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Understand Child and Young Person Development

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    Outcome 1: Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years a. • Physical 0-1: babies will start to use their reflexes, they start to look less curled up and startle less, will start to lift and turn their heads, will lift their hands and foot in the air and balance on their fronts, will start using fingers to eat. 1-3: will stand up and hold to the furniture, will sit and push off with legs on sit-and-ride toys. Will start to run and climb, is able to pedal or push along with feet on a tricycle, walk up the stairs using alternate feet. -7: will have skilful use of the hands to carry out activities such as threading, pouring or using the scissors, will have the ability to kick a ball and will be able to control it. 7-12: drawings and writing will be more neater and the cutting out will be more accurate. There will be greater co-ordination and speed when carrying out both fine and large movements.

    There will be growth and changes to the body. 13-19: for most boys puberty will start and will take about 3 years to complete, girls will have finished becoming women. There may be occasional poor spatial awareness as a result of the body shape changing quickly. b. • Communication -1: babies will cry when hungry, tired or need changing or feeling distressed. Babies will start to coo and gurgle. Babies will start to smile back when they see a smiling face. Will begin to lift arms up to the carer to show that they want to be picked up. There will be tuneful strings of babbling. 1-3: finger pointing at objects to draw an adult’s attention to them. Less babbling and more recognisable words. Will have a vocabulary of around 200 words. Will start using two word sentences such as “mummy work”. will have speech that is easily understood. 4-7: children will start to ask questions about things and will enjoy talking.

    Begin to decode some familiar words. 7-12: will start to tell jokes and enjoy chatting, verbal arguments, persuasion and negotiation. Will begin to tell stories and writing that show imagination as well as being legible and reasonably grammatical. 13-19: will have good reading and writing skills. Negotiating and persuading adults and peers. Will have the use of a phones and technology to communicate with friends. c. • Intellectual/cognitive 0-1: babies who recognise the smell and sound of their mother’s voice. Babies stop crying because they hear a familiar voice, babies start to notice mobiles and other objects around them .

    Will begin to explore toys and objects using their mouth as well as their fingers. 1-3: is able to recognise routines of the day ie bath time. Enjoys pop-up and posting toys. Will start to play with building bricks and doing simple jigsaw puzzles. Pretend pay with farm animals, small world play, teddies etc. has an interest in mark-making, painting and books. 4-7: will have concentration when an activity has caught their interest. Has the ability to count and do simple calculations. Will begin to read books silently. 7-12: will start to problem solve ie how to play cooperatively. Has understanding of more abstract concepts. 3-19: will have high level skills like using the computer. d. • Social, emotional and behavioural 0-1: babies will have close contact with the carer. Fleeting smiles when asleep. Enjoying bath time. Smiles of delight when they are playing with their primary carer. Will try to stay near their parent or carer. 1-3: has the need to stay near their parents or carer and anxiety if strangers approach or handle them. Will have an interest in other children, may show signs of temper and frustration. Parallel play, so playing next to another child rather than playing with the other child.

    Will slowly begin to play alongside other children. 4-7: cooperative play between other children along with odd squabble and argument. Will respond well to adult praise and recognition. Will have some friendship preferences. 7-12: will have more stable friendships. Clear differences in the play activities that interest boys and girls. Will show enthusiasm when given areas of responsibility. 13-19: will have strong attachments to friends. Anxiety about coping with the pressures of school. Exploration of boundaries in relationships ie arguing with their parents.

    Confidence and enjoyment when with friends. Behaviour linked to low self-esteem. e. • Moral From 0 to 2 children have no moral development, from 2 and a half the children will develop it. At 2 and a half to 3 the children will not understand wrong and right but will have the understanding of “no“. At the age of three children will still wont have an understanding of right and wrong but can follow simple rules most of the time. 4-7: children who are thoughtful at times towards others, but who do things mainly for adult approval. Will be more keen to understand and use rules. -12: children who tell others the rules and are keen to point out when rules have been broken. Awareness of consequences of behaviour and increased thoughtfulness. 13-19: will have an understanding for the need of rules in society. Will have and understanding about right and wrong and consequences of actions interest in moral issues. Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important. Sequence means that there is a definite pattern to a child developing e. g. a toddler being able to walk before they can run. Rate means the speed in which a child develops.

    Outcome 2: Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors. There are a range of factors that will affect children and young people’s development. Health status is one factor, health is determined both by genetic make-up and by factors such as diet, environment and stress. Some children are born with conditions that will automatically affect them. Other children may have a predisposition towards certain diseases but do not develop them until particular circumstances trigger them. For example asthma, this condition affects breathing and is currently on the increase.

    Ill health can affect a child’s development, they may not feel like playing or their condition may restrict what they can do. Children even may find it hard to make friends because they miss playgroup sessions or cannot physically join in. Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors. Poverty and deprivation affects children and their families in variety of ways. Poverty in the UK is categorized as relative rather than absolute, which means that children are not starving but the effects of growing up in poverty are still very marked.

    A child’s diet affects a child’s growth, behaviour and development. A balanced diet will help children to remain healthy as well as to grow but families on low income may buy cheaper foods, even processed foods which have lower nutritional value. Education: children from low income households are less likely to do well academically because they may not attend the best schools and they may not have equal access to educational tools and resources such as books or the internet. Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.

    Theories of development are important as they can influence practice and also help us to understand children’s behaviour, reactions and ways of learning. Jean Piaget was a zoologist who became interested in children’s cognitive development. He began to work on intelligence tests and he would notice that children consistently gave similar “wrong” answers to some questions and he began to consider why this was. He would use his own children to make detailed observations and gradually developed a theory that has been very influential.

    Paget’s theory of learning is sometimes referred to as ‘constructivist approach’ because he suggested that children constructed or built up their thoughts according to their experiences of the world around them. Piaget used the term schema to refer to a child’s conclusions or thoughts. The behaviourist approach suggests that learning is influenced by rewards, punishments and environmental factors. The term ‘conditioning’ is often used by behaviourists. It means that you learn to act in a certain way because past experiences have taught you to do or not do something.

    There are two types of conditioning: classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning was originally out of research into dogs digestive systems by Ivan Pavlov. Ivan concluded that dogs would salivate before food was put down for them, he concluded that dogs were anticipating the food and were salivating because they had learnt to associate the arrival of food with other things, such as sound of footsteps and the sights of buckets. John B. Watson took up Pavlovs work and demonstrated that children and adults could be classically conditioned and in a famous experiment he created a phobia of rats in a small boy.

    The Operant conditioning theory is that learning is based on the type of consequence or reinforcement that follows and initial behaviour. B. F. Skinner is recognised as being a key figure in developing the behaviourist approach to learning theory and, in particular for developing the theory of operant conditioning. He suggested that most humans and animals learn through exploring the environment and then drawing conclusions based on the consequences of their behaviour. Skinner divided the consequences into three groups.

    Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement and Punishment. Over the past few years, different theories and ways of working with children have been combined and used to provide frameworks for children’s care and education for example the Early Years Foundation Stage. This framework contains elements of Vygotsky’s theories, it also has the elements of Piaget’s theory as children are meant to be given opportunities to play and explore independently. Social Pedagogy: This is a holistic way and thoughtful way of working.

    The aim of social pedagogy is to find ways of working with children and young people which will improve their life chances and social outcomes. Outcome 3: Explain how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods. Children and young people are likely to be monitored and assessed at many different points. There are different ways of monitoring a child’s development. Observations is a way of recording development. It means to watch the children and record it down on a form. Some observations require that the observer does not interact with children while in others the observer acts as a participant.

    Standard measurements: there are some standardised assessment methods which are used by a variety of different professionals, these include auditory assessments, health assessments including height, weight and heads circumference measurements and tests carried out by educational psychologists, such as reasoning tests. Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern. There are influences on children’s development and these influences are the reason why their not following the expected developmental pattern for their age.

    Disability: A disability may prevent a child from developing in one or more areas. early support might minimise the effect of the disability by for example organising specific equipment for the child. Emotional Reasons: A significant element in children’s overall development seems to be how settled and emotionally attached they are. Children and young people who are depressed or lacking in confidence may not be motivated to try out new skills. Physical reasons: Some children’s developmental pattern is affected by their genetic code. This may mean they are slow to develop in many areas for no specific reason.

    Children’s development can also be slowed down by difficulties in physical growth. Cultural reasons: The way children are brought up in their families can vary enormously. This is turn can affect children’s development, in some families there are very significant differences in the ways that they bring up boys and girls. Explain how disability may affect development. Some disabilities can affect a child’s overall development as aspects of development are interlinked and when children and young people have development that does not match the expected pattern, there is a danger of stereotyping and this can lead to low expectations.

    For example a child with specific learning difficulties might be expected to do poorly in all subjects at school. If adults working with children have low expectations for them, this can be harmful as they can in turn lower children’s own expectations of their capabilities. Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern. Children who are identified as not following the expected pattern, a range of agencies may become involved.

    In some cases, professionals from different services will work together, in which is known as a multi-agency approach. SENCO is a professional and this a person in an education setting who has the responsibility for organising identification and support for children with special educational needs. Social worker: A social worker is employed by the local authority or voluntary organisation to support vulnerable children and young people and their families. Educational psychologist: this is a professional who supports children who have difficulties with behaviour or learning.

    They will identify difficulties and also provide programs of support for teachers, early years practitioners and others to follow. Speech and language therapist: This is a professional who supports children and young people who have difficulties in communication. Speech and language therapists also provide training for professionals working with children. Outcome 4: Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition. Language is at the heart of cognitive and social development.

    Language allows you to think, to control your behaviour and process new information. without a way of using language, communication can be limited and so children can feel isolated and frustrated. They may find it hard to control their behaviour and play with other children. language is also linked to the development of literacy, this means that children who have poor speech find it hard to understand the link between sounds and letter shapes and so reading can be delayed, writing can also be affected as you need ‘words’ in order to write. ome children may have difficulties with communication, they may find it hard to ‘connect’ with others and find it hard to process complex sentences. Early identification is important as young children’s brains are still developing as they grow, this means that early identification can change the potential impact of any difficulty if early support is provided. So finding ways to help children communicate is important for their emotional well-being as children who have language and communication difficulties can quickly become isolated and withdrawn or develop antisocial behaviours.

    Explain how multi agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication. Once a parents and those involved with a child have identified that the child needs additional support, a multi-agency approach may be used. The parent of the child will visit their health visitor or GP who will then make an appropriate referral. This may be to rule out hearing and visual impairments, in other cases the GP may refer directly to the speech and language service. Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication.

    Play and activities that interest children are usually used to support the development of speech and language, because they are motivating. Puppets and cuddly toys support development by motivating a child to talk or vocalise. Puppets with mouths can be used to encourage a child to make specific movements. Outcome 5: Explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development. Children and young may be affected by the transitions they make. ometimes the affects are short term and temporary, and it is important that adults working with children and young people monitor them as in some cases extra support might be needed. The types of transitions that may affect children’s development are changes to family structure, moving home, illness and bereavement, being with a new/additional primary carer, moving setting, admission into a institution and changes to body. Evaluate the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition.

    The effects of transition on children and young people could be, food issues, self-harm, depression, aggression, regression etc, but it can help if the child or young person has at least one strong relationship with someone who is supporting them during the transitions process. At first settling the child will have their parents but the effects of separation anxiety are such that they will need a relationship within the setting. This will be the key person who will have a positive relationship with the child.

    Reference:

    Children and Young people’s workforce, Level 3, Heinemann

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