Text messaging also called texting is an act of sending short message with cell phone using Short Message Services (SMS).1 According to Steve Vosloo in his study about the effects of texting literacy: Modern Scourge or Opportunity? It is stated that texting refers to the use of abbreviations and other techniques to craft SMS and instant message.2
Today, this is a common scene anywhere and everywhere that most of the youth today especially students, while talking, walking, reading, eating and even in the classroom in front of the teacher used cell phone. It is all about messaging, the favourite hobby of the youth today, because of its affordability, it is cheap and easy to use.
In texting, colloquialism is widely used; they often make up words, used shorthand method of texting and grammatical errors just too quickly and shorten the message to compose a text message. They use a shortcut, such as w8 instead of wait, or an initial like LOL for laugh out loud and the very common is the omission of letters, such as the word c-u-d instead of could.
John McWorther says in his article entitled “Is texting killing the English Language” publish in Time Magazine, “texting has long been bemoaned as the downfall of the written word”.3 Texting is the most powerful application ever created that it influence more a billion of people around the globe. In fact, its influence can be seen on their performances like the corruption of language and the degradation in the spelling of the youth.
In general, continuous evolution of language in texting has been threatening the ability of the students to use words appropriately.
Nowadays, texting created many issues in language and spelling proficiencies
of the students, despite of the popularity; it is also responsible for the deterioration on the spelling skills among the students.
By looking at these problems, we will know how much texting greatly affect the spelling proficiency of the students of Aemilianum College First Year High School. The researcher wanted to find out a better solution to improve the spelling skills of the students.
Statement of the Study
This study wants to know the impact of texting that have occurred to the First Year High School students of Aemilianum College. This study wants to verify if texting would result in students decline in spelling skills.
1. What is the profile of the students of the Aemilianum College First Year High School? 2. What are the effects of text messaging in their spelling? 3. Can text message abbreviations be interpreted differently? 4. What is the performance of the student-respondents in spelling?
1. There are profiles of the students of Aemilianum College First Year High School. 2. There are effects texting in their spelling.
3. There is considerable variable in the interpretation of abbreviations typically used in text messaging. 4. There is profile of student-respondent.
Scope and Delimitation
The study focuses on the impact of texting on spelling proficiency among the First Year High School students of the Aemilianum College. The respondents of this are the students and the teacher.
Significance of the Study
To get a better idea of the impact of texting on students, a survey will be
conducted in Aemilianum College. The findings will lead to enhance the spelling proficiency of the students. This study is significant to the following:
Students. The findings of the study will be able for them to improve their spelling skills. Teacher. This study can give them knowledge on how to help the students.
Future Researcher. The result of the study can serve as a guide or reference to future researchers of similar profession.
Operational and Conceptual
To achieve clarity and understanding in the discussion of the study, the following are defined operationally: Bemoaned – To express disapproval of or regret.
Cell phone – A device that can make and receive calls and text. Colloquialism – An informal expression that is more often used in casual conversation than in formal speech or writing. Deterioration – The act or process of declining the quality, value or character. Shorthand – A method of texting that shorten the words. A system of writing using symbols to represent words, phrases and letters. Student – A leaner, someone who attends a class.
1. Containerization. (2008). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved August 8, 2013 from www.britannica.com 2. Vosloo, S, (2009). The Effects of Texting on Literacy: Modern Scourage or Opportunity? Shuttle Foundation 3. John, M. (2013, April 23). Is texting killing your language. Time Ideas. Retrieved from ideas.time.com 4. (2005). Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. (11th ed.). Springfield Massachusetts, USA: Merriam – Webster, Inc.
Related Literature and Studies
The researcher has found the following studies and literature as relevant to
the study being proposed.
Foreign Related Literature
Andy Bloxham found out that many teachers are unhappy to the increasing number of children who are using test messaging or social networking sites in place of studying.1
Obsession with social media could lead in shaping their attitudes, obsession has a direct impact on students future affecting their grades and unable to concentrate in a class.
Graeme Paton claimed that increased use of the internet and mobile phones are undermining pupils’ capacity for independent study and promoting poor grammar.2
Technology obsession especially using mobile phones and internet hinders the capacity for independent study and promoting poor grammar.
From the article of John McWhorter he pointed out that texting property isn’t writing at all. People have always spoken differently from how they write, and texting is actually talking with your fingers.3
Speech is the way we humans communicate. Writing is out written speech. Texting is our electronic speech. The nature of texting is consider to be spoken rather than written form, since texting develop its own rules and evolving its own vocabulary like all speech, the language that used in texting differ from English Language.
Katie Hapner says that texting is leading to anxiety, stress injury and sleep deprivation.4
Teen texting is rampant. They do it late at night when their parents are asleep. Also, many teens stay up late and text throughout the night, leading to day time fatigue and anxiety.
Katy Steinmetz reveals that text is now the ignition, engine and lubricating oil of romance.5
Over centuries ago, courting women can only be expressed through love letter. But a lot of changes since then, now, texting, facebook, twitter, Skype has been a dating sites. Through text you can show care that you love, just send a message to your boyfriend, girlfriend and family telling you missed them. Text messaging is a good way to keep in contact with those we love who are far away.
Ki Mae Heussner presented that text messages can actually help students’ ability to spell.6
OMG, L8r are some example of SMS word creation. It is the fastest growing dialect in the world. Text messaging is complex and innovative. The new language that is produce in texting is just a creative brain workout. Separate from the one they use in writing.
In the article of Olga Kharif, she presented that cell phone become a vehicle for cheating with cell phones are easy with text messaging.7 The uses of cell phones could be seen on how it used. Since cell phone is easy to carry, so as text messaging, it is fast, efficient and easy to use. You can text anywhere and everywhere. Cheating using phone is another tactics, they store notes on phones for references during exams and exchanging text messages about answers while texting.
The study released by press association in The Guardian, they reveal that internet chat rooms and social networking sites are encouraging children to spell words incorrectly.8
Text messaging is not only responsible in revolutionizing the spelling, the internet also contributing in the process. In chat rooms and social networking sites there is no need to correct the misspelt words, because it is automatically corrected. The internet has become the agent to new social
change and spelling change.
According to Proysen (2009), some student seem to have difficulties keeping the language of text messaging separate from the standard English will change as a result of this remains to be seen. One thing is certain, and that is that text messaging has had an impact on English, however, slight great.9
The popularity of new technology and the increased use of these, such as laptop, computer, and mobile phone texting have become very popular. Because of this, students ‘do not realize that their academic writing is affected.
The study made by Zahid Yusaf and Mehmood Ahmed, found out that excessive use of this medium is leading students towards writing wrong spellings and using SMS language’s, short abbreviations that are not standard in examinations and daily academic work that are not that is very harmful in academic.10
Text messaging by now is part of the lives of many people, but it is popular with the young. Constant texting disrupt whatever they are doing, and then it must be disrupting their literacy. The impact of this on their literacy could be reflected on how students perform in a class.
Foreign Related Studies
Adnan, O. and Muhammed Miral claimed that the writer who sends an email with no capitalization and punctuation for the sake of brevity and convenience without thinking about the position of the receivers.11
Communication technologies have generated a new form of literacy which puts the standard of writing among technology adopters at risk. SMS language is one example that disrupts the level of written communication.
Ashraf Atta M. Salem discuss that communication through instant and text messages have adverse effects on vocabulary use, grammar and spelling.12
Texting do not require careful reading or editing. They also don’t require complete sentences. Texting for example, only allows 160 characters; the tendency is students write incomplete words.
According to Goldstuck (2006) short message service (SMS) language has altered with the times. For example “thank you” was condense to “tnx” and then later to “tx”.13
“U goin to prctc?”, “Yeah, wut time?”, “8”, “k, tnx”. This is a perfect example of text slang; a text messaging that uses text slang. Many agree that this “text-message-speak” is harmful for the new generation students. If we were to examine the conversation we will notice the obvious mistakes. For new generation this might be cool, however, they are unaware of its consequences – more grammatical errors and spelling.
Heidi Hemmer presented that text messaging does displace face-to-face communication. However, most students are unaware they are displacing face-to-face communication when they are using text messaging.14
The result shows that texting does displace face-to-face communication. In relation to the study, texting has given us to shorten words, thoughts and feelings, so when it comes to express ourselves during face-to-face communication we don’t know what to do, because we’re so used of doing it, we we’re so independent in texting that those skills in communication personally is never been build up.
According to Ling, R. (2010), SMS is a life phase and not a cohort phenomenon. That is, its use is more concentrated among teens and more temperate among older age groups.15
Text messaging is more popular among youth. Addiction mostly found on them. Students use text messaging for a reason, first, text messaging used to coordinate or to stay in contact with friends. Texting is easy way of communication means and addiction could be possible. For teens texting is part of their life.
Dr. Mubasher, N., Dr. Muhammed, N.M. and Dr. M. Shabbir Ali pointed out that frequent use of SMS has mutated language learning of the users. Their spelling, grammar are affected due to the over usage of SMS.16
Language changes and mutates over a period of time text messaging is shaping English Language, whether it is good thing or bad thing. Text messaging is new evolving, if somebody says “lol”, 15 years after we wouldn’t have a clue what will be its meaning. It is interesting that text messaging change our written expression. Many new words enter the English Language.
According to Ochonogor W.C., Alakpodia N.O. and Achugbue I.E., text message or chat room slang affects academic performance either positive or negative.17
The impact of text messaging on students’ is depending on how they used it. The positive is when they use it for important academic message, negative, when they become addicted to SMS, instant messaging and when they use text slangs to the point of writing such slangs in their studies.
Salome Geertsema, Charlene Hyman and Chartelle Van Deventer present that the nature of the perceived influence of SMS language includes the encountering of spelling adaptation that are based on the SMS language categories.18
The influence of SMS language on written includes the occurrence of incorrect use of commas, punctuations, exclamatory marks are encountered.
Solomon Ali Dansich found out that phone abbreviation in texting could be negatively impact on grammar. The result is reflected on their weaknesses in spelling, sentence construction and grammar.19
Typically students use slang and abbreviations, they never choose a choice of words. Constantly, many students used text slang daily as part of their communication. The negative effect is that they ignore proper use of capitalization.
William Fischer, Donald Shankweiler and Isabelle Y. Liberman suggest that some college students have inadequately learned the principles by which writing represents the language, despite the lack of apparent deficits in reading. They also found out that reading would be easier than spelling.20
All would agree that spelling is not easily mastered. Even professional sometimes they are not particular in spelling the words. Spelling is the memorization of the words while reading is recognizing the words. The reason for spelling failure is confusion, students are confused to spell, and the reason may be is their exposure on misspelt words that they acquire through communicating either in social chatting or in texting.
Local Related Literature
According to Agnes D. Narciso, social networking is actually positively related to the students’ positive result in terms of their performance at school.21
Social networks has one impact on students, it helps them together relevant and important information, because in social network ideas sharing comes at a rapid rate because people are familiar with the medium they are using.
David M. Celdran reveals that young mobile – phone users choose text mates to kill time by exchanging gossip.22
Texting is not only the source of information and the reasons for the destructions of the study of the students. It is also the source of malicious information and used to destroy others dignity.
Dero Pedero explained that spelling words the text way is really so convenient that it has become a hobby with most of us.23
Time is valuable commodity these days so our message needs to be written shorter and transmitted faster. The result, we are now creating obscure
Dino Cascini found out that jejemon is the by – product of shortened text messages which are polluted for those who do not really know how to spell correctly.24
With the popularity of text messaging on the youth it produces different types of text slang one of which is the jejemon. Jejemon became popular to the youth that worsen the written communication of them.
In the research conducted by john Andrew Samonte he found out that using or speaking jejemon can result to forgetting the main language, whatever it is, English or Filipino.25
Jejemon has multiplied through social networking sites, and widely in text messaging. They became a popular sub dialect because they make their own rules of spelling, punctuation and grammar. Jejemon became controversial and often it creates debates because of its disadvantage similar to texting. Jejemon could lead to set aside the native language and oftentimes forgetting the right spelling or grammar in English or Filipino.
Josepina T. Lichauco presented that texting is the art of using abbreviations and other techniques to create SMS and instant message.26
Texting has given us shortened words, thoughts and feelings, but these are just the creation of how human minds work out.
According to the article of Linda B. B. published in the Philippine Daily Inquirer, she reveals that hunting over mobile gadgets was causing increased incidence of neck and shoulder aches and pains.27
The problem with texting is not actually new – it can be a problem on health and literacy, but it could also lead to posture problem.
PIA, L. B. reveals that short cutting words will eventually make students
forget about speeling.28
Texting gives us to shorten the words and thoughts, so when it comes to write an essay we were confused on how to spell, because we’re so used of doing it.
According to the article published in the Philippine Daily Inquirer there should be no shame in using shortcuts in internet language, but for the young ones who have not been exposed to proper English, the “jejemon” will not give them that foundation.29
Language had always been evolving. There is no hard learning jejemon because it has no rule. Because of it has no rule. Because of its popularity the impact of this can be seen on their performance.
According to the article published in the Philippine Star entitled “Text Messaging Bastardizing Language”, the real or more recognizable effects of texting on students grammar and spelling competencies may be seen if the respondents were the more vulnerable ones like high school or elementary students who are just beginning to develop language and communication skills.30
Texting may be has some negative and positive impacts on the way the students’ write depending on the usage. For those who are mature enough they know what texting means to them.
Local Related Studies
According to Clarence M. Batan some educators view texting as a corrupt language. 31
New generations are now texting, typing, and tweeting their own unique language. This abbreviated word is a code that is used by many students. For a number of years parents and educators blamed texting for a reason: corruption of language and the degradation in spelling.
The study of Maria Renee Khatrina and Gabrielle, V.B. found out that if students have a lot of time texting, their spelling skills will be affected.32
Students spend a lot of time texting rather than reading book or studying and communicating with others, because they are too focus on texting. They don’t know how to fill up resumes or write papers because their brain is wired for short hand.
Ma. Regina Estuar found that there are underlying attitudes towards cellular phone usage, namely: degree of sensitivity to message being sent or received, usage domain, degree attachment to the phone, amount of intrusion on personal space and degree of need for connectivity.33
The risk of communicating with cell phone is that we don’t know whom we are texting with. We don’t know if the message we sent will be sensationalized by the receiver. Another impact of the usage of cell phone is that, it may be addicting. Teens use phone for a reason, either they use it for connection purposes or for coordinating.
Synthesis of the State of the Art
The review of the related literature and studies provided essential information and practical insights which serves as a guide for the researcher in formulating this study.
The study showed information about the impact of texting on spelling skills.
Ashraf Atta M. Salem discuss that communication through instant and text messages have adverse effects on vocabulary use, grammar and spelling, while Pia, L.B. reveals that shortcutting words will eventually make students forget correcting spelling. To Clarence M. Batan he view texting as a corrupt language.
Philippine Star cited that the recognizable effects of texting may be seen
on the more vulnerable ones like High School or Elementary student who are beginning to develop language and communication skills, whereas, Ki Mae Heussner presented that text messages can actually help students ability to spell.
Based from the summary of literature an studies, the researcher cited that text messaging has some impacts on the way people talk and write- some negative others positive depending on the content and context.
Gap Bridged by the Study
The reviewed literature and studies are in one way or another related to this study, however, they vary in terms the variables used such as the scope with regard to area, respondents and findings. However, there is no study that has been conducted to show the impact of texting on the spelling skills of the First Year High School of Aemilianum College. This is the gap that this study wants to bridge.
This study will contribute in showing to students and teachers what is the impact of texting on the spelling skills.
To have a clearer view and understanding of this study, a simple system was used in conceptualizing this study. The conceptual paradigm shows the major parts of a system which are the input- process- output components.
The input is the profile of the students, effects of text-messaging in their spelling, text message abbreviations can be interpreted differently and performance of the students in spelling.
The process in converting input to output is based from the questionnaire which came of an idea that this set-up results to the output of There is an impact of text messaging on spelling skill.