by striking up friendships with influential people.
Initially one approaches a padrino for a favor, any favor, such as helping one’s son or daughter to be accommodated as an employee of a certain company or a branch of government. A gift is given as a token of gratitude. This is followed by a second request for a favor, and a third, and this time with or without a gift. But always there is a build-up of expectation from the padrino of a reciprocal favor in the future, and sometimes this reciprocal favor may contain corrupt elements.
For example, if one is working at the Bureau of Internal Revenue, then the reciprocal favor will be to fix the padrino’s income tax returns so that the latter will pay the government only a minimal amount. If the employee refuses, then the padrino will consider the former as walang utang-na-loob (no debt of gratitude), which is a kind of social sin that usually bothers the employee’s conscience far more than cheating the government (or the people).
In other cases, in the second or third favor the padrino demands certain gifts or cash which transforms the initial innocent gift-giving into bribery: the padrino wants to be bribed (the lagay system). The padrino system is only one of the many sources of corruption in Philippine society, but it is one of the most pervasive culturally. It would take many pages to describe the other sources of corruption, but I will briefly note one other cause in finishing this section. The family is close-knit in Philippine society. Part of the reason for familial closeness started during the Spanish colonial era.
Generally the native could not rely for survival on the colonial government, which he felt exploited and oppressed him. Instead, he had to rely on his family and immediate relatives for survival and advancement in society. If he succeeded and occupied a top position in government or in a company, then it was his social obligation and responsibility to help family members and relatives find lucrative jobs in government or in the private sector by using his influence as leverage. In time this has developed into an extensive practice of nepotism and influence peddling. Brief Historical Perspective on the Padrino System
The corrupt practices of the Spanish era continued during the American colonial era where political patronage became a rule. Supporters and members of the political party in power were given plum positions in government even without the necessary qualifications. Thus, in general, the efficiency of public service went down. The Philippine National Bank, for example, during the period when Sergio Osmena, Sr. , was president of the Nacionalista Party, issued loans to political supporters and padrinos without the proper collateral and the bank nearly went bankrupt (see Gripaldo 1994: 6).
The people’s indignation was not enough to create a people power movement, but it led to a change in party leadership and a stricter supervision of government by the succeeding American Governor General. The Japanese Occupation was a period of distress, when one could not rely on the government for efficient public services or for survival, but only on oneself and one’s family. The padrino system came into extensive play, although corruption in government was minimal. During this period the padrino system became a source of strength for survival: from the perspective of the Filipino people it became an instrument for good.
The president of the Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, Jose P. Laurel Sr. , in fact became the foremost padrino of the Filipino people against the ravages of the Japanese occupiers. Through his influence as president he was able to save many people from the clutches of the kempei-tai, the Japanese military secret police. From the point of view of the kempei-tai, however, the padrino system was a disservice to good governance. After the war, when the Philippines became independent, corruption through the padrino system came into play again, and it culminated during the martial law regime of President Marcos.
The social effects that can arise from the padrino system such as nepotism, political patronage, bribery, malversation of funds, smuggling, etc. , were largely unchecked because the political opposition was silenced. Not that there were no good, righteous, and nationalistic (see Constantino, 1978, 42-47) persons among the people and in the public service. Laws with such sanctions as imprisonment were passed in Congress to check corrupt practices, but to no avail. Thepadrino system works in secrecy and in mysterious ways. Another social network working within society and in offices is the pakikisama system.
Even if one knows that something anomalous is being done in office transactions, because the doer is a friend or a compadre one tolerates the action for the sake of pakikisama (loosely translated as camaraderie or smooth interpersonal relation). He assumes the attitude of the proverbial monkey that sees no evil, hears no evil, and speaks no evil. He knows about the transaction perhaps because his friend has told him about it in a drinking session, but his officemates know nothing.
Based on my observation here in our province, the biggest problem I see is the capability of some teachers in teaching! I once encountered a teacher who can’t spell simple English word (cousin to cosine). I wonder how many words are still misspelled by this mentor! You may tell me that this is an isolated case but I will tell you “no,no”! I know a lot of them and I encountered many more. Padrino system in the DepEd should be blamed for this. The right way of hiring of teachers is not properly followed. Not only the hiring but also the way of promoting teachers. Passing the Licensure Examination of Teachers does not guarantee us that the applicant is qualified to teach!
But because passing the board is one of the requirements then let it be, am not against it!! The ranking held every year should be done accordingly. One bad thing I also observe during ranking is the giving of higher points to those who are not deserving applicants because of nepotism and cronyism!! After the ranking is done, the crime will happen again in utilizing the RQA! No matter how good you are, Superintendents, Human Resource , Supervisors will not accommodate you if you are not recommended by someone else. Worst is when you don’t give them something to please their eyes and desires!!!
Most talented applicants are being rejected for unknown reasons. Most gifted applicants are given poor scores during ranking. Why is this so This is so that they have the reason not to hire them if they are included in the RQA!!! This crooked way of hiring teachers is still going on.
Talented and best fitted applicant will be hired if there is only equality. Unemployment is one of the major problems faced worldwide. With all the advancements in our modern world, corruption is still one of the biggest obstacles towards a great change to a better world.
It is now a reality that the unemployment of qualified and employment of unfitted due to padrino system are constantly growing, side by side with all these technological advancements. If we not make some movements to eliminate corruption, we will not be going anywhere other than what we have now. We should also disregard the conflicts and competitions. It really is very impossible now days since our time now is survival of the fittest. Government and the well- to do families should join forces in the fight against corruption. They should be giving more priority to all the resources to eliminate this problem.
Hiring of school officials should follow the proper process. The selection should be based on merits and not to make it as entrepreneurship. Those who passed the licensure examinations with high and satisfactory ratings should be prioritized. Government should be imposing quality service and strict mandate. They should remove the padrino system. Everybody should get what they rightfully deserve. Failure to do so will only add to the numerous problems faced by the society today. The private should also take the initiative in solving certain problems.
Since the government cannot do it alone, it needs people to support them. The more effort in solving these problems, the better, the faster and the more effective the answer will be. In the view of Conflict theorists, the handiwork of the rich people or the dominate group, which is trying to keep the poor and the jobless or subordinate group to be economically unproductive. They make qualifications rigid that not too many people can cope up with the technology. Creating a more unemployed society is the same as increasing sufferings of deprivation, isolation, and alienation of the underprivileged.
Steps in eliminating this system should be taken seriously by the society. Padrino System is corruption. Cheating at school is also something that could lead to corruption. So it’s not only in the government or in big companies. Even having a fake drivers licence is a form of cheating which is similar to corruption. If we want to stop corruption, we should stop just looking from the top, but start concentrating on problems at the bottom as well. We should look into our bad habits. Now, corruption is a part of our culture. It is that bad.
Please don’t teach children how to cheat, teach them how to work hard, teach them how to do their work properly. No matter how much of a small deal we cheat, it can lead to behaviour which can disadvantage so many other people. Discipline should be inculcated at an early age. If people are not taught how to follow rules and regulations when they are still young, they will be shocked to realize once they enter the “adult” world that they will have a hard time coping with life if they keep deviating from the rules that put order in society.
Which is what is happening to most Filipinos now. As for the study itself, It is recommended that the readers of this research study use other sources for data needed. This however will be very helpful. Also, the informations found in this study are based on other related literature. Sudden changes of data are possible. The study specified concentrated analysis on Socio-Economic, Political and Cultural Factors affecting Human Resources Further studies are encouraged to broaden knowledge about the topic.