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Chapter 22 Exile in Dapitan



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    Rizal lived in dapitan, a remote town in Mindanao which was under the missionary jurisdiction of Jesuits from 1893 to 1896. He practiced medicine, pursued scientific studies, continued his artistic and literary works, widened his knowledge of languages, and established a school for boys, promoted etc. BEGINNING OF EXILE IN DAPITAN Rizal did not agree with the conditions given by Father Superior Pastells to Father Obach. He lived in the house of the commandant, Captain Carnicero.

    Rizal admired Carnicero and wrote a poem, A Don Ricardo Carnicero on August 26, 1892. WINS IN MANILA LOTTERY Mail boat Butuan came on September 21, 1892 who brought lottery ticket no. 9736 , jointly owned by Captain Carnicero, Dr. Rizal and Francisco Equilior, won P20,000 in the Government-owned Manila Lottery. Rizal was a lottery addict; in Madrid from 1882 to 1885 he invested 3 pesetas every month in lottery tickets. Wenceslao E. Ratana, Rizal’s first Spanish biographer and former enemy stated that ”This was his only vice”. RIZAL- PASTELLS DEBATE ON RELIGION

    This Started with a book sent from Father Pastells to Rizal by Sarda. Rizal revealed his anti-Catholic ideas. Blumentritt saying that he wanted to hit the friars but only those who utilize religion for power. Rizal could not be convinced by Pastell’s argument but they remained good friends. Father Pastell gave Rizal a copy of “Imitation of Christ” and Rizal gave a bust of St. Paul, which he had made, in return. Rizal remained catholic, his Catholicism inquires and enlightens the “Catholicism of Renan and Teilhard de Chardin”. RIZAL CHALLENGES A FRENCHMAN TO A DUEL

    When Rizal heard Mr Juan Lardet insult the poor qulaity logs, he challenged the man to battle. Cranicero told the Frenchman to apologize rather than accept the challenge and so, the Frenchman did. RIZAL AND FATHER SANCHEZ Father pastells instructed two Jesuits in Mindanao to try their best to bring back Rizal within the Catholic fold. Furthermore, he assigned Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez, Rizal’s favorite teacher at the Ateneo de Manila, to Dapitan. Fr. Sanchez was the only Spanish priest to defend Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere in public. Although he had given his efforts, Rizal could not be convinced.

    IDYLLIC LIFE IN DAPITAN Rizal wrote to Blumentritt on December 19, 1893 which describes how he lives in Dapitan. He lives in three houses. His mother, sister Trinidad, his nephew and him lives in the square house. In the octagonal, he teaches arithmetic, Spanish and English to the good youngsters. In the hexagonal live the chickens. He says that he has boats, a lot of trees and animals which he takes care of. Half-past seven he eats breakfast and then later treats his patients who come to his land then go to town and treat the people there.

    Returns at 12 and eat lunch. At 4 P. M. , he teaches the boys and devote the afternoon agriculture. And at night, he reads. RIZAL’S ENCOUNTER WITH THE FRIAR’S SPY November 1894, Rizal met Pablo Mercado, a spy; The said spy visited rizal at his house on the night of November 3, 1893. Captain Juan Sitges ordered the arrest of the spy and instructed Anastacio Adriatico to investigate him. Pablo Mercado’s real name was Florencio Namanan from Cagayan de Misamis, Single and about 30 years old. The investigation papers was sent to General Blanco.

    Rizal wrote a letter to Manuel T. Hidalgo, his brother-in-law, on December 20, 1893 about the spy and had greeted him a Merry Christmas and a Happy new year. A PHYSICIAN IN DAPITAN On August 1893, Rizal operated his mother’s right eye and was successful. He cured poor people and gave them tree medicine. He was baid by his rich patients particularly Don Ignacio Tumarong, who paid P3,000, Don Florencio Azacarra, who paid a cargo of sugar, and an English man who paid P500. Rizal studied medicinal plants of the Philippines. WATER SYSTEM FOR DAPITAN

    He applied his knowledge of engineering by constructing a system of waterworks in order to furnish clean water to the towns people. Modern engineers marvelled Rizal, despite limited finances and without any aid from the government, he succeded in giving a good water system to Dapitan. Mr. H. F. Cameron was one of those who praised Rizal COMMUNITY PROJECTS FOR DAPITAN Rizal spent P500. 00 to equip lighting system consisted of coconut oil lamps placed in dark streets of Dapitan. Beautification of Dapitan with the help of Father Sanchez was done by remodelling the town plaza.

    RIZAL AS A TEACHER Rizal planned to establish a modern college in Hong Kong for Filipino boys so that he could train them in modern edagogical concepts. In 1893, he established a school which existed until the end of his exile in July, 1896. It began with 3 pupils then increased to 16 and later to 21. He said that this pupils did not pay any tuition instead he made them work in his garden, fields, and construction projects in the community. He taught his boys reading, writing, languages, geography, historyy, mathematics, industrial work, nature study, morals, and gymnastics.

    He trained them how to collect speciments of plants and animals, to love work, and to “behave like men”. HYMN TO TALISAY Rizal had written a poem entitled “Himno A Talisay” for his pupils to sing. CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE Rizal had contributed in the collection of concology (36 shells representing 203 species). Some of the rare species he discovered were Praco rizali (flying Dragon), Apologia rizali (a small beetle), Rhacophorus rizali (a rare frog). He also conducted anthropological, ethnographical, archaeological, geological and geographical studies.

    LINGUISTIC STUDIES Rizal learned Visayan in Dapitan; Subanum and Malay languages. He knew 22 languages which were Tagalog, Ilokano, Bisayan, Subanum, Spanish, Latin, Greek, English, French, German, Arabic, Malay, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Dutch, Catalan, Italian, Chinese, Japanese, Portugeses, Swedeish, and Russian ARTISTIC WORKS IN DAPITAN He contributed his painting skill to the sisters of Charity for the Holy Virgin in their private chapel. He made sketches of persons and things that attracted him. One day in 1894, some of his pupils secretly went to Dpaitan n a boat from Talisay and say artworks, some of them are “The Mother’s Revenge” is a statuette representing the mother-dog kiling the crocodile by way of avenging her lost puppy and “The Dapitan Girl” is a woodcarving of Josephine Bracken. RIZAL AS A FARMER Rizal bought 16 hectares of land in Talisay where he built home, school and hospital and planted coffee, sugarcane, coconuts and fruit trees. His land reached 70 hectares containing 6,000 hemp plants, 1,000 coconut trees, and numerous fruit trees. He introduced modern methods of agriculture; He imported agricultural machinery form the U.

    S. He dreamed of establishing an agricultural colony in the sitio of Ponot near Sindagan Bay, where there was plenty of water and good port facilities. “We will establish a new Kalamba” he wrote to Hidalgo, his brother-in-law. Unfortunately, this colony did not materialize because he could not get the support of the government. RIZAL AS A BUSINESSMAN He made profitable business ventures in fishing, copra, and hemp industries in partnership with ramon Carreon. He improved fishing industry by using nets with the help of Hidalgo. Hemp Industry became the most profitable business venture.

    On January 1, 1893, he established The Cooperative Association of Dapitan Farmers. RIZAL’S INVENTIVE ABILITY On 1887, he invented a cigarette lighter which he called “sulpukan”. During the exile in Dpaitan, he invented a machine for making bricks. Dona Teodora had requested Rizal to write a poetry again. Rizal wrote a beautiful poem about his serene life as an exile in Dpaitan and sennt it to her on October 22, 1895 entitled “Mi Retiro” (My Retreat) RIZAL AND JOSEPHINE BRACKEN Rizal met Josephine bracken because Josephine’s father,Mr George Taufer who was blind, went to Manila to seek the services of the famous ophthalmic surgeon, Dr.

    Rizal. Rizal and Josephine fell in love with each other at first sight. They agreed to marry but Fr. Obach refused to marry them without the permission of the Bishop of Cebu. Mr Taufer flared up in violent rage when he new. The blind man went away uncured because his ailment was venereal in nature, hence incurable. Mr. Taufer returened alone in Hong Kong. Josephine and Rizal held hands together and married themselves before the eyes of God. Rizla praised Josephine because he was no longer lonely. Rizal wrote a poen for Josephine entitiled “Josephine, Josephine”. VOLUNTEERS AS MILITARY DOCTOR IN CUBA “THE SONG OF THE TRAVELER”

    When he was set free, he traveled to Europe and then to Cuba. He wrote his heart-warming poem”El Canto del Viajero” ADIOS, DAPITAN On July 31, 1896, Rizal’s four-year exile in Dapitan came to an end. Rizal embarked on board the steamer Espana and said goodbye to his pupils. Rizal gazed for the last time on Dapitan with his hands waving in farewell salute to its kind and hospitable folks and with a crying heart filled with tears of nostalgic memories. When he could no longer see the dim shoreline, he sadly went to his cabin and wrote in his diary: ”I have been in that distric four years, thirteen days, and a few hours”.

    Chapter 22 Exile in Dapitan. (2016, Oct 02). Retrieved from

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