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Comparison between Mikhail Gorbachev and Vladimir Lenin

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A Comparison between Mikhail Gorbachev and Vladimir Lenin

Introduction

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The erstwhile Soviet Union was formed after the Russian Revolution of 1917. The fall of the Russian Empire led to the creation of the Soviet Union. It was established in December 1922 with the union of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Trans-Caucus. The Soviet Union always remained a major power in the world. It was the only country in the world to offer resistance to the US imperialism. The history of the Soviet Union revolved around three important leaders, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev.

Lenin was the architect of the Russian Revolution and the formation of the Soviet Union. While Lenin was the first leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev was the last leader of the Union. It disintegrated in 1991 with the separation of Russia from other unions. Mikhail Gorbachev’s tenure was very significant as he ruled during the Cold War era that threatened the world peace several times. Both the leaders were dynamic, powerful and have a strong vision.

This paper will compare the policies and initiatives of Lenin and Gorbachev. It will also discuss about how they influenced the politics and foreign policies of Soviet Union or Russia. Lenin and Gorbachev were considered the most powerful and unchallenged leaders of their era. There were both the similarities and differences in the approach of both the leaders. The paper will develop an in-depth analysis of the work of both the leaders in order to measure the consequences of their policies.

Emergence as Leaders of the Nation

Vladimir Lenin was a revolutionary leader who pioneered the Russian Revolution of 1917 to overthrow the Czars and establish a republic. He was the first premier of the Soviet Union. “Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik party that ruled the Soviet Union. When Lenin assumed power, the Western powers were against the growth of Communism. Lenin founded his own theory of Leninism, which was an adaptation of Marxism to the age of imperialism. Lenin was famous for his aggressiveness and straightforwardness. Even during the exile, he continued to launch newspapers and write against the dictatorship of Russian Czars. He also wrote a number of books and articles on revolutionary movement”[1].

“Lenin was active in the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP). He led the Bolshevik faction after a split with the Mensheviks in 1903. He became the President of the RSDLP in 1906. Lenin traveled to many parts of the world to participate in social meetings and activities. Lenin did not support Russia’s participation in the World War I. After the February Revolution in which Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown, Lenin returned to Russia to play an important role within Bolshevik movement”[2]. Lenin strongly opposed the idea of provisional government. His stance gained him popularity among the common people and within the party.

There were enemies of Bolsheviks who accused Lenin for being a German agent. Lenin held secret meetings to mobilize people against the provisional government. “Lenin organized a workers’ rising, but it failed. It forced him to flee to Finland for safety. He returned to Russia in October and inspired an armed revolution against the provisional government. Lenin expressed his feelings in his writings. He called for a new form of government based on the workers’ councils or soviets”[3].

Lenin claimed that ordinary workers should be capable in running a factory or a government. He advocated communism and demanded equality between the wages of the workers and the members of the government. Although there was division among the leaders of Bolsheviks on several issues, Lenin always succeeded in making his point. His dominance was clearly visible in the party’s manifestos and views.

Lenin was the most powerful leader of Russia during the Russian Revolution and the formation of Soviet Union. The theory of Leninism guided people of Russia for a long period. He was responsible for the expansion of Communism in Europe and other parts of the world. Russia faced another biggest challenge for its survival during the Cold War era. At that time, Mikhail Gorbachev was at the helm of the affairs of the country. Gorbachev was the leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991.

Gorbachev was influenced by the ideologies of Lenin. Like Lenin, he was against war. Gorbachev was the pioneer of the reform process in Russia. His efforts to bring reform in the country led the end of the Cold War. “He was also instrumental in ending the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Gorbachev had displayed the leadership qualities since the beginning of his career. He joined the CPSU in 1952 at the age of 21. Gorbachev was appointed First Secretary for Agriculture in 1970. In the following year, he was made a member of the Central Committee. In 1974, Gorbachev became Chairman of the Standing Commission on Youth Affairs”[4].

“The year 1979 was very significant for Gorbachev as he was promoted to the Politburo. He received the patronage of Yuri Andropov, who was the head of the KGB. Later, he was promoted as an important leader of the party”[5]. Although there were several other contemporary leaders at that time, Gorbachev succeeded in getting prominence among them for his strong leadership abilities and visionary ideas. He held different positions in the CPSU and traveled abroad more frequently. His frequent foreign visits helped him establish cordial relationships with foreign delegates and also affected his political and social views.

“Konstantin Chernenko was one of the powerful leaders of the CPSU under whom Gorbachev worked for years. After the death of Chernenko in 1985, Gorbachev was elected as the General Secretary of the Communist Party. It was very significant as he became the first General Secretary of the party who was born after the Russian Revolution of 1917. Gorbachev was the de facto ruler of the Soviet Union and displayed his supremacy in the country’s political and economic affairs”[6].

On the leadership issue, both Lenin and Gorbachev hold striking resemblance. Both the leaders started their career from the ground level and actively participated in student politics. They traveled to the different parts of the world and gained knowledge and ideas from various quarters. They were powerful and always played a crucial role in determining the policies of their parties and nation. Lenin struggled more than Gorbachev as he led a revolution against the rulers. Gorbachev’s career flourished in a free and peaceful environment. Both the leaders opposed war and advocated the need of reform process.

Political Initiatives

The theory of Leninism yielded positive results for Lenin’s political career. His views of communism and workers’ rights made him popular among the common people. “Lenin became the Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars in November 1917. He was elected by the Russian Soviet Congress. At that time, Russia was facing the threat of German invasion as the World War I was in progress”[7].

While other important leaders of Bolshevik were in favor of continuing the war, Lenin argued that Russia should sign a peace treaty. There were negotiations, which called for a peace treaty on the conditions that no territorial gains should be consolidated on either side. However, the negotiation collapsed and Germany occupied much of Russia’s western territory.

That vindicated Lenin’s stand on war and peace. “The majority of Bolshevik leadership supported Lenin’s argument and in March 1918, Lenin withdrew Russia from World War I. He signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk under which, Russia lost Ukraine, Finland and the Baltic states to Poland”[8]. It was believed that if Lenin’s proposals were accepted earlier, Russia would not have lost its territories. That strengthened Lenin’s position in the party.

Lenin always planned his moves according to the situation. “When the Bolsheviks lost the elections for the Russian Constituent Assembly, Lenin ordered his military guards to stop the session of the Assembly. Later, he organized a counter-Assembly, which allowed Bolsheviks and their allies to occupy over 90% of the seats. However, their coalition collapsed when their allies opposed the Brest-Litovsk treaty. They hatched conspiracies to overthrow the government of the soviets. However, the timely intervention of Lenin saved the government. Lenin took strong measures to curb the activities of the opposition leaders and jailed some of the opposition members”[9].

Although Lenin suppressed the rebellions and conspiracies of the opposition leaders to dislodge the government, he always advocated democracy and freedom. His action against the opposition was based on the notion that stability of the government was very important for the growth and reform process of the country. He advocated the participation of workers in the nation-building process. Lenin was instrumental in the expansion of Communism to the West.

“During the civil war, democracy was concentrated within the Bolshevik party and later it was limited to the politburo of the CPSU. To protect the Bolshevik government from the conspiracies of the revolutionaries, Lenin created a secret police. The secret police was known as the Cheka. The Socialist Revolutionary Party was against Lenin and his regime. “There had been assassination attempt on Lenin once, but he survived with serious injuries. The Communist government launched offensive against the revolutionaries and many people were either jailed or executed”[10].

“Despite the tussle between the Bolsheviks and the revolutionaries, Lenin arranged a meeting of Bolsheviks with the revolutionary socialists from different parts of the world. He formed the Communist International. Members of the Communist International broke off from the socialist movement and advocated active communism. The Bolshevik Party was renamed as the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). It eventually became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)”[11]. The civil war occurred in Russia during Lenin’s tenure, forced the country into political and economic turbulence. Political parties and their supporters resorted to armed violence to overthrow the Soviet government.

“The main battle was between the Red Army (Communists) and the White Army (Tsarists). Although the civil war was the internal matter of the country, foreign powers such as France, Britain, the United States and Japan supported the White Army against the Red Army as they were opposed to the growth of Communism”[12]. Lenin offered his full backing to the Red Army. Eventually, the Red Army won the civil war.

“The success of the Red Army in the civil war encouraged Lenin to spread the ideology of Communism to the West. Poland was the immediate place for action. Dispute over the territories led to the outbreak of Polish-Soviet War in 1919. Lenin wanted to use Poland as a bridge to march the Red Army to Germany and other parts of Europe. However, the defeat of Soviet Union in the war dashed his hopes. Lenin was strongly opposed to imperialism. However, after the Russian Civil War, he used forces to conquer the independent nations Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, arguing that the inclusion of these countries into Soviet Union was to protect them from capitalist imperialism of the West”[13].

While Lenin led the expansion of Communism, Gorbachev was responsible for the decline of Communism and the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Russia witnessed much of revolution, growth of Communism and wars during the tenures of Lenin and Stalin. Gorbachev focused on political and economic reforms. Lenin was the pioneer of workers’ movement in Russia. Gorbachev pursued it with a number of plans in order to improve the living standards and worker productivity. Those reforms were part of his perestroika program. After becoming the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985, Gorbachev announced that the Soviet economy was on decline and it needed immediate attention.

The first reform initiated by Gorbachev was on alcohol. He took necessary steps to fight widespread alcoholism in the Soviet Union. “Sales of vodka, wine and beer were restricted. Huge penalties were imposed on people who were found drunk at work or in public. Drinking on long-distance trains was completely banned. Many wine production units in the country were destroyed. However, the reform on alcoholism had a negative impact on the country’s economy. Russia lost billions of rubles in the whole process, which eventually led to an economic disaster”[14].

“In May 1988, Gorbachev enacted the Law on Cooperatives. It was one of the most radical economic reforms during Gorbachev’s tenure. The law allowed private ownership of businesses in the services, manufacturing and foreign trade sectors”[15]. Lenin focused on the workers’ rights and their participation in businesses and establishments. However, Gorbachev went beyond that and allowed privatization. The new law imposed high taxes and employment restrictions. However, they were later revised in order to encourage private sector participation.

“One of the major political initiatives of Gorbachev was the introduction of glasnost. It provided freedom of speech to people. The new change was significant as suppression of speech and government criticism had been a central part of the Soviet system. Gorbachev permitted greater control for the press”[16]. Bolsheviks under Lenin always tried to control the movements of the press, fearing widespread revolution. However, Gorbachev was in favor of greater autonomy for the press. Lenin jailed thousands of political opponents who conspired against the government. In the contrast, Gorbachev released thousands of political prisoners and dissidents. There were many conservatives within the CPSU who did not support Gorbachev’s reform policies. However, he gained popularity among the Soviet people for his reform initiatives.

The year 1987 was significant from the democracy perspective. “Gorbachev called for infusion of democratic elements into the Soviet political process. Multi-candidate elections were introduced for the first time. Gorbachev launched important reforms at the CPSU’s party conference in 1988. The main objective of these reforms was to reduce party’s control of the government machinery. New constitutional amendments paved the way for the formation of the Soviet Union’s new legislative body. In 1989, elections to the congress were held in the country. Gorbachev was elected as the first executive President of the Soviet Union in 1990”[17].

The Soviet Union never had an easy relationship with the United States. Since Lenin’s era, both the countries had been at loggerheads because of their ideological differences. Lenin considered the United States and capitalist imperialism as a threat to the principles of Communism and national integration. The United States was concerned over the growth of Communism and wanted to restrict its expansion in other parts of the world. That led to the face-off between these countries, which remained for decades.

Gorbachev ruled the Soviet Union during the Cold War era. Although the US and the Soviet Union never went into a full-fledged war, they indulged in indirect fights. Gorbachev’s predecessors never tried to improve the relations with the West. They continued to pursue a strong military strategy to prepare the country for future conflicts. Gorbachev had different perceptions. He realized that without putting the country on the path of reform, it was not possible to achieve growth and prosperity. He made serious efforts to improve relations with the West.

“Gorbachev held negotiations with leaders such as US President Ronald Reagan, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl and the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. The 1986 meeting between Gorbachev and Reagan led the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in 1987. Western leaders were very comfortable in dealing with Gorbachev. Unlike his predecessors, he had a liberal point of view. He also had a clear vision for the country. Gorbachev gained popularity across the world for his reform measures and political initiatives to improve relations with other countries. He was featured as ‘Man of the Year’ on the cover of Time magazine on January 4, 1988”[18].

Afghanistan had been a major headache for the Soviet Union for years. It supported the Najibullah regime in the civil war in Afghanistan. The Soviet Union stationed its troops there in 1979. There was a growing dissent against the Soviet troops in Afghanistan. Even the foreign powers were against the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. The United States offered its full support to the rebel forces to overthrow the Najibullah regime. “It was reported that about 15,000 Soviet soldiers were killed in Afghanistan between 1979 and 1989”[19]. Even the Soviet people had questioned the necessity of the deployment of their troops in Afghanistan.

Unlike his predecessors, Gorbachev realized that the civil war in Afghanistan was having a negative impact on the country. “In 1988, he announced the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan. It was completed in 1989. The foreign policy of Gorbachev had been a turning point in determining the course of Soviet history. In 1988, he announced his intention to abandon the Brezhnev doctrine”[20].

The Brezhnev doctrine stated that if there is any attempt to turn the development of a socialist country to capitalism, then it becomes a common problem and concern of all socialist countries. By abandoning the Brezhnev doctrine, Gorbachev allowed the Eastern bloc countries to determine their own internal affairs. It also loosened the Soviet control over Eastern Europe. Abandonment of the doctrine led to a series of revolutions in Eastern Europe. “The abandonment of the Brezhnev doctrine turned out to be a significant event in the Soviet history. It ended the Soviet hegemony over Eastern Europe and changed the political scenario of Europe. It also marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War. Gorbachev was awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 for his efforts to bring peace in Eastern Europe”[21].

There were a lot of differences between the political initiatives taken by Lenin and Gorbachev. Lenin focused on expanding Communism to the other parts of Europe. He brought all the European countries into the umbrella of Soviet Union. He had many enemies and had to suppress the opposition movements against the government. He explored all possible measures to establish the rule of Bolsheviks.

In the other hand, Gorbachev took initiatives to free the Eastern European countries from the dominance of Soviet Union. He was not in favor of the expansion of communism. Reform was always in his mind and he took various measures to revamp the old Soviet system. He was the most liberal leader in the history of Soviet Union. His policies gradually loosened the stronghold of Soviets on Eastern Europe.

Consequences of the Policies of Lenin and Gorbachev

Lenin’s policies sought to build a new socialist society with the involvement of all sections. Lenin was a great statesman. He was aware of the people’s thoughts and aspirations. He had trust in the creative abilities of the masses and relied on their support to build the nation. As the leader of the ruling party, he was authorized to take important decisions to put the country on the path of development and he exactly did that. He focused on the economic and cultural development, military build-up and foreign policy of the Soviet Republic. He actively participated in conferences and meetings and tried to address the concern of factory workers and rural people. His efforts yielded positive results as the Soviet Union became one of the most powerful nations in the world.

“Lenin took effective measures to abolish all bourgeois institutions and encouraged socialist production and trade. He urged the workers to work as a team. Lenin’s policies helped the country in building a strong worker and peasant power. Under Lenin’s leadership, the Soviet government organized a new state mechanism. The government confiscated the landed estates to deter landlord from occupying larger land areas. It nationalized the lands, banks, industries and transport system. Foreign trade was not encouraged and state monopoly was promulgated on it”[22].

After the end of civil war, workers and peasants got the rights to run the factories and mills. The socio-economic development of the country was carried out by the government with the full cooperation from the masses. The confiscated landed estates were handed over to the peasants. Lenin provided everything to the peasants and workers what they wanted. However, he urged them to take care of production and ensure that production is useful for the country.

“There was a dispute within the Party’s Central Committee and the Soviet Government over the concluding peace with Germany. Lenin’s policy called for the signing of a peace treaty. The treaty was opposed by the Left Communists. They followed a policy of “neither peace, neither war”. They wanted that the war to be ended and the army to be demobilized. However, they were not in favor of any treaty. Lenin did not accept their demand. He realized that in the absence of a peace treaty, the war would be continued and the Soviet Republic would suffer the most as it did not have its own army at that time”[23].

Lenin overcame his opponents on the issue of war and peace. He always made his point and made the party members accept his proposals. He formulated the basic principles of the Soviet Union’s foreign policy. His policies were instrumental in bringing significant changes in the social structure of the country. Lenin managed to secure peace and strengthen the position of the Soviet Republic on the global arena. Lenin’s foreign policy maintained the principle of “peaceful cohabitation” with other nations. That significantly contributed to the peace and the economic development of the nation.

Lenin had a tough task to administer and build up the country. He laid the groundwork for a socialist society. The introduction of planning, stock control, strengthening of labor discipline and efforts to increase productivity were some of the important initiatives taken by Lenin for the socio-economic development of the nation. Lenin’s attempts to strengthen the socialist infrastructure of the Soviet Republic and other communist countries did not go well with the Western powers. A powerful coalition of anti-Soviet forces was formed to counter the expansion of Communism and socialist movement. Countries such as the USA, Britain, Germany, Italy, France, Germany and Japan strongly opposed the Soviet Union. They also occupied vast areas in Northern Russia, Siberia and Central Asia.

Regular foreign interventions and the threats from the Western power forced Lenin to strengthen the military of the country. The Red Army built by Lenin grew stronger and inflicted defeat on the interventionists’ armies and the troops led by former tsarist generals. “The Red Army won important victories in 1919. Those included Kolchak in Siberia, Yudenich at Petrograd, and Denikin in the South”[24].

“Socialist countries had reposed faith in Lenin’s theory on the working-class party’s role in socialist construction. Under Lenin’s leadership, the Soviet Union shifted its focus from War Communism to the New Economic Policy. The main objective of War Communism was to mobilize Soviet Union’s industrial, food and other resources for the Army. However, the New Economic Policy ensured the domination of the socialist sector. The New Economic Policy was the key in providing the political and economic conditions for building the foundations of socialism”[25].

The formation of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republic) was the most significant event in Soviet history. Lenin deserved full credit for his efforts to increase Soviet Republic’s political, economic and social significance. The consolidation of all socialist and communist countries under one banner made the USSR more powerful in the world.

Although Lenin intended to build a strong Soviet Republic with socialist structure, subsequent leaders of the country displayed dictatorship and hostility towards the Western powers. After the end of World War-II in 1945, the United States and the USSR emerged as the most powerful and unchallenged nations of the world. There had been an indirect fight between these countries for supremacy. Their rivalry led to the beginning of the Cold War. Mikhail Gorbachev was concerned over the Cold War and its negative impact on the Russian economy. His political and socio-economic reforms became the turning point in the history of the Soviet Union.

Gorbachev realized that the Soviet Union was paying a price for its military expansionism. For that reason, it could not match the technological advancements made by the United States. The arms race in the Cold War era had become expensive for the Soviet Union. As a result, its economy declined dramatically. The Soviet Union lagged behind other developed nations in growth and development. Besides launching reform process, Gorbachev also tried to improve the ties with the United States and other western powers.

“Although he intended to revitalize socialism in the Soviet Union, democratic process of the USSR and Eastern Europe undermined the power of the CPSU and Gorbachev. Gorbachev relaxed the censorship of media and public opinion. He also allowed more openness on the political front. These reforms created a sense of nationalist and anti-Russian feelings in the Soviet republics. There had been calls in several Soviet countries for freedom from Russian domination. The Baltic republics of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia raised strong opposition to Russian leadership. They were annexed into the Soviet Union by Stalin and now they got the freedom to air their protest. Several other Soviet republics such as Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia and Azerbaijan also joined the chorus for the call of independence”[26].

Gorbachev positively responded to the growing demand for the separation of republics from the Soviet Union. He introduced a new treaty on this regard. The treaty was supported by the Central Asian republics as they needed more economic power.  The hardliners in the CPSU strongly opposed Gorbachev’s reform process as they believe that might lead to the breakup of the Soviet Union.

“Hardliners in the Soviet Union launched a coup in 1991 to overthrow Gorbachev from power. They wanted to prevent him from signing the new union treaty. Gorbachev was put under house arrest for three days. The coup collapsed due to the defiance of Boris Yeltsin, an important leader of the Russian federation. Gorbachev fired the leaders who lead the coup and revamped the politburo. By signing of the new union treaty, Gorbachev marked the beginning of the end of the powerful Soviet Union. The USSR was officially dissolved in 1991 and Gorbachev resigned from his post”[27].

After the disintegration of the USSR, Russia suffered the most as it lost the major industries, oil fields and fertile agricultural lands. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States became the undisputed super power in the world. While Lenin laid the foundation of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev dissolved it. Both the leaders aimed for strong growth and development. Both of them allowed reform process in the country. However, Gorbachev was more liberal in his approach. That liberal approach eventually ended the Russian supremacy in Europe.

Conclusion

Lenin and Gorbachev both were visionaries and their actions were based on the prevailing conditions. People in Russia and other socialist countries always have a high regard for Lenin. Lenin’s initiatives to build a powerful Soviet Union and his strong opposition to Western imperialism earned him respect and admiration. Gorbachev is regarded in the West for his efforts to end the Cold War. However, a large number of people in Russia hold him responsible for the collapse of the country and the economic disaster followed then after. Whatever Gorbachev did was in the interest of the country. He did not have any self-interest or personal ambitions. That was clear from his resignation soon after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Lenin and Gorbachev were the most important leaders of Russian history. History will remember them for their strong leadership qualities, reformist approach and ability to take the right decision in the interest of the nation.

Bibliography

Carr, E.H.  A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1923. London, 1966.

Dobell, Peter. The Changing Soviet Union. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1991, p.44.

Dunlop, John B. The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993, pp. 3–38.

Goldman, Minton. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Connecticut: Global Studies, Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc., 1986.

Gorodetsky, Gabriel. Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1991: A Retrospective. Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1994, p. 211.

[1] E.H. Carr, A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution (London, 1966).
[2] E.H. Carr, A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution (London, 1966).
[3] E.H. Carr, A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution (London, 1966).
[4] Peter Dobell, The Changing Soviet Union (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1991).
[5] Gabriel Gorodetsky, Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1991: A Retrospective (Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1994).
[6] John B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993).
[7] E.H. Carr, A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution (London, 1966).
[8] Gabriel Gorodetsky, Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1991: A Retrospective (Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1994).
[9] E.H. Carr, A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution (London, 1966).
[10] E.H. Carr, A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution (London, 1966).
[11] John B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993).
[12] Gabriel Gorodetsky, Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1991: A Retrospective (Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1994), 211.
[13] John B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993).
[14] Peter Dobell, The Changing Soviet Union (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1991).
[15] Peter Dobell, The Changing Soviet Union (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1991).
[16] Peter Dobell, The Changing Soviet Union (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1991).
[17] John B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993).
[18] Gabriel Gorodetsky, Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1991: A Retrospective (Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1994).
[19] Peter Dobell, The Changing Soviet Union (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1991).
[20] John B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993).
[21] John B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993).
[22] Gabriel Gorodetsky, Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1991: A Retrospective (Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1994).
[23] Minton Goldman, The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (Connecticut: Global Studies, Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc., 1986).
[24] Gabriel Gorodetsky, Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1991: A Retrospective (Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1994).
[25] John B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1993).
[26] Peter Dobell, The Changing Soviet Union (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1991).
[27] Peter Dobell, The Changing Soviet Union (Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1991).

Cite this Comparison between Mikhail Gorbachev and Vladimir Lenin

Comparison between Mikhail Gorbachev and Vladimir Lenin. (2017, Jan 24). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/comparison-between-mikhail-gorbachev-and-vladimir-lenin/

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