1. ) What are the many explanations about the origin of our land? There are many explanations about the origin of our land. As Christians, we believe that the land forms were made by God as part of God’s creation of the world. After the Great flood in the time of Noah, many continents and islands appeared. So the descendants of Noah spread out to many parts of the world. The other religions of some tribes in the Philippines explain the origin of this land by telling “legends”. One legend says the Philippines came from a giant who was carrying a huge rock.
He got tired and threw the rock down, when it broke to many pieces, it formed the many islands of our country. But scientists have different opinions about the origin of our country. some geologists claim that it was a remnant of a prehistoric continent called mu or Lemuria in the Pacific Ocean. Due to volcanic eruptions or earthquakes, this vast continent sank beneath the ocean. And the most popularly-accepted scientific theory states that the Philippines was part of the Sunda Shelf, or the continental shelf of the Asia.
About 25,000 years ago, the ice age ended, the world’s ice melted, and the rising sea level flooded the land bridges connecting the continent of Asia and the Philippines 2. ) What are said to be natural resources of a country particularly the Philippines. The natural resources of our country are the soil, plant and animal life, forest Resources, fish and Marine Resources, Minerals, Energy Sources, and the Science Beauties Natural Wonders. 3. ) What are scenic beauties and natural wonders: In detail, name some of it in our country.
The scenic beauties and natural wonders of our country are the world-renowned Banaue Rice Terraces, the world-famous Mount Mayon in Bicolandia, The lovely Manila Bay, The Pagsanjan Falls and Gorge, the amazing umbrella geyser of Barrio Bigaa, the smallest and lowest volcano Taal Volcano, the scenic Talisay Beach in Cebu, the fabulous Chocolate Hills in Bohol and many more. (Chapter 3) Activity 1; Narrate your own experience about scenic beauties or ordinary wonders you have seen. It was in the midst of summer when my parents decided to take vacation at my mothers province.
Everybody seems very excited because it was our first time and mother said it’s a long trip to travel. We leave at our place at 5:00 am. As we were in the middle of our trip, I notice that the road we were taking was very curved. And in out both sideways was a green and tall height of hills, in the middle of it was a waterfall. I can clearly see how free those water falling that no one can ever step, those white and heavy water falling from that green mountain. It’s as if it’s taking every freedom in the world that sometimes humans don’t have. I can smell the fragrance of the trees as the wind blows them.
I love that smell that I never smell in our town ever since before, the air that only in this place I can smell. As I turn my sight at my right side, I saw an amazing scene. It’s a sea which has blue water and strong waves that snaps into the natural rocks at the shore. Waves are like those angry feasts trying to snaps those big rocks, I never believe that in my whole life I will be able to witness this beautiful scenery that only this once I will encounter. I can’t keep my eyes out of those sight only then to realize, I was too tired to take a nap.
As I open my eyes, there’s a beautiful shimmering sunlight that shines so bright and twinkle just like a star in the night. Oh, how the beauty of wonders God created…I will never ever forget that experience in my whole life. 1. ) Who were the first Filipinos? In detail give the best explanations we have about our distant past * The best explanation we have about our distant past is cane from three main sources: (1) the story of God’s creation in the bible; (2) the story of evolution made by human scientist and; (3) legend and fairy tales made by imaginative people.
According to the holy bible all men and women originated from the first man (Adam) and first woman (Eve). Who created by god. After a great flood. Noah and his three sons left to settle the earth. And the son and the great grandson’s of Noah together w/his brothers and their descendants, according to the bible from these maritime peoples spread out into the territory by their clans within their nations, each with its own language. And this time the descendant of these Biblical Characters settled in the parts of the world that we now know as Asia including the islands of the Philippines.
According to the scientist, who made the theory evolution, scientist believe that the first man in the Philippines lived in Palawan about 25,000 years ago. Palawan was the connected to the Asian Mainland. The first Filipinos lived in caves of Palawan. And they are called the Tabon man. They belonged in the stone ages. The Tabon man hunted wild animals with their crude stone weapons. They used simple stone tools to make clothes or prepare food. They were short, with bushy eyebrows and a low forehead. There are also various legends and fairy tales about the origin of the first Filipino.
But these are not all true. They were just the imaginary stories told by old folks to little children to keep them interested in their past. Activity 2: In your own understanding which Theory evolution do you believe: The scientific Theory or the Biblical Theory for the origin of man: support your own answer. * The Biblical Theory Because, I believe that man was created in the image and likeness of god, because God loved us. (Chapter 5) 1. Narrate the Heritage from India, China and Arabia. How did the early Filipinos get relationship with these different countries?
Hindus from the Asian mainland and nearby islands came to the Philippines as early as900 A. D. Even though the Hindus came to our country, we were never conquered by them. This is because the Hindu visitors to our land came peacefully. They were traders or foreign immigrants or people who settled in that area. The Hindu Heritage of the Philippines is religious, social, and economic. Traces of Hindu culture are found in our religion, jobs, writing, language, customs and traces. In religion, the Hindus taught us to pray to many gods, spirits and images.
The word “Bathala” is of Indian origin. In jobs, the Hindus gave us such industries as mining quicklime in Masbate, weaving cotton cloth, making lotus designs and many others. In writing, our ancient alphabet came from the Sanskrit writing. In language, the Pilipino or tagalong language has 375 Sanskrit words. Some examples of theses Sanskrit words in our language are: ama(father), asawa(spouse) halaga(price), nanay(mother) and many more. Many of the Filipinos superstitious beliefs came from India, example of this is “A maiden who sings merrily while cooking will marry an old widower. Certain customs of the Filipinos are of Indian origin, such as; hanging a garland of fresh flowers around the neck of a visitors as a symbol of friendship and hospitality and showering the groom and bride with rice after the wedding ceremony and many others. Also from India came their decorative arts, including the artistic designs of gold necklaces, some musical instruments, particularly the kudyapi (native guitar). Early Relations with China. In 982 AD, Filipinos from Mindoro sailed to Canton, south China in an Arab ship. They sold their goods to the Chinese and then went home.
This was the earliest date in our contacts with China. Pretty soon, our trade with China boomed. This time, it was the Chinese merchants from south China who sailed in their junks (Chinese sailing ships) to the Philippines. They did business around Lingaya Gulf, Manila Bay, Mindoro and Sulu. The Filipinos welcomed them and exchanged goods with them. The early Chinese praised the Filipinos for their honesty. According to Wang Ja Yuan, a Chinese writer, “The Chinese trust the Filipinos, for they always keep their promise. ” Like the Hindus, the early Chinese came to our land to buy and sell only. They did not conquer or rule us.
Many Chinese settled here and married Filipino women. They also spread Chinese culture to our country. Worship of dead ancestors. Unfortunately, some terrible vices also came from Chinese. These vices were: the use of fire crackers at New Year, the long (fee) for owners of gambling dens, and gambling with jueteng, cards and mah-jong. In language, about 1500 words in the tagalong vocabulary came from the Chinese. Some examples of these Chinese words are: ate(elder sister), bakya (wooden shoes), bantay(guard), buwisit(unlucky), and kuya(elder brother)/ Many Chinese married Filipina women and lived in the Philippines.
Today, many rich and famous Filipino families are of Chinese origin, for example President Corazon Cojuangco Aquino. Other Chinese names are Chua, Lim, Sy, Wang, Yap, Uy. Every Filipino today knows about Saudi Arabia because many of our countrymen work there and in other Arab Countries in the Middle East. Long ago however, it was the other way around. In ancient times, Arab missionaries and traders came to the Philippines. In 1380, the first Arab visitor named Mukdun came to Sulu from Mecca, Saudi Arabia. He spread Islam, the Muslim religion and built the first mosque (muslim church) at Simunul, Sulu.
Arabic culture has influenced our religion, politics, and social life. Our Arabic heritage is mostly seen among Muslim Filipinos in the South. The Arabs gave the Muslim Filipinos the religion of Islam. Today, there are about 1,600,000 muslims in the Philippines. They live mostly in Mindanao and Sulu. In politics, the Arabs introduce the sultanate from or government and laws. In our social life, the Muslim Filipinos follow the muslim way of life. Their calendar and holidays are muslim-for example, the celebrate Ramadan. This is the muslim holy festival of fasting and prayer. Activity 3:
Which do you think has the greatest influence on our culture for the countries mentioned above. Explain your reason? India, because hindus taught us about everything. Like in religion they taught us to pray to many gods, they also taught us how to weve cloth, make lotus design. They teach us also how to be friendly and very hospitable. And some of our superstitious beliefs who’s came from them and until now we still practicing. CHAPTER 11 OUR LATIN AMERICAN HERITAGE 1. What was Mexico’s role in the conquest of the Philippines? Mexico played a great role in the conquest of the Philippines by Spain.
After the Magellan expedition, the Legaspi expidition was successfully colonizing the Philippines in 1563. The expidition was patronize by the Mexican authorities, paid for by Mexican funds, and manned by Mexican Soldiers and Sailors. Mexico supplies food,arms, ammunation for the missionaries came from the Mexico also. Finally, we should always that the spanish government in the Philippines was always in need of funds. It suffered from lack of money because Spanish officials are corrupt. Philippines then was really a poor country. It was a heavy burden on the Spanish King. And it was only saved from collapse by the annual subsidy from Mexico.
Almost every year from 1565 to 1821. The Mexican viceroy sent foreign aid to the Spanish governor general in the Philippines. This subsidies helped the Spanish authorities in the Philippines to pay salaries, to stop revolts , and to repel foreign enemies. 2. Narrate on how did the Mexicans go the Philippines and the Filipinos also make their way go to Mexico. Mexicans in the Philippines. Many Mexicans came to the Philippines to live or to work. With Legaspi came his two brave grandson, Felipe and Juan de Salcedo. Both these Mexicans contributed to the conquest of the Philippines. Two Mexicans served as Archbishop of Manila.
They were Archbishop Miguel de Poblete (1653-1667) and Archbishop Miguel Antonio Rojo(1759-1764). Archbishop Rojo also became the acting governor of the Philippines during the British invasion (1762-1764). The first Mexican Saint of the Catholic Church served as a missionary in the Philippines. He was Father Felipe de Jesus, who came to Manila in 1590. He was one of the of the 26 Christians martyrs Crucified at Nagasaki, Japan on February 5, 1597. Filipinos in Mexico. If many Mexicans came to the Philippines during Spanish times, many Filipinos also crossed the vast Pacific Ocean and lived in Mexico.
The first Filipinos who went to Mexico were the four heroes of the “Tondo Conspiracyof 1587-1588”. This secret revolutionary society was found out by the Spanish Official on October 26,1588, and all its leaders were arrested, executed and exiled. Those who were exiled to Mexico were Pedro Balinguit, Datu of Pandacan; Pitongatan datu of Tondo; Felipe Salonga , datu of Polo ; and Agustin Manuguit , another datu of Tondo. What happened to this four exiled heroes in Mexico we do not know. During the long period of the galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco many crew members of the galleons desserted, and lived permanently in Mexico.
The Filipinos who left the ships and married Mexican women and put up Filipino colony in the Hills of Acapulco. Incidentally, they introduced a new wine industry in Mexico the palm wine (tuba) from Mexican coconuts. Their palm wine became popular among the Mexicans. 3. What were Mexican contributions to the Philippines and Filipinos contributions to Mexico? Mexican contribution to the Philippines. 1. New plantsand animals. 2. New industries. 3. New diet and dress. 4. New musical instruments and dances. 5. Catholic images. 6. Catholic churches. 7. Customs and traditions 8. Words and language. 9. Mexican blood. 10.
Inspiration for Independence. Filipino contributions to Mexico. 1. New plants 2. Tapayan earthen jar 3. Antiques 4. Parian 5. Filipino words 6. Filipino blood 7. Independence money. (Chapter 14) 1. ) What is meant by nationalism? Nationalism is a devotion to one’s country, or fighting for its independence. And when the people of a nation become united and work together for common aims. 2. ) What are the causes of the birth of Philippine nationalism in the 19th century? The causes of the birth of Philippine nationalism in the 19th century were the; * New ideas from abroad about the freedom and the rights of men, Openig nof the Suez Canal, * Race prejudice against Filipino priests, * The Spanish Revolution of 1868, * And the martyrdom of Gom-Bur-Za. 3-1. ) What is the propaganda movement? Propaganda movement is a peaceful campaign. It was done by means of pen and tongue. Great Filipinos wrote articles books, and pamphlets, and they made speeches to pressure the Spanish government. It began in 1872 (after the martyrdom of Gom-Bur-Za) and ended in 1892 (after the exile of Rizal to Dapitan). 3-2. ) The propagandist? The propagandists were young Filipinos in their twenties.
They came from the best, the brightest and the richest families in the Philippines. They were mostly college students or young professionals. All were men of intelligence, courage, and patriotism. Today, they are known as great Filipino heroes. But at the time they lived and fought for our freedom, they had to be very brave because they went through great hardships. 3-3. ) Who was Andres Bonifacio? Andres Bonifacio is one of the founders of the Katipunan. He wrote many patriotic pieces, including the Decalogue of the Katipunan and a Tagalog translation of Rizal’s last poem. 3-4. ) What is the Katipunan Government?
The Katipunan Government was more than a secret society. It was also a hidden government. Bonifacio and others wanted it to replace the Spanish government in the Philippines. It had two constitutions, the first one in 1892 and the second in 1894. The central government was the Supreme Council, with a president, a fiscal; a secretary, a treasurer, and a comptroller, there were Katipunan Chapters in each province and in each town. The members paid taxes or contributions to keep it going. The Katipunan also had its own courts and court system. These courts passed judgment on members who disobeyed the secret rules of the society.
The first president of the Katipunan was Deodato Arellano. In 1895 he was replaced by Andres Bonifacio. Bonifacio was supremo of the Katipunan from 1895 until his death in 1897. 3-5. ) How could one become a member of the Katipunan? A candidate for membership was first blindfolded and entered a secret room. In the room there was a table with a lamp, a skull, and bolo. The blindfold was removed from his eyes. He was given a test on the history of the Philippines to show that he knew the Spaniards had oppressed the Filipinos. He had to pass other tests on his patriotism, courage and sincerity.
The ceremony of the “Blood Compact” followed the tests. The candidate cut his left arm with a knife with his own blood, he signed his name on the list of the Katipunan. He also took an oath. 3-6. ) How was the Katipunan government discovered? A Katipunan government discovered when a Katipunero named Teodoro Patiño told his sister Honoria about the plot because he was afraid for the life of his sister who lived in the Augustinian orphanage at Mandaluyong. His sister and a Visayan nun told him to tell everything to Father Mariano Gil, the Spanish Parish priest of Tondo.
In the evening of August 19, 1896, Patiño saw Father Gil and told him about the secrets of the Katipunan. That same night, Father Gil and government troops went to the office of the press used by the Katipuneros and found out some secret receipts and a printing stone. Father Gil took the news and evidence about the Katipunan plot to the Spanish Authorities. 3-7. ) What has happened to the members when it was covered by the Spanish Authorities? Many Filipinos were immediately arrested and put in prison. The City of Manila was thrown into confusion and fear. Activity 5:
Interpret the meaning of this quotation from El Filibusterismo of Dr. Rizal. And when the people reaches that height, God Himself will provide a weapon, the idols will be shattered, tyranny will fall like a house of cards and freedom will shine out like the first dawn. It says that time will come that people will be united and free in a peaceful way and by the help of god they will defend for there freedom until they get what they want. And there enemy will lose. (Chapter 15) 1. ) What is a cedula or residence certificate? Cedula is the symbol of Spanish oppression of Filipinos. 2. ) What do you mean by persecution?
Cite an example of it? Example of this was Dr. Jose Rizal he was arrested and put in prison at Fort Santiago and tried by the military court. He was found guilty of being traitor to Spain and sentenced to death. 3. ) In what way Rizal was accused by the Spaniards as traitor to Spain. Explain the roughly? Dr. Jose Rizal was allowed to leaved Dapitan and go to Cuba as a volunteer doctor in the Spanish army. Spain was also fighting a revolution in Cuba. While his ship sailed for Spain, he was arrested and taken back to Manila. He was put in prison at Fort Santiago and tried by the military court.
He was found guilty of being a traitor to Spain and sentenced to death. At down of December 30, 1896, Rizal was shot by a firing squad at the Luneta. 4. ) What is name of Aguinaldo for their group being formed? For Bonifacio? Why was their rivalry between Aguinaldo and Bonifacio. What was the result of their rivalry. Explain thoroughly he happenings? The Magdiwangs supported Bonifacio as leader because he started the revolution, the other group, the magdalos, supported Aguinaldo as leader because he won his battles while Bonifacio lost all his battles. The rivalry hurt the cause of the revolution and made them lose many battles.
Magdalo group when they were attached. Similarly, Aguinaldo’s followers did not help the Magdiwangs when the fought the Spaniards. 5. ) The Spanish governor-general Primo de Rivera told the Spanish Cortes (parliament) that “I can capture their Biak na Bato headquarters. But I cannot end the revolution. ” Explain why and what he meant to this? He said this because he wants to have peace and he also want to end the fighting on both sides because he know that the Spanish government could not win because the Filipinos wanted their freedom so badly the and the Filipinos were willing to die for it.