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    ABSTRACT
    The bilimbi, Averrhoa bilimbi, L., (Oxalidaceae), is closely related to the carambola but quite different in appearance, manner of fruiting, flavor and uses. The only strictly English names are “cucumber tree” and “tree sorrel”, bestowed by the British in colonial times. “Bilimbi” is the common name in India and has become widely used. In Malaya, it is called belimbing asam, belimbing buloh, b’ling, or billing-billing. In Indonesia, it is belimbing besu, balimbing, blimbing, or blimbing wuluh; in Thailand, it is taling pling, or kaling pring. Vinegar is a liquid produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid. The acetic acid concentration ranges typically from 4 to 8 percent by volume for table vinegar (typically 5%) and higher concentrations for pickling (up to 18%) although in some countries the minimum strength may be less. Natural vinegars also contain smaller amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids. It has been used since ancient times, and is an important element in Western and European, Asian, and other traditional cuisines of the world. The word “vinegar” derives from the Old French vin aigre, meaning “sour wine.”

    Louis Pasteur showed in 1864 that vinegar results from a natural fermentation process. The researchers have come up with the idea of producing vinegar out of kamias fruits for the reason that the resource is available and common in the country yet it is one of the most underutilized fruits in the continent. Furthermore, the variable and the desired product have some similar properties which gives the researchers the concept of utilizing the fruit to produce a new material.

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    The researchers would like to thank God for giving them the strength and ability to make them pursue all the plans He has for them. The researchers extend their gratitude to their family and friends who, in one way or another, have helped and encouraged them in carrying out this study. Especially to Mr. Joven Millares, for the concern he has given the researchers and their classmates regarding their research studies and to Ms. Jennylyn Macasinag, for constantly giving the researchers and their classmates her reminders and advices for the further improvement of their researches. Lastly, the researchers are very grateful to their parents namely:Mr. Isidro Flores and Mrs. Julieta Flores; Mr. Roberto Funtila and Mrs. Evelyn Funtila; Mr. Paul Funtila and Mrs. Ma. Theresa Funtila; Mr. Gil Galang and Mrs. Elena Galang and Mr. Jose Lasala and Mrs. Jocelyn Lasala, not only for the financial and moral support they have given them but most importantly, for believing in their skills and judgments in whatever they intend to do.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS
    Title page i Abstract ii Acknowledgments
    iii Table of content iv List of figure vi Chapter I: The Problem and Its Settings 1 Introduction 1 Background of the Study 2 Statement of the Problem 3 Formulation of Hypothesis 3 Significance of the Study 4 Scope and Delimitation 4 Definition of Terms 5 Research Paradigm 6 Chapter II: Review of Related Literature 7 Related Readings 7 Related Studies 15 Chapter III: Methodology 17 Research Method 17 Research Instrumentation 17 Research Sampling 18 Research Procedure 19 Chapter IV: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 20 iv

    Table1 – The Experiment Samples 20 Table2 – Characteristics during Fermentation 20 Table3 – Characteristics during Infusion 21 Table4 – Characteristics of Kamias and Cane Vinegar 21 Table5 – Nutrition Content of Bilimbi 22 Chapter V: Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations 23 Summary
    23 Findings 24 Conclusions 24 Recommendations 25 Bibliography 26 Curriculum Vitae 27

    CHAPTER I
    THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGS

    Introduction
    We, Filipinos find pleasure in eating. Our typical diet includes rice, fish, chicken or meat, vegetable dishes and servings of fruits. Such diet sets us apart from other Asians and highlights our distinct gastronomic customs.

    It is conventional that we cook food using pungent and aromatic condiments. Condiments such as patis (fish sauce), toyo (soy sauce), bagoong (shrimp paste), suka (vinegar) and many others are common fare in every Filipino meal and are always seen in our kitchens and dining tables.

    The pungent and tangy flavor of these condiments tickles our taste buds which makes them not only an excellent accompaniment for our edibles but make fine recipe ingredients as well – either in marinating or seasoning our food dishes. Yet, they still have many other uses.

    Vinegar, which comes in different varieties depending on the kind of liquid to be fermented (e.g. wine vinegar, rice vinegar), is a lot more than just a seasoning. It can be used as a preservative, in a delicacy which we call buro, and used for cleaning purposes when mixed with baking soda to name a few.

    Cane vinegar, which is made from sugar cane and manufactured in the country,
    is what we commonly use. It is the vinegar you may find at home and it comes in two kinds: (1) the whitish, translucent vinegar with a sour taste commonly known as the sukang maasim; and (2) the brownish, translucent vinegar with a sweet taste and known as sukang iloko, which less commonly used.

    Some vinegars may be infused with herbs and spices for added fragrance and flavor. In view of our economic difficulties, we can be resourceful and produce vinegar from other resources, thereby making full use of our meager budgets. We can get our suka from kamias ( Averrhoa bilimbi), a tall tree with purple or yellowish green flowers, long, slender green leaves and oval-shaped green fruits that have an extremely sour taste if not yet ripe.

    This study aims to propagate the use of kamias fruit for the economical production of herb-infused vinegar.

    Background of the Study
    Kamias, which has the English name of “cucumber tree”,. Kamias are small green, oval-shaped fruits that taste sour and are acidic when eaten raw. It is believed to be native to Moluccas and is now commonly cultivated in Asia and other tropical and subtropical areas in the world.

    The researchers have come up with the idea of producing vinegar out of kamias fruits for the reason that the resource is available and common in the country yet it is one of the most underutilized fruits in the continent. Furthermore, the variable and the desired product have some similar properties. Their acidity, for instance, gives the researchers the concept of utilizing the fruit to produce a different yet comparable material.

    Statement of the Problem
    The study intends to find out the feasibility of kamias fruit to turn into vinegar. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following questions: 1.What will the pH level of the Kamias Fruit Vinegar be?

    2.What nutrients will be contained in the vinegar?
    3.How long will the shelf life of the vinegar be?

    Objectives
    This study entitled, “An Investigative Study on Obtaining Herb-Infused Vinegar out of Kamias (Averrhoa Bilimbi L.) Juice”
    Main Objective:
    1. It aims to find out if there is a possibility of using kamias fruit as a source of vinegar.
    Specific objectives:
    1. To know the advantages of using the said fruit in obtaining vinegar
    2. To know the disadvantages of using the said fruit in obtaining vinegar
    3. It aims to find out if utilizing the said fruit for production of vinegar is feasible, especially in the Philippine climate and products.

    Research Paradigm

    Figure I. The Research Paradigm of the Study

    Formulation of Hypothesis
    The researchers presume to answer the questions above with the hypotheses given below: 1.If the concentration of sugar and the period for fermentation will be just right, the vinegar to be produced should have a pH level of 2.4 or close. 2.The nutrients found in the kamias fruit should be retained in the vinegar. 3.If the concentration of sugar and the period for fermentation will be just right, the vinegar to be produced should have an indefinite shelf life since it is an acid. Scope and Delimitation

    This study is limited only to exploring the possibility of producing vinegar out of kamias. In addition, the vinegar to be produced will be steeped with various ingredients for added flavor and aroma. The product to be made will not undergo any chemical analysis while the experiment is being carried out. On top, the final product will be compared to the cane vinegar to find out similarities and differences in their properties. The research will be conducted at one of the researchers residence in Barangay San Agustin II and at Burol Main, City of Dasmariñas, Cavite and at school as a requirement for
    the subject Research and Chemistry in Dansart Angels Academy for School Year 2012-2013..

    Significance of the Study
    This research study, if proven, would be significant to industry, community, school and other researchers. Industry- Our research would be significant to the industry because it will introduce a new source of vinegar Community- This will also benefit the community because this makes the most out of kamias that grows perfectly in the soil and climate of our land which, on the other hand, is rarely put to use. Hence, this will help the country with its resource and financial management. School- Our research will our school for future references for the students regarding the same topic. Other Researchers- This study will provide great knowledge to some researchers or even companies that deals or focus on the effectiveness of this plant as an effective alternative source of vinegar.

    Definition of Terms
    Acid – a compound which has a pH level lower than seven
    Condiments – substances used to season food
    Delicacy – something special or pleasant to eat
    Diet – refers to what is eaten habitually
    Infused- steeped or soaked herbs in the kamias concoction to extract its flavor Economical – thrifty use of resources
    Fermentation – storing the subtane is a jar. chemical decomposition of an organic substance without the use of oxygen Kamias – a tropical species of tree bearing green fruits
    Preservative – substance which is added to food to keep it from spoiling Vinegar – sour-tasting liquid used to flavor and preserve food

    Chapter II
    Review of Related Literature
    This chapter involves the systematic identification, gathering, collection and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem.

    Related Readings
    Bilimbi
    The bilimbi, Averrhoa bilimbi, L., (Oxalidaceae), is closely related to the carambola but quite different in appearance, manner of fruiting, flavor and uses. The only English names are “cucumber tree” and “tree sorrel”, bestowed by the British in colonial times. “Bilimbi” is the common name in India and has become widely used. In Malaya, it is called belimbing asam, belimbing buloh, b’ling, or billing-billing. In Indonesia, it is belimbing besu, balimbing, blimbing, or blimbing wuluh; in Thailand, it is taling pling, or kaling pring. In Haiti, it is called blimblin; in Jamaica, bimbling plum; in Cuba, it is grosella china; in El Salvador and Nicaragua, mimbro; in Costa Rica, mimbro or tiriguro; in Venezuela, vinagrillo; in Surinam and Guyana, birambi; in Argentina, pepino de Indias. To the French it is carambolier bilimbi, or cornichon des Indes. Filipinos generally call it kamias but there are about a dozen other native names. Description

    The bilimbi is ellipsoid, obovoid or nearly cylindrical, faintly 5-sided, 1 1/2 to 4 in (4-10 cm) long; capped by a thin, star-shaped calyx at the stem-end and tipped with 5 hair-like floral remnants at the apex. The fruit is crisp when unripe, turns from bright-green to yellowish-green, ivory or nearly white when ripe. The outer skin is glossy, very thin, soft and tender, and the flesh green, jelly-like, juicy and extremely acid. There may be a few (perhaps 6 or 7) flattened, disc-like seeds about 1/4 in(mm) wide, smooth and brown. Origin and Distribution

    Considered as a native of the Moluccas, the bilimbi is cultivated throughout Indonesia; and is cultivated and semi-wild everywhere in the Philippines; is much grown in Ceylon and Burma. It is very common in Thailand, Malaya and Singapore; frequent in gardens across the plains of India, and has run wild in all the warmest areas of that country. It is much planted in Zanzibar. Introduced into Queensland about 1896, it was readily adopted and commercially distributed to growers. In 1793, the bilimbi was carried from the island of Timor to Jamaica and, after some years, was planted in Cuba and Puerto Rico, Trinidad, the lowlands of Central America, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Surinam, Guyana and Brazil, and even in
    northern Argentina, and it is very popular among the Asiatic residents of those countries as it must be in Hawaii. Still it is grown only as an occasional curiosity in southern Florida. Varieties

    Bilimbis are all much the same wherever they are grown, but P.J. Wester reported that a form with sweet fruits had been discovered in the Philippines. Climate
    The bilimbi is a tropical species, more sensitive to cold than the carambola, especially when very young. In Florida, it needs protection from cold and wind. Ideally, rainfall should be rather evenly distributed throughout most of the year but there should be a 2- to 3-month dry season. The bilimbi is not found in the wettest zones of Malaya. The tree makes slow growth in shady or semi-shady situations. It should be in full sun. Soil

    While the bilimbi does best in rich, moist, but well-drained soil, it grows and fruits quite well on sand or limestone.

    Pests and Diseases
    No pests or diseases have been reported specifically for the bilimbi.1

    Other Uses
    Fruit: In the ancient times, Bilimbi juice is used because of its oxalic acid content, its useful for bleaching stains from the hands and rust from white cloth, and also tarnish from brass. The fruit is also known to be rich in vitamin C which helps improve immunity and resistance to microorganisms.

    Medicinal Uses: In the Philippines, the leaves are applied as a paste or poultice on itches, swellings of mumps and rheumatism, and on skin eruptions. Elsewhere, they are applied on bites of poisonous creatures. A leaf infusion is a remedy for coughs and is taken after childbirth as a tonic. A leaf decoction is taken to relieve rectal inflammation. A flower infusion is said to be effective against coughs and thrush.

    In Java, the fruits combined with pepper are eaten to cause sweating when people are feeling “under the weather”. A paste of pickled bilimbis is
    smeared all over the body to hasten recovery after a fever. The fruit conserve is administered as a treatment for coughs, beri-beri and biliousness. A syrup prepared from the fruit is taken as a cure for fever and inflammation and to stop rectal bleeding and alleviate internal hemorrhoids. Vinegar

    “The word vinegar came from Old French vin aigre, meaning “sour wine” and is a sour-tasting liquid made from the oxidation of ethanol in wine, cider, beer, fermented fruit juice, or nearly any other liquid containing alcohol. It can also be made by certain bacteria operating on sugar-water solutions directly, without intermediary conversion to ethanol. Commercially available vinegar usually has a pH of about 2.4″. Culinary Uses (Vinegar)

    Vinegar is commonly used in food preparations, particularly in pickling processes, vinaigrettes, and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces such as mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. It is also often used as a condiment.

    Non-culinary uses
    Cleaning
    Vinegar can be a potent, inexpensive and environment-friendly cleaning agent. White vinegar is generally recommended when vinegar is being used as a cleaning fluid. Vinegar at Home
    There are four basic steps to making vinegar. First, you must make a wine or get alcohol from some other fermentable sugar source. Then you introduce acetic acid bacteria to the finished wine.
    The acetic acid bacteria eat the ethanol and chemically change it into acetic acid, the stuff that makes vinegar taste like vinegar. Then you age and flavor the vinegar to taste. There are many methods to turn wine into vinegar, and they all have one thing in common: getting air to the vinegar bacteria. There are three classic methods of doing this, and these methods each turn out decidedly different products.

    Process of Vinegar Extracting
    Submerged Fermentation involves saturating the vinegar culture with fine air
    bubbles. Some amateur vinegar makers try this also, but they often fail because it is easy for over oxidation to occur. Solera Method on the other hand uses a battery of barrels to create some of the finest vinegars available today. This is how balsamic and sherry vinegars are made. This is a very good way to make vinegar at home, but it requires a very good knowledge of wood and the vinegar-making process while the Orleans Method is the best way to start making the vinegar. Barrels are used during this kind of method, the barrel was filled with vinegar to a level below the hole to prevent it from overflowing. The filled barrels are allowed to sit for several months. The researchers will make the vinegar using the Orleans method but instead of using barrel, we are using jars to ferment our vinegar with.

    Related Studies
    Molluscicidal Effects of Kamias
    The golden snail (Pomacea canaliculata) was introduced intentionally in Asia in 1980 with the expectation that it could be cultivated as a high-protein food source for local consumption and as an export commodity for high-income countries.Due to improper disposal, it invaded Philippine rice systems, where it dispersed through extensive irrigation networks. The golden snail feeds voraciously on young rice seedlings. This paper analyzes the molluscicidal effect of kamias leaf and fruit extract. The main purpose of the production of such pesticide is to create low-costing and efficient pesticides especially because our country is agricultural based. For more than a decade now, these snails have affected the country’s rice harvests by up to 60% loss. The project produces an efficient pesticide, efficient in terms of low-costing and effectively eliminates such pests. So, Kamias leaf extract, a very economical and cheap pesticide and very abundant in the Philippines, Natural and non-toxic to the environment. The kamias leaf extract pesticide could be the revolutionary product of the country in agricultural innovation.

    Pytochemicals / Antimicrobial
    Phytochemical screening of fruit extracts yielded flavonoids, saponins and triterpenoids but no alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol fruit extracts
    were active against Aeromonas hydrophilia, E coli, K pneumonia, S cerrevisiae, S aureus, Strep agalactiae and B subtilis. In conclusion, kamias fruits possess potential antibacterial activities that warrants further studies . Anti-Hyperlipidemic

    Study showed the fruit and its water extract, but not the alcohol and hexane extracts, to have remarkable anti hypercholesterolemic activity. Result suggest the fruit can be used as a dietary ingredient to treat hyperlipidemia.

    The fruit juice is used as eye drops. And fruit was made into syrup and used as a cooling drink for fever. And because of high oxalic acid content the fruit is used to remove stains from clothing and removing rust and stains from metal blades. References:

    1. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/bilimbi.html
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Averrhoa_bilimbi
    3. http://www.mixph.com/2009/07/growing-kamias-and-its-many-uses.html 4. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/vinegar-ph-of-vinegar.html 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit_juice
    6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Submerged_fermentation
    7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solera
    8. http://www.enotes.com/vinegar-reference/vinegar
    9. http://www.stuartxchange.org/Kamias.html

    CHAPTER III
    METHODOLOGY
    This chapter deals with the discussion of materials, instruments and processes necessary for the study. It is subdivided into the following: the Research Method, the Research Instrumentation, the Research Sampling and the Research Procedures.

    Research Method
    The researcher will use experimental method for this study. It makes use of controlled variables or situations, in which waste or native materials to be
    experimented upon and made into a new product. With this method, the researcher hopes to create a product that would help improve man’s lifestyle as well as conserve and preserve nature.

    Research Instrumentation
    The experiment will be carried out using the following substances: 1. kamias fruits – the main constituent pf the vinegar
    2. water – with which to boil the fruit juice
    3. sugar – which is to be added to the boiled solution
    4. yeast and vinegar starter – to ferment the juice with
    For the infusion, the following herbs and spices will be used: 1. garlic cloves
    2. ginger slices
    3. lemon slices
    4. bay leaves
    5. oregano leaves
    6. peppercorns
    The researchers would also be using the following instruments: 1.juicer – to extract the juice from the fruits
    2.measuring cup/spoon – to measure the amount of dry substances 3.beaker – to measure the amount of the liquid substances and wherein they will be placed and heated 4.tripod and burner – to heat the substances with

    5.strainer – to separate solid particles from the liquid
    6.glass jars – where the liquid will be transferred and fermented into 7.cheese cloth – for covering the jars

    Research Sampling
    The experiment will be conducted with three samples. These will undergo the same procedure in making vinegar and will be observed to know which would resemble vinegar most. The experiment samples are as follows: 1.Trial1 – which will be fermented for 60days (2 months)

    Set-up A – with 50% sugar concentration
    Set-up B – with 25% sugar concentration
    2.Trial2 – which will be fermented for 40 days (1 1/3 months) Set-up A – with 50% sugar concentration
    Set-up B – with 25% sugar concentration
    The concentration of the substances to be added in the solution will be measured in terms of percent so as not to have difficulty if the definite amount of the solution will be made different.

    Research Procedure
    The following are the steps involved in the process of making kamias vinegar: 1.Gather and prepare the necessary materials for the experiment. 2.Extract the juice from the fruits.
    3.Boil the juice including the pulp (which was he remainder of the fruit after juicing) and then let it cool for a few minutes. 4.Add sugar to the liquid and boil it again.
    5.After the solution has been cooled, transfer it into sterilized glass jars. 6.Add vinegar starter to the solution and cover the jars with cheese cloth. 7.Allow the solution to ferment.

    After the juice has been made vinegar, the product will then be infused with the following steps: 1.Strain the vinegar.
    2.Heat vinegar in a saucepan, set aside and let cool.
    3.In one jar, put ginger, lemon slices and garlic cloves.
    4.In another jar, put bay and oregano leaves, peppercorns and lemon slices. 5.Pour equal amounts of vinegar in each jar.
    6.Close tightly and steep for about 10-14 days.

    Photo Documentation
    1. Slicing the kamias.

    2. Putting the kamias in the juicer.

    3. Get the juice from the kamias.

    4. Get the excess kamias from the juicer in order to have more extracts.

    5. Juice the excess kamias.

    6. Boil the kamias with its pulp.

    7. Add sugar to it.

    8.Stir the mixture.

    9. Boil it again.

    10. Let it cool for a moment.

    11. Transfer the mixture to a clean and sterilized jars.

    12. Put some yeast in mixture and cover it tightly with a cheese cloth.

    13. Ferment the mixture.

    CHAPTER IV
    PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
    This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data gathered from the experiments conducted. The results obtained are presented through tables. Such are as follows: Table1
    The Experiment Samples
    experimentation
    trial1
    trial2

    set-up A
    set-up B
    set-up A
    set-up B
    days fermented
    60
    60
    40
    40
    sugar concentration
    50%
    25%
    50%
    25%
    vinegar starter concentration
    50%
    50%
    75%
    75%

    Table1 shows the research samples made during the experimentation. In the experiment, there were 2 trials of vinegar fermented in different number of days and with different concentrations of vinegar starter. Under each trial were 2 set-ups of vinegar with different concentrations of sugar.

    Table2
    Characteristics during Fermentation
    characteristics
    Trial1
    trial2
    color
    lime green – reddish orange
    dark brown
    turbidity
    cloudy, particles at bottom
    cloudy, particles on sides
    change in volume
    Decreased slightly
    decreased slightly
    odor
    like tamarind
    like tamarind

    Table2 shows the comparison of characteristics of the 1st and 2nd trials as observed by the researchers throughout the fermentation process. As indicated in the table, the 2 different trials have closely similar characteristics.

    Table3
    Characteristics after the Infusion
    Characteristics
    Oregano infusion
    Garlic infusion
    color
    brownish orange
    yellow orange
    turbidity
    slightly cloudy
    slightly cloudy
    odor
    citrusy, minty
    citrusy, pungent
    pH level
    3.3
    3.7

    Table3 shows a comparison of characteristics of the different vinegars infused with (1)oregano, bay leaves, lemon and peppercorns and (2)garlic, ginger and lemon as observed by the researchers during the steeping process. In addition, the pH levels of the vinegars were taken after the products were made. A trial for interchanging the infusion of oregano and garlic has not been made in this research.

    Table4
    Characteristics of Kamias and Cane Vinegar
    Characteristics
    Kamias vinegar
    Cane vinegar
    Color
    brownish orange
    white
    Turbidity
    slightly cloudy
    translucent
    Odor
    citrusy, minty
    sour, pungent
    pH level
    3.3
    2.8

    Table 4 shows a comparison between the characteristics of kamias and cane vinegar. Based on the table, the kamias vinegar greatly varies with the cane vinegar. The comparison of kamias and cane vinegar is shown. The color of the kamias vinegar is brownish-orange while the cane vinegar is white. Kamias vinegar is citrusy and minty while sugarcane vinegar is citrusy and pungent. The pH level of sugarcane vinegar is lower than that of the kamias vinegar which means that sugarcane vinegar is stronger and more acidic. Table5

    Nutritional Content of Bilimbi
    moisture
    94.2-94.7 g

    iron
    1.01 mg
    protein
    0.61 g

    carotene
    0.035 mg
    fiber
    0.6 g

    thiamine
    0.01 mg
    ash
    0.31-0.4 g

    riboflavin
    0.026 mg
    calcium
    3.4 mg

    niacin
    0.302 mg
    phosphorus
    11.1 mg

    ascorbic acid
    15.5 mg

    Discussion:
    The researchers of this study chose kamias in place of sugarcane because of its sour taste and it is abundant in our environment. In the process of making kamias vinegra, the fruit was boiled so that its water content is removed and the acidic content of the fruit is retained. Then, the researchers added sugar because it acts as a catalyst which yields the ethyl and carbon dioxide content of the chosen fruit, thus, aiding the fermentation process. To prevent the formation of kamias jam instead of vinegar when sugar was added, the fruit pulp and only the fluid content of the fruit is saved. Sugar was added to the kamias so that the entrance of pure oxygen to the mixture will be prevented, thus preventing the occurrence of oxidation, which in turn will cause decay of the kamias extraction. Then, kamias was fermented for a specified time. Yeast is also used int his research; it is a live microorganism which mostly acts as a catalyst or a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself
    undergoing any change. It is commonly used in processes which involve food production and preservation.

    In the course of the research, the researchers have learned that the longer the kamias extraction was fermented, the stronger it will be. The more days it is preserved, it will be more acidic and will taste more like vinegar. The amount of sugar and vinegar starter added also has effects; the more sugar and vinegar starter added, the stronger the vinegar will become.

    The duration of fermentation as well as the amount of sugar and vinegar starter added does not affect the physique of the vinegar because the kamias extract is already in its basic property so it cannot be altered anymore.

    Infusion is the addition of certain ingredients to the kamias extract to improve its taste. In the first infusion, the color is brownish orange and on the second, the color is yellow orange. They are both slightly cloudy. The odor of the first infusion is citrusy and minty while on the second, it is citrusy and pungent. The pH level of the first infusion is lower that the second which means that it is more acidic; the pH of the kamias extract with the infusion is lower that that of the extract without the infusion which means that the ingredients infused also added to the acidity of the vinegar. This means that the type of infusion in the vinegar affects its physical and chemical characteristics.

    This shows that there is a bog difference in the physical and chemical properties of kamias and sugarcane vinegar. Also, this shows that the infusion of garlic, ginger and lemon will more closely relate to sugarcane vinegar. The bottles are placed in a dry and cold place and away from sunlight to prevent the formation of moist and unnecessary heat which will be an area of microorganism growth which in turn, will cause decay of the kamias extract.

    CHAPTER V
    CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    Conclusion
    The information that the researchers have obtained from their observations were used as the basis for the formation of their conclusion.
    The researchers therefore conclude that it is possible for the extracted juice from kamias fruit to be made into vinegar since it had a pH level of 3.3 which is close to 2.4 (the pH level of most commercial vinegars). In addition, the kamias vinegar is nutritious for the reason that kamias, which is its primary constituent, contains substances necessary for the body as shown in Table5 of Chapter IV. Furthermore, the pH of 3.3 of the kamias vinegar for set-up A and 2.8 for set-up B is an indication that it is an acid and is therefore self-preserving. Finally, the researchers conclude that kamias can be a cheap alternative source of vinegar.

    Recommendations
    The researchers recommend that further investigation and experimentation to be conducted by other researchers regarding this study in order to continue the improvement of the product. This research paper may also be used as a reference for other research proposals to be conducted. The researchers also recommend the use of other raw materials in the Philippines as an alternative source of vinegar.

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Published Materials
    Reese H. Vaughn; VINEGAR, Vol. 28 Encyclopedia Americana (International Edition), 2002 Stephen Fleishman; OXIDATION AND REDUCTION, Vol. 14 Academic American Encyclopedia Grolier Inc., 1991 FERMENTATION, Vol. 8 Academic American Encyclopedia Grolier Inc., 1991

    Unpublished Materials
    Maricar F. Botones, Dawn I. Espinoza; Investigatory Report on the Capability of Averrhoa bilimbi, L. as a Source in Wine Making, October 2003 Laureen Camille C. Torregosa et al.; The Use of Natural Oil from Orange (Citrus sinensis) as a Substitute for Shoe Polish, S.Y. 2005 – 2006 Encarta ® World English Dictionary © & (P) 1998-2005 Microsoft Corporation.

    Web
    http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/bilimbi.html
    http://www.stuartxchange.com/Kamias.html
    http://www.searchfreeessays.com/show_essay/24166.html
    http://www.localharvest.org/vinegar.jsp
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinegar
    http://www.versatilevinegar.org/faqs.html
    http://www.winemakermag.com/feature/87.html

    Curriculum Vitae:

    Picture

    Name: Kris Aira A. Galang
    Nickname: Aira
    Address: B11 L15 Pioneer St., Villa Isabel Village, Dasmarinas City, Cavite Philippines Age: 15 years old
    Birthday: August, 18, 1997
    Mobile Number: 09357734846
    E-mail Address: [email protected]
    Father’s Name: Gil D. Galang
    Mother’s Name: Elena A. Galang

    Education
    LevelSchoolYear Graduated

    NKPDansart Angels Academy2003-2004

    PrimaryDansart Angels Academy2009-2010

    Awards/Recognitions:
    NKP:
    – Valedictorian
    Primary:
    – Salutatorian

    Picture

    Name: Paola Danielle A. Funtila
    Nickname: Paola F.
    Address: B17 L85 Canary St., Southcrest Village, San Agustin II, Dasmarinas City, Cavite Age: 15 years old
    Birthday: November 2, 1997
    Mobile Number: 09391654557/ 09355558271
    E-mail Address: –
    Father’s Name: Paul U. Funtila
    Mother’s Name: Ma. Theresa A. Funtila

    Education
    LevelSchoolYear Graduated

    NKPMater Criste Academy2003-2004
    PrimaryDansart Angels Academy2009-2010

    Awards/Recognitions:
    NKP:
    – 1st honor
    – 3rd Place in Declamation
    – 1st place in Math & English Quiz Bee
    Primary:
    – 6th Honor

    Picture

    Name: Ma. Patricia B. Flores
    Nickname: Patty
    Address: Sta. Maria, Dasmarinas City, Cavite
    Age: 15 years old
    Birthday: October 14, 1997
    Mobile Number: 09061874767
    E-mail Address: [email protected]
    Father’s Name: Isidro Flores
    Mother’s Name: Juliet Flores

    Education
    LevelSchoolYear Graduated

    NKPBrentwood Academy2003-2004

    PrimaryDansart Angels Academy2009-2010

    Awards/Recognitions:
    NKP:

    Primary:
    – Deportment Awardee

    Picture

    Name: Cleana Marie H. Lasala
    Nickname: Clae
    Address:
    Age: 15 years old
    Birthday: July 7, 1997
    Mobile Number: 09091340028
    E-mail Address:
    Father’s Name: Jose L. Lasala
    Mother’s Name: Jocelyn H. Lasala

    Education
    LevelSchoolYear Graduated

    NKPSta. Cruz Elementary School2003-2004

    PrimaryMunlawin Elementary School2009-2010

    Awards/Recognitions:

    Picture

    Name: Leeanne Kaye P. Funtila
    Nickname: Iyay, Leeanne
    Address: B17 L87 Canary St., Southcrest Village, Dasmarinas City, Cavite Age: 15 years old
    Birthday: March 5, 1998
    Mobile Number: 09059548821
    E-mail Address:
    Father’s Name: Roberto U. Funtila
    Mother’s Name: Evelyn P. Funtila

    Education
    LevelSchoolYear Graduated

    NKPSt. Anthony School2003-2004

    PrimaryDansart Angels Academy2009-2010

    Awards/Recognitions:
    NKP:
    – Best in Arts

    Reflection:
    Aira’s Reflection :

    Vinegar is one of the most used condiments that we used when we are eating. To make our food more appetizing. And making vinegar out of Kamias, I find it very amazing because we, researchers find way in making the Kamias Vinegar and it really tastes good and smells good.

    As we make our investigatory project which is making vinegar out of kamias,
    I learned a lot of things. Things that I never knew before and never expected to learn such things from our study. There are some scientific things and things that can be a lesson in life. I knew the reason on putting sugar on a fermented mixture, to know all the reasons before putting a certain thing in a mixture so that you would not find it hard when it comes to defense, and most of all, do all the things needed very early so that you will not rush and so that you can correct the mistakes beforehand.

    I am very thankful on having this study this year, I know that this will help me and my fellow classmates on our college life.

    Paola’s Reflection:

    Making and formulating an S.I.P is not an easy job. It requires a lot of time and effort and patience to make it. People who are planning to formulate an S.I.P. obliged to follow the instructions well and strictly make sure that can prove what is written.

    While making this S.I.P, I’ve learned that not everything can be perfect in just one trial. Just like our “Kamias Vinegar”. And from it, we learn a lot from making this. We learn that this vinegar plays the important role in our life, like it gives us and helps us to become healthier and maintain the good condition of our body. It also add taste to the food we eat everyday

    Leeanne’s Reflection:

    Vinegar is a kind of usual flavoring. It can be used to enhance the good tastes of many foods. The nutritional value of vinegar is very high.

    I’ve learned that making a vinegar is not an easy job. These procedures that we have done are should be properly conducted to make the product and it takes patience to have the best result.

    Vinegar plays an important role in our daily life. It can effectively protect the nutrients in foods and improve the health of human body. It also
    kills bacteria and toxins. Vinegar is very effective in eliminating bacteria and stopping the reproduction of bacteria. It also decreases blood pressure and beautify our skin.

    Herb-unfused vinegar research. (2017, Jan 20). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/herb-unfused-vinegar-research/

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