In Depth: Comparing Feudalisms 1. Do you think the characteristics of feudalism help explain the later success of Western & Japanese societies? Yes, the militaristic characteristics of the Western and Japanese societies help explain how much land they conquered and how powerful they were. 2. Have the political accomplishments of both Japan & Western Europe matched their economic achievements? Both Japan and Western Europe practiced feudalism and they were both unusually successful in industrial development.
They are both also proven adept at running capitalist economies, so the political accomplishments of both Japan and Western Europe have matched their economic achievements.
3. If so, in what ways? If not, why not? Yes, the political accomplishments have matched their economic achievements as both the civilizations are proven adept at running capitalist economies. They were both successful in industrial development. 4. Which aspects of feudalism do you think had the greatest effect on those outcomes? Feudalism was very militaristic which might have made so many societies and civilizations in their hands.
If feudalism had persisted in each area, would the outcomes have been as positive as they have been? No, as feudalism left Japan with serious political and social problems. The government had many issues in controlling the warrior class and if feudalism had continued, Japan and England would not have become one of the world’s powers. They would not have had any scholarly or intelligent reforms and the New Age would probably not have started in England. Japan would not be a major country in technology if feudalism had continued in Japan. 6. What other factors should be taken into account if we want to fully analyze these trends?
Population and the technological development are some factors that need to be taken into account for fully analyzing these trends. 7. Why might Arab or Chinese historians be skeptical about any claims for feudalism’s special importance in world history? Feudalism left Japan with some serious political and social problems. This is why some Arab or Chinese historians might be skeptical about any claims for feudalism’s special importance in world history. Also as the Arab and Chinese civilization did not practice feudalism, it might seem wrong to establish feudalism’s special space in history. Source of World History” book – Volume 1 read # 40 – Lady Murasaki: The Tale of Genji answer questions on page 176 – well thought out, paragraphs, insight, typed 1) It was very significant to Genji that his lover was of common class as the common class people were not supposed to converse with people of upper class. It was inappropriate in that time to show up with people from a lower class.
2) The middle class people in that time lived in less beautiful houses than the upper class did. They traveled by foot and were poorly dressed. The upper class usually traveled by a horse. ) Women are portrayed as delicate, gentle and unassuming. They were characterized to be rather deficient in character. 4) Manners and appearance was very important in the Heian Japan society. This could be seen with Genji’s hesitance to come in day and to show the woman around. The poor were shown to be poorly dressed and the upper class was shown to be very well dressed. 5) The relationship between love and nature is portrayed as Lady Murasaki talks a lot about the nature. Genji called the cottage his lover lived in a “leafy cottage” and then he talked about the garden that was near that cottage.
This is described in a positive way, so the portrayal of love and nature is positive and beautiful. Discussion Questions (pages 278 – 290) 1. What led to the failure of the Taika reforms & what was the political result? The Taika reforms were met with resistance from the aristocracy and the failure of the Taika reforms led to the weakening of the imperial government and the passage of power to the aristocracy. In the long run, power passed from the imperial court to regional lords, who insisted on a return to Japanese ways. 2. Describe the nature of Japanese government between the Gempei wars and the Onin war.
The Japanese government between the Gempei wars and the Onin War was a complete mess. The power of the aristocracy grew and they required help from the powerful samurai to remain in power. They fought with other powerful aristocratic families and the one who one was the one who was in power. The Minamoto family won the Gempei Wars and they established bakufu, a separate military government at Kamakura. Although the emperor and his court were retained, real power subsided in the bakufu and with the Minamoto and their allies. 3. What was the nature of Japanese society and economy during the period of the daimyos?
Under the daimyos, warfare changed from heroic combat to a more modern conflict. The constant state of war damaged the Japanese economy and because of that, some peasants engaged in futile rebellions against their military warlords. Despite constant conflict, some daimyos invested in irrigation systems, attempted to recruit new supplies of labor, fostered commercial production, and introduced merchants into local communities. Women in merchant and artisan families gained status during this time, but most women, however, lost status during the daimyo period. .
How was Sinification imposed on Korea and how did it affect the social development of the country? A Han dynasty emperor conquered the Korean kingdom of Choson and settled Chinese colonies in Korea. These Chinese colonies provided conduit through which Chinese culture was transmitted. After Chinese control of Korea weakened, Buddhism supplies they key inks to Chinese culture. Under the kings of Silla and the succeeding Koryo dynasty, sinification was through. Tribute missions offered access to Chinese learning, art, and manufactured goods.
The Sinification of China was limited to the elite who supported the luxurious life they led. Artisans remained in the lower ranks of the Korean society and Korea failed to develop a distinctive merchant class. The lower ranks socially existed to serve the elite. (pages 290 – 300) 5. What accounts for the cultural differences between Vietnam & China? The aspects of Vietnamese culture such as language, household formation, local autonomy, dress, and higher status of women differed significantly from Chinese patterns.
The Chinese cultural importations failed to make an impression on the Vietnamese peasantry. They led rebellions against the government and because Vietnam was separated from China by substantial distance and geographical barriers, Vietnam was difficult for the Chinese to govern. 6. What was the nature of Vietnamese government following the expulsion of the Chinese? The Chinese culutural influences fif not end with the restoration of Vietnamese political independence. The dynastites after 980 continued ot imitate the Chinese bureaucracy, examination systems and the scholar-gentry.
The competition with the Buddhist monks also limited the power of the nascent Vietnamese scholar-gentry. They failed to establish a strong, centralized administrative network and this weakened many Vietnamese dynasties. 7. What were the common elements of Chinese culture passed to all three of the satellite civilizations? Chinese writing, bureaucratic organization, religion, and art all made impressions on the three indigenous cultures. The elite lived a life of extreme luxury and Vietnam followed the tough examination system. . How was East Asian civilization different from other postclassical civilizations? East Asian civilization developed almost entirely separate from the rest of the world. Cultural changes took place in isolation from the rest of the world. China had direct influence and control over Korea. In Vietnam, Chinese influences mingled with Indian cultural contributions. Japan on the other hand, remained permanently independent of China and thus, was able to selectively adapt Chinese models to Japanese needs.
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